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is  not  often  that  a  Sovereign,  at  the  com- 
pletion of  a  tour,  addresses  his  subjects  in  a 
personal  narrative  of  his  adventures,  and  of 
the  attentions  with  which  he  may  have  been 
received  by  foreign  potentates  or  peoples.  Less  frequent 
still  is  it  that  such  a  narrative,  addressed  by  an  Eastern 
Monarch  to  those  under  his  rule,  is  laid  verbatim  before 
the  distant  nations  whose  guest  he  lately  was. 

The  Shah's  Diary  of  his  Tour  through  Europe  in 
A.D.  1873  is  not  the  firstfruit  of  his  royal  authorship, 
nor  was  that  journey  the  first  of  his  travels.  He  had 
l^reviously  visited  and  inspected  his  own  Caspian  pro- 
vinces of  Gilan  and  Mazandaran,  having  also  journeyed 
beyond  his  own  dominions,  to  the  sacred  shrines  of  Babj'- 
lonia.  Of  each  of  these  excursions  he  had  published  a 
narrative  for  the  information  of  his  people,  therein 
following  a  praiseworthy  example  set  by  several  ancient 
Kulers  of  his  own  original  Turk  nationality. 

Those   accounts,   equally  with  the   contents   of   the 

vi  Translator's  Preface, 

present  Diai*y,  were  communicated  to  the  Persian  public 
in  the  official  part  of  the  Tehran  Gazette,  and  are  there- 
fore more  or  less  of  the  nature  of  what  we  daily  read  at 
home  in  the  " Court  Circular;  "  but  with  this  difference, 
— that  they  are  written  in  the  first  person,  are  personal 
communings  of  the  sovereign  traveller  with  his  readers, — 
his  subjects. 

As  Court  Circulars,  then,  written  day  by  day,  they 
naturally  contain  a  proportion  of  the  merely  formal 
notices  that  constitute  this  class  of  state  documents.  But, 
as  personal  narratives,  they  are  written  in  the  plain, 
unvarnished  style  of  the  private  gentleman,  much  as  any 
one  of  us  may  have  used  in  letters  sent  home  to  gratif}", 
inform,  or  amuse  friends. 

If  the  pages  of  the  Diary,  however,  are  thus  entirely 
void  of  all  the  strained  ornamentations  of  diction  supposed 
to  be  inherent  in  all  oriental  compositions  of  literature, 
they  are,  on  the  other  hand,  brimful  of  enthusiastic 
expressions  of  the  varied  feelings  called  forth  by  the 
beauty  or  novelty  of  the  scenes  or  manners  witnessed, 
and  by  the  genuine  gratification  derived  from  the  splendid 
and  cordial  reception  everywhere  experienced. 

The  Shah's  continued  attention  to  the  charms  of 
natural  scenery  while  pm^suing  his  journeys,  and  to  the 
splendid  results  of  agricultural,  commercial,  or  mechani- 
cal skill  and  industry,  as  als^  to  the  wonders  of  the  sea 
and  sky  in  his  voA^ages,  whenever  the  weather  permitted, 
evinces  great  natural  taste.  His  sustained  pleasure  in 
visiting  the  various  zoological  and  botanical  collections 
and  museums,  together  with  his  remarks  on  these,  and  on 

Translator's  Preface.  vii 

the  wild  animals  of  the  parks  and  forests,  no  less  than  those 
on  the  racecourse,  show  an  especially  keen  talent  of  oh- 
servation,  and  a  discriminating  acquaintance  with  animate 
and  inanimate  nature.  His  scrupulous  conformance  to 
every  tittle  of  those  ceremonious,  but  graceful  observances 
that  shape  the  personal  intercourse  of  royal  hosts  and 
guests,  bespeak  the  finished  courtier ;  while  the  patience, 
the  honhommie,  with  which  he  admitted  and  recorded 
the  sometimes  fussy,  but  always  kindly  and  respectful 
advances  of  every  class  with  which  he  was  brought  into 
contact,  give  proof  of  a  rare  adaptiveness.  His  interest 
in  armies  and  navies  is  a  mere  natural  impulse  in  a 
sovereign ;  but  his  visits  to  factories,  public  establish- 
ments, schools,  hospitals,  &c.,  are  witnesses  to  a  strong 
desire  for  information  ;  and  several  incidents  of  the  tour 
have  drawn  forth  spontaneous  expressions  of  deep  sympa- 
thy and  kind  commiseration,  such  as  are  the  sure  indicators 
of  a  humane  disposition. 

On  the  whole,  a  more  interesting  book  of  the  kind 
can  hardly  be  imagined.  Even  the  mistakes  occasionally 
made — and  they  were  to  be  expected  as  inevitable — are 
easily  overlooked  by  a  candid  mind,  when  the  obstacles 
of  languages,  novelty  of  subjects,  and  press  of  time,  are 
taken  into  consideration.  The  use  of  the  first  person 
plural,  alternating  with,  that  of  the  singular,  when  the 
Shah  speaks  of  himself,  is  in  very  common  use  by  all  in 
the  East  (to  say  nothing  of  the  sovereign  phraseology  of 
'  the  West),  and  is  balanced  by  his  employing  the  thii-d 
person  plural  when  mentioning  other  royal  or  illustrious 
personages  ;    though  this  latter  observance  of  courtesy. 

5  2       ^ 

viii  Translator  s  Preface. 

not  unknown  in  several  European  languages,  necessaril}' 
vanishes  in  our  idiom.  Another  instance  of  attentive 
delicacy  may  be  remarked,  in  the  nicely  poised  modifica- 
tion of  the  oft-repeated,  simj)le  expression  *'men  and 
women  "  into  "women  and  men." 

The  translator  wishes,  and  ventures  to  hope,  that  his 
effort  to  put  the  whole  work  into  an  English  dress  may 
give  to  its  readers  the  same  amount  of  pleasure  he  has 
himself  felt  in  the  performance.  May  he  be  further  per- 
mitted to  express  a  heartfelt  trust  that  ever-strengthening 
ties  of  friendly  and  beneficial  intercourse  may  be  facili- 
tated and  multiplied,  through  the  effects  of  this  tour, 
between  the  Court  and  people  of  Persia  on  the  one  hand, 
and  the  Western  Rulers  and  nations  on  the  other, — some 
of  them  their  not  remotely  allied  cousins  by  race,  as 
indicated  by  affinities  of  language,*  and  who  are  no 
longer  personally  strangers  to  their  travelled  Sovereign. 

London,  Nov.  1874. 

'Note, — In  pronouncing  the  Persian  names  mentioned  in 
this  volume,  a  should  always  be  sounded  short  and  surd, 
as  in  the  first  syllables  of  above,  aloft,  alone ;  a  long  and 
open  as  in  father ;  e  as  in  pen ;  i  as  in  pin ;  %  as  in 
caprice ;  o  or  o  as  in  go,  and  ih  or^u  as  in  rule,  but  shorter 
w^hen  without  the  long  accent.     Into  modifications  we  do 

*  As  instances,  the  following  may  be  mentioned  :  padar,  father  ;  madar, 
tnoiher :  biradar,  brother;  dukhtar,  daughter;  gaw,  coiv  or  ox;  yiig,  a 
yohe  ;  tn,  thou;  du,  two  ;  mai*warid,  napyapixTji,  a  pearl,  &c.,  &c. 

Ti^anslators  Preface.  Ix 

not  here  enter ;  and  we  prefer  the  use  of  this  old  Latin 
"long  accent"  to  the  "dash"  used  in  some  works, 
because  every  scholar  knows  the  value  of  the  old  mark, 
and  because  the  new  one  is  based  on  the  erroneous  as- 
sumption that  "  in  Italian"  it  marks  a  long  syllable. 

The  simple  consonants  have  their  English  values, 
excepting  that  h  must  always  be  aspirated,  and  s  always 
be  kept  hard — never  pronounced  as  z. 

Compound  vowels  are  not  known;  but  of  compound 
consonants  (in  EngUsh  orthography  only,  being  simple 
letters  in  the  original),  ch  and  sk  sound  as  in  English ; 
while  Ml,  as  in  hlian,  is  the  Scotch  and  German  c/t,  in 
which  it  is  far  better  to  sound  only  the  /t,  than  only  the 
Zc,  until  the  true  pronunciation  be  acquired.  Neither  the 
hard  nor  the  soft  sound  of  our  th  is  used  in  Persian  ;  but 
sometimes  t  is  followed  by  /i,  even  in  the  same  syllable, 
both  being  then  sounded  separatel}^ 

Doubled  consonants  in  a  word,  such  as  Muhammad, 
should  be  redoubled  in  pronunciation,  as  when  we  say 
mid  day,  get  two,  &c. 

The  apostrophe,  ',  has  the  same  use  as  in  English, 
that  of  indicating  a  suppressed  vowel,  as  in  Nasiru-'d- 
Din.  The  pair  of  marks  '  and  *,  adopted  in  imitation  of 
the  Greek  "  spiritiis  lenis'.'  and  '' spiritus  asper,''  show 
the  suppression  of  two  different  originally  Arabic  guttural 
consonants,  the  first  soft,'*  the  second  hard,  both  of  a 
choking  sound,  for  which  Em'opean  languages  have  no 
equivalents,  and  which  are  generally  dropped  in  Persian 
conversational  pronunciation,  the  preceding  or  following 
vowel  alone  being  sounded.     Like  other  consonants,  they 

X  Translator  s  Preface. 

are  both  susceptible  of  being  doubled,  though  no  instance 
occurs  in  the  Diary. 

A  few  explanatory  notes  have  been  appended  at  the 
end  of  one  or  two  chapters,  and  some  others  are  inter- 
spersed, in  parentheses,  through  the  text. 

The  original  meaning  of  the  Persian  word  tuman  is — a 
myriad,  ten  thousand.  It  became  the  name  of  the  gold 
com  of  Persia  because  this  coin,  in  matters  of  account, 
contains  ten  thousand  dmdr  {the  Latin  denarius),  a  mite, 
a  pice.  Its  fractions  are  the  hazar  (thousand),  other- 
wise called  hazar-dinar  (thousand  pice),  and  qiran  (short 
for  sahib-qiran.  Lord  of  the  fortunate  conjunction — a 
title  assumed  hy  Timur-lang,  Timur  the  Lame,  Tamer- 
lane), of  silver;,  ten  of  which  equal  one  tuman ;  and  the 
shahi  (royal),  of  copper,  twenty  of  which  make  one  qiran. 
The  tuman  is  worth  about  eight  shillings  English,  the 
qiran  about  ten  pence,  and  the  shahi  one  half-penn3% 
The  gold  and  silver  are  without  alloy,  pure. 

The  correct  name  of  the  Prussian  frontier  station, 
towards  Eussia,  mentioned  in  p.  68  as  Aidgone,  is 

With  respect  to  the  weight  of  the  guns  and  projectiles 
of  Fort  Constantine,  mentioned^  in  j).  57,  1  learn  that 
the  heaviest  Prussian  guns  lurnished  for  the  forts  of 
Cronstadt  are  of  26  t^ns,  throwing  ^projectiles  of  250 
kilogrammes.  The  Shah's  420  ass-loads  may  therefore 
possibly  be  for  520  hundredweights,  exactly  26  tons,  and 
the  weight  of  the  projectile  may  be  about  right. 

Translators  Preface. 


I  also  learn  that  the  number  of  hands  employed  by 
M.  Krupp,  as  mentioned  in  p.  96,  is  even  understated. 
The  total  amounts  to  17,000,  of  whom  10,000  are  housed 
or  boarded  within  the  estate  of  the  works;  and  two 
hospitals,  with  220  beds,  are  available  for  the  sick. 

The  message  sent  by  the  Shah  to  the  Contessa  di 
Mirafiori  (mentioned  in  p.  300),  as  an  act  of  courtesj^ 
was  accompanied,  in  compliment  to  the  King,  by  the 
presentation  of  a  jewel  with  the  monogram  in  brilliants 
of  His  Persian  Majesty. 

J.  W.  E. 


Translator's  Preface v 

Preliminary  Notice        .        . xix 



Leave  Tehran,  1  ;  reach  Qazwin,  6  ;  arrive  at  Rasht,  13  ;  reach  Enzeli, 
16  :  embark  for  Astrakhan,  17  ;  accident  to  Russian  Admiral,  20  ; 
anchor  at  Quarantine-ground  off  the  Volga  ;  ascend  river  in  boats,  22. 


RUSSIA  ;   14  DAYS. 

Astrakhan.  Aspect  of  the  delta,  23  ;  reach  Astrakhan  ;  triumphal 
arch  ;  bread  and  salt,  25  ;  palaces,  2G  ;  bath  and  fire-brigade,  27  ; 
theatre  ;  levee,  28  ;  mosques,  29  ;  museum,  30  ;  leave  by  water  for 
Tsaritsin,  30  ;  aspect  of  Volga,  31  ;  Tsaritsin,  31  ;  railway  to 
Moscow,  32. 

Moscow.  Arrive  at  Moscow  ;  lodged  in  the  Kremlin,  35  ;  Kremlin 
described,  3G  ;  theatre^  37  ;  lower  apartments  and  museum  of  the 
Kremlin,  38  ;  Lazarof  College  ;  ball ;  fire  brigade  ;  Ethnographic 
Museum,  40  ;  leave  f or  St.  ^etCirsburg  by  rail,  41. 

St.  Petersburg.  Arrive,  •41 ;  lodged  in  the  Winter  Palace,  43  ; 
theatre,  44  ;  review,  55  ;  Prince  of  Oldenburg,  46  ;  ball  of  the 
nobles,  47  ;  the  Hermitage,  48  ;  state  banquet,  49  ;  Michael  theatre, 
50  ;  visits,  51  ;  the  Hermitage  again,  53  ;  bank  ;  mint,  55  ;  state  ball, 
56  ;  Cronstadt,  57  ;  Peterhof,  59  ;  fireworks,  61  ;  Tsarskoi-selo,  63  ; 
leave  for  Prussia,  66. 

xiv  Contents. 



Railway.  "  Hole  in  a  mountain ;  "  frontier  reached,  68  ;  Prussian 
station,  69  ;  Konigsberg,  70  ;  Frische-Haff,  72  ;  Custrin,  73  ;  reach 
Berlin,  73. 

Berlin.  Palace,  74  ;  Potsdam,  76  ;  Whitsunday  ;  relics  of  Frederick 
the  Great,  77  ;  mill  in  ruins,  78  ;  palace  of  Prince  Charles,  79  ;  state 
banquet ;  theatre,  80  ;  Zoological  Gardens,  81  ;  cemetery,  84  ;  the 
Empress,  82  ;  Aquarium,  85  ;  dinner,  87  ;  theatre  ;  coronation  of  the 
Emperor,  85  ;  review,  88  ;  dine  with  the  Empress,  89  ;  gala  night  at 
theatre ;  Sardanapalus,  89  ;  lion  of  Holstein,  89  ;  Order  of  Black 
Eagle,  90  ;  Charlotte  Pavilion  ;  Orangery  ;  Babelbrig,  91;  Frederick 
the  Great's  tomb,  92  ;  Crown  Prince's  house,  92  ;  Parliament  ;  the 
Ecole-des-Cadets,  93  ;  Prince  Bismarck's  house  ;  Museum ;  visit 
of  adieu,  94 ;  Aquarium  again,  95  ;  leave  for  Cologne,  95  ;  M.  Krupp's 
factory,  96. 

Rhine  Country.  Reach  Cologne,  97  ;  cathedral,  97  ;  Botanical  Gar- 
dens, 98  ;  Zoological  Gardens,  99  ;  Coblentz,  100  ;  "Wiesbaden,  101  ; 
Mr.  Blundberg's  garden,  103  ;  Prince  Nicholas  of  Nassau,  104  ; 
Frankfort-on-the-Main,  105  ;  the  Palms,  106  ;  Zoological  Gardens,107  ; 
tomb  of  the  Duchess  of  Nassau,  108  ;  the  Kur-Saal,  108  ;  Emperor 
of  Russia  at  Darmstadt,  110  ;  Heidelberg  ;  Carlsruhe  ;  Baden  troops, 
111 ;  Palace  at  Carlsruhe,  112  ;  Baden-Baden,  113  ;  Chapel  and  tomb, 
of  Prince  of  Roumania,  115  ;  palace,  116  ;  steam  down  the  Rhine, 
118  ;  Coblentz,  120  ;  Bonn  ;  Cologne  ;  by  rail  to  Spa,  120  ;  Aix-la- 
Chapelle  ;  frontier  of  Belgium,  121. 

Belgium.  Spa,  122  ;  Peter  tiie  Great ;  footstep  of  St.  Mark,  124  ; 
procession  of  the  Virgin  ;  theatre,  126  ;  Liege,  129  ;  arrive  at  Brus- 
sels ;  the  King,  130  ;  arrival  of  the  English  Officials  iy  waiting,  131  ; 
theatre,  132  ;  cathedral ;  museum  ;  Chateau  of  Laken,  134  ;  Zoolo- 
gical Garden  ;  Hotel  de  Ville,  135  ;  state  banquet,  136  ;  leave  Brus- 
sels ;  Ostend  ;  embark  on  board  the  '  Vigilant,'  137  ;  cross  the 
straits,  138  \  Channel  squadron  ;  arrive  at  Dover,  139  ;  reach  London, 

Contents.  xv 


ENGLAND  ;    18  DAYS. 

Visits  of  ceremony,  144  ;  receptions,  145  ;  banquet  at  Marlborough 
House  ;  ball  at  Stafford  House,  146  ;  visit  to  the  Queen,  147  ;  Order 
of  the  Garter,  148  ;  drive  to  Virginia  Water  and  back,  149  ;  evening 
party  at  Guildhall,  151  ;  Woolwich,  155  ;  theatre,  157  ;  Zoological 
Gardens,  158  ;  Naval  Review  at  Portsmouth,  ICO  ;  concert  at  Albert 
Hall,  1G4  ;  review  at  Windsor,  1G7  ;  ball  at  Foreign  Oflace,  170  ; 
Tower,  171  ;  trip  down  the  river  ;  the  Docks,  172  ;  Greenwich  Hos- 
pital ;  Lord  Nelson,  173  ;  Naval  College  ;  Observatory  ;  return  ; 
tides,  174  ;  state  ball,  175  ;  to  Liverpool,  176  ;  emigrants,  177  ;  * 
Trentham  Hall,  179  ;  works  at  Crew,  182  ;  Manchester,  183  ;  Chis- 
wick,  185  ;  Richmond,  187  ;  Lord  Russell  ;  Whigs  and  Tories,  188  ; 
receptions  ;  Lord  Stratford  de  Redcliffe,  189  ;  fire  brigade,  190  ;  box- 
ing, 191  ;  Crystal  Palace,  191  ;  gymnasts,  193  ;  beggars  ;  perambu- 
lators, 195  ;  Tower  ;  St.  Paul's,  196  ;  Bank,  197  ;  Parliament,  198  ; 
Westminster  Abbey,  200  ;  visit  of  adieu  to  Windsor,  201  ;  Prince 
Consort's  tomb,  203  ;  Mme.  Tussaud's,  204  ;  Crystal  Palace,  206  ; 
baUoons,  209  ;  Albert  Hall  ;  donkey  picture,  210  ;  St.  Thomas's,  211  ; 
Duke  of  Argyll's  ;  bagpipes  ;  sword-dance  ;  telegraph,  212  ;  Albert 
memorial ;  Drury-Lane,  213 ;  leave  London,  214 ;  reach  Portsmouth ; 
embark  in  the  "  Rapide" ;  reach  Cherbourg,  216. 



Trance.  Cherbourg,  218  ;  Caen,  219 ;  reach  Paris,  220 ;  Jardin 
d' Acclimatisation,  225  ;  Bois  de  Boulogne,  226  ;  Diplomatists,  227  ; 
Versailles,  228 ;  group  of  Apollo,  229 ;  Canrobert ;  Palikao ;  Due 
d'Aumale ;  Prince  de  Joinville,  231 ;  banquet,  232;  the  Invalides,  233  ; 
M.  Cremieux  ;  M.  de  Rotiisch'ld,  236  ;  M.  Lesseps ;  M.  Nadar ;  M. 
Tardieu,  237 ;  M.  Larrey  ;  M.  Cloquet ;  M.  Boure,  238  ;  review,  239  ; 
races,  240  ;  illumination  and  fireworks,  243  ;  circus,  244  ;  Louvre 
246  :  Panorama,  247 ;  Notre  Dame,  248  ;  Ecole  des  Mines,  249 :  Luxem- 
bourg, 250 ;  Pantheon  ;  St.  Sulpice ;  Madeleine  ;  Palais  Royal,  252 
Mint,  253  ;  river-baths,  254  ;  Gobelins,  255  ;  Louvre  again,  256 
Tuileries,  257  ;  Sevres  porcelain,  258 ;  the  Assemblee  Nationale,  259 

xvi  Contents. 

Jardin  des  Plantes,  2G]  ;  party  at  the  Elysce,  266 ;  party  at  the 

Foreign  Office,  267 ;  Vincennes,  268  ;   Sisters  of  Charity's   school, 

269  ;  Circus,  270  ;  cafes  chantants,  271 ;  Jardin  Mabille,  272  ;  leave 

Paris,  273  ;  Dijon,  274. 
Switzerland.    Geneva,  277  ;  Lake  of  Geneva,  279  ;  Vevay  ;  King  of 

Holland,  281  ;    excursion    into    Savoy;   283  ;   banquet ;   presents  ; 

museum,  285  ;  M.  Favre,  286  ;  Swiss  system,  287  ;  leave  Geneva,  288 : 
France    again.    Aix-les-Bains  ;    Chambery  ;   Modane ;    Mont    Cenis 

tunnel,  289  ;  Turin,  291 ;  Royal  Family;  293  ;  Superga  ;  Synagogue, 



ITALY  ;   AUSTRIA  ;   19  DAYS. 

Italy.  Turin  Palace,  295  ;  dinner-party ;  royal  presents,  296  ;  theatre, 
297 ;  wild  beasts,  298  ;  illumination,  &c.,  299  ;  the  Countess  di  Mira- 
fiori,  300  ;  leave  Turin,  301  ;  reach  Milan,  303  ;  the  Duomo,  304  ; 
banquet ;  illuminations,  306  ;  leave  Milan,  307  ;  Lake  of  Garda  ; 
Peschiera ;  Verona,  308  ;  Valley  of  the  Adige  ;  Ala,  309. 

Austria.  Franzansvest,  310 ;  Innsbruck,  311  ;  Rosenheim  ;  Trau- 
enstein ;  Saltzburg,  312  ;  Schbnbrunn  of  Saltzburg,  314  ;  Lintz,  317  ; 
Emperor  at  Penzing,  318  ;  Laxenburg,  319  ;  Knight's  Castle,  321  ; 
dinner  at  Schonbrunn  of  Vienna,  323 ;  Exhibition,  325  ;  shooting 
party,  331  ;  screw-pump,  334  ;  opera,  335 ;  review,  337  ;  the  Empress  : 
evening  party,  339 ;  leave-taking,  341 ;  King  of  Hanover,  342  ;  Saltz- 
burg, 343  ;  Innsbruck,  346  ;  Schelleberg ;  Gossensasse,  347. 

Italy  again.  Ala  ;  Verona,  348 ;  Bologna,  349  ;  leaning  towers,  350 
theatre,  352  ;  library  and  museum,  353  ;  leave  Bologna ;  Rimini 
Ancona,  355  ;  Brindisi,  356  ;  embark  for  Constantinople,  357  ;  Corfu 
phosphorescence  of  the  sea,  358  ;  Cephalonia  ;  Zante  ;  Navarino 
Cape  Matapan,  359  ;  Cape  Malea  ;  Cerigo  ;  Cape  Sunium ;  Zea,  360 
Negropont ;  Andros  ;  Psara  ;  Scio,  361. 


TURKEY  :   11   DAYS. 

Tenedos  ;  Lemnos ;  Dardanelles,  363 ;  Gallipoli  ;  Sea  of  Marmara, 
366  ;  Islambul  sighted  ;  steamers  and  Persians,  367  ;  Princes'  Islands  ; 
walls,  368  ;  Seven  Towers  ;  Seraglio  Point,  370  ;  Bosphorus  ;  Beyler- 

Contents.  xvii 

Beyi  ;  the  Sultan,  371  ;  Palace  of  Beyler-Beyi,  372  ;  Golden  Horn, 
37G  ;  receptions,  377  ;  Gyuk-Su,  378  ;  breakfast  at  Chiragan  palace, 

380  ;  Chamlija  (erroneously  called  Mount  Boulgourlou  on  the  maps), 

381  ;  Prince  Yusuf  ;  Aya-Sofiya,  382  ;  Persian  Mission ;  state  banquet 
at  Beshik-Tash  palace,  384  ;  receptions  ;  trip  to  Princes'  Islands,  38G ; 
Sultana-Mother's  vineyard,  387  ;  steamers,  388  ;  conflagration ;  palace 
of  Chiragan,  389  ;  gardens  ;  wild  beasts,  390  ;  bath,  391 ;  conjurer, 
392  ;  visits  of  adieu,  395 ;  leave  for  Poti,  396  ;  accident  to  Eshref 
Pasha,  397  ;  Sinope  ;  porpoises,  398  ;  birds  from  the  land  ;  Trebizond; 
coming  storm,  399. 


GEORGIA  ;   RETURN  ;   11   DAYS. 

Storm  ,  401  ;  transhipment,  402  ;  land  at  Poti ;  Grand-Duke  Michael, 
403 ;  Open-Heads,  404 ;  railway ;  Kutais,  405  ;  Tiflis  ;  palace,  406  ; 
Grand-Duchess  ;  theatre,  409  ;  storm  at  Poti,  410  ;  Bahman  Mirza, 
411  ;  banquet,  412  ;  Tiflis  to  Baku,  413  ;  Ganja,  414  ;  Nizami's  tomb, 
416  ;  Kur  ferry,  417  ;  Aq-Su— New  Shamaka,  420  ;  Shamakhi,  421  ; 
Baku,  423 ;  embark,  424  ;  storm  for  three  days,  425  ;  land  at 
Enzeli,  427. 


Portrait  of  the  Shah Fronthinece. 

(By  kind  permission  of  the  Proprietors  of  the  Graphic  newspaper.) 

The  Fan-Tail  Posture  in  Dancing         ....  xviii 

Monogram  or  Cypher  of  the  Shah,  As-Sultan  Nasiru-'d- 

DiN  Shah  ^J^ajar xx 

The  CiiETr.  (Fan-tail)  posture  in  Dancing. 

(FrG7n  a  Fenian  painting.) 




HIS  is  a  Diary  of  the  Tour  in 
Europe,  which  we  propose  to 
write  in  auspiciousness  and 
sanctification,  under  the  will  of  God  most 
high,  the  All-powerful,  the  Matchless, 
the  Forgiving,  the  Beneficent,  provided 
that  health  he  accorded  us. 

The  details  of  the  country  between 
Tehran  and  Enzeli  have  been  formerly 
given  in  the  (account  of  my)  journey  to 
Gilan,  and  therefore  require  no  further 
elucidation  here.  I  will,  however,  under 
the    Divine   will,  note   down   the   facts 


Preliminary  Notice, 

attendant  upon  our  leaving  Tehran,  our  capital,  and  any- 
thing interesting  that  may  occur  on  our  road  to  Enzeli. 
Subsequently  to  that,  from  the  day  of  our  embarkation 
on  board  ship,  the  detailed  adventures  of  the  company 
will  be  noted  in  the  diary  of  the  ship,  with  the  help  of 
God,  and  His  merciful  aid. 




ATURDAY,  21s*  Safar,  1290  (a.h.,  ^.c.,  l^th 
April,  1873). — We  started  from  Tehran  in  the 
intention  of  prosecuting  our  tour  in  Europe. 
It  is  now  a  whole  year  since  information  was 
given  of  this  (intended)  tour  in  Europe ;  and  it  is  also 
some  days  that  we  have  been  suffering  from  a  pain  in  the 
chest,  and  a  severe  cold  in  the  head,  so  as  to  be  very 
unwell,  with  sensations  of  fatigue  and  weakness ;  to  so 
great  a  degree,  that  I  have  never  experienced  the  like 

Placing  my  trust  in  God,  however,  I  sallied  forth  from 
my  private  apartments,  my  Grand- Vazir,  and  others,  being 
in  waiting  to  receive  me.  We  tarried  awhile,  and  then 
started,  mounting  a  carriage  at  the  gate  named  Shamsu- 
'l-'imara  (Sun  of  the  Palace).  Crowds  were  assembled 
inside  and  outside  the  city,  in  the  streets  and  roads,  and 
elsewhere.  We  drove  to  the  race-course,  wheie  to-day 
races  were  held.     We  went  up  into  oui*  pavilion.     Masses 

2.  Diary  of  a   Totcr  in  Europe.       [chap.  i. 

of  soldiery,  and  of  private  people,  men  and  women,  were 
assembled.  They  served  breakfast,  of  which  I  took  a 
little,  though  without  the  least  appetite.  Our  master  of 
the  horse,  Timur  Mirza,  the  Husamu-'d-Dawla  (Prince 
Timur,  the  Keen  Sword  of  the  State),  with  Hajji  Aqa 
Isma'il,  and  others  of  our  household,  were  in  attendance. 
The  Amm-i-Huzur  (Lord  Chamberlain,  Comptroller  of 
the  Presence),  who  had  been  unwell  for  some  days  past, 
was  to-da}^  present  on  duty. 

After  breakfast,  the  horse-races  took  place.  The 
horses  of  Murad  Beg,  Na*ib  (Lt.  Murad,  a  Beg),  which 
belong  to  the  royal  stables,  carried  off  the  four  first 
flags.  The  horse  of  Wajihu-'l-'lah  MTrza  (Prince  Wajihu- 
l-'tah)  carried  off  also  a  first  flag.  Iqbal  Mahdi-quli 
Elian  (Gentleman  of  the  Chamber  Mahdi-quli,  a  Khan) 
carried  off  the  fourth  flag  in  the  last  heat. 

The  races  being  concluded,  the  foreign  representatives 
were  admitted  to  an  audience  of  adieu,  the  Grand- Vazir 
and  other  officials  being  present.  We  then  mounted  a 
carriage  and  drove  to  the  village  of  Kan,  where  the  new 
tents  of  figured  and  brocaded  silks  were  pitched  on  the 
bank  of  a  stream.  After  a  while  the  "  Royal  Maternal 
Household ''  catne  to  Kan,  and  I  had  an  interview  with 
the  "  Shah's  mother,"  who  remained  the^;e  two  days.  A 
bitter  wind  was  blowing.  r 

Tuesday  J  24i/t  {Sa/ar — 22nd  April). — Went  to  the 
royal  palace  at  Kan ;  and  this  same  day,  mounting  a 
horse,  went  out  shooting  in  the  rising  grounds  around  the 
village,  the  Prince  Regent  accompanying  me,  as  well  as 
■several   of  the   officers  of  my  household.     The  Grand 

-CHAP.  I.]  Tehran  to  Astrakhan,  3  • 

Huntsman  had  come  out  from  town,  and  had  found 
;some  game.  Before  breakfastmg,  I  shot  a  buck  of  two 
years  old,  with  slugs.  Thanks  be  to  God,  all  went  off 
23leasantly,  and  I  returned  home  in  comfort.  I  am 
grateful  that  my  health  is  perfectly  restored,  and  no 
•sense  of  weakness  remains.  It  is  now  the  season  of 
new  green  plums,  which  are  still  very  small,  and  not  fit 
\o  eat.  Green  almonds  and  blossoms  on  the  trees  are 
well-nigh  over ;  yellow  and  red  roses  are  to  be  seen  here 
;and  there.  MahdI-quli  Khan  went  to  town  for  one 
night,  and  came  back  unwell.  - 

Wechiesdaij,  25th  {Safar — 23?yZ  April), — Remained  at 
the  palace  of  Kan.  Dr.  Tholozan,  and  several  of  those 
who  are  to  accompany  me  to  Europe,  arrived  to  day 
from  town. 

Thursday,  2Qth  {Safar — 24^/t  April). — Proceeded  to 
Quru-Chay  (Dry-Brook),  where  we  breakfasted.  The 
brook  was  much  swollen.  Our  chief  j)liotographer,  and 
others  of  our  attendants,  were  in  waiting.  Our  sun-shade 
tent  was  pitched  in  a  hollow,  and  the  weather  was  very 
sultry.  At  the  time  of  afternoon  worship  we  returned  to 
our  station  at  Kan.  The  An"isu-'d-Dawla  (Familiar  of 
Royalty ;  a  harem  lad}^)  came  from  town,  but  somewhat 
in  bad  health. 

Friday,  27th  (Safar — 'i}5th  April). — We  were  at  Kan 
in  the  morning.  A  vast  concourse  of  officers  of  the 
household,  and  others,  came  from  town,  the  Grand- VazTr 
being  among  them.  This  day,  Munif  Efendi,  the 
Ottoman  Envoy,  who  has  newly  arrived,  is  to  be  received 
in  audience.     In  this,  our  first  station,  they  have  pitched 


4  Diaiy  of  a   Tour  in  Europe.       [chai>.  i, 

our  tents  of  figured  silks,  &c.  Four  hours  and  a  half 
before  sunset  we  went  to  our  tent,  to  which  the  Grand- 
Vazir  came.  Five  of  our  princes  wore  their  swords  at 
our  levee.  Thanks  be  to  God,  the  wind  is  not  blowing. 
The  Envoy  was  introduced,  with  two  Attaches;  the 
Charge-d'affaires,  Nazim  Efendi,  came  with  him  for  hi& 
audience  of  leave,  as  he  has  to  return  to  his  own  country. 
Munif  Efendi  speaks  Persian  and  French,  the  former 
particularly  well.  He  is  of  middle  age.  Asafu-'d- 
Dawla  has  arrived. 

Saturday,  2StJi  (Sa/ar — Q6th  Apiil), — In  the  morning' 
we  mounted,  and  proceeded  on  our  journey  to  the  pass  of 
Sulgan,  where  there  is  a  fine  waterfall  on  the  left-hand 
side  of  the  road,  with  water  to  turn  one  mill.  They 
pitched  our  sun-shade  tent  there,  and  we  breakfasted  in 
that  spot.  The  Prince  Kegent  was  in  attendance,  and 
several  other  princes  also. 

Sunday,  29th  {Safar — 27th  Aj^ril). — To-day  several 
princes  and  others,  the  colonel  of  a  regiment  of  our 
guards,  and  our  Secretary  for  Foreign  Affairs  also, 
though  a  convalescent  from  illness,  came  to  our  camp  and 
were  received.  Munif  Efendi,  too,  had  another  audience. 
Aqa  Sayyid  Isma'il,  the  jurisconsult,  of  Bihbihan,  came 
to  visit  me.  The  Lord  Treasurer  brpught  out  the 
jewelled  regalia  that  are  to  be  taken  with  us. 

(Monday,  dOth — 2Sth  April,  is  not  mentioned  in  the 

Tuesday  1st,  Hahl^u-'l-awival  [Former  Rdbl' — 29th 
April). — In  the  morning  levee  all  the  princes  and  others 
who    had    come    out  from   town    were    received.      The 

CHAP.  I.]  Tehran  to  Astrakhan.  5 

Friday  precentor  of  worship  (a  kind  of  equivalent  to  a 
bishop)  came  out  and  offered  up  a  i^rayer  for  our 
journey.  A  son  of  the  precentor  of  Ispahan  also  came. 
Five  Arab  horses,  brought  for  the  royal  stables,  were  led 
l^ast  our  presence,  and  reviewed ;  and  then  we  took  our 
departure  for  Karj.  On  our  road  thither  we  were  joined 
by  the  Grand- Vazir  from  town,  who  had  good  news  from 
STstan  (the  ancient  Ariana  or  Draugiana),  which  he  sub- 
mitted. The  Dabiru-'l-Mulk  (secretary  of  state),  too, 
mounted  on  a  tall  Turkman  horse,  came  out  with  the 
Grand-VazTr.  The  Prince  Eegent  received  permission 
to  depart  when  not  far  distant  from  Kan,  and  returned 
to  town.  Several  princes  followed  in  our  suite ;  one 
returned  to  town  from  Quru-Ghay.  M.  Beger,  the 
Russian  Envo}^  who  is  to  accompany  us  to  Enzeli,  was 
of  our  party.  We  arrived  at  Karj  four  hours  before  sun- 
set. We  lodged  there  in  the  palace.  Several  of  our 
liousehold,  our  chief  photographer,  and  Dr.  Tholozan, 
<;ame  from  town.  Mahdi-quli  Khan  went  out  shooting, 
and  brought  in  a  female  antelope. 

Wednesday y  2nd  {SOth  Ajnil). — Proceeded  from  Karj  to 
Qasim-abad,  a  distance  of  five  leagues.  Weather  very 
sultry;  dust  excessive.  One  of  our  princes  took  leave 
and  returned  ^o  the  capital;  our  Grand  Usher  is  to 
accompany  us  to  Enzeli.  ,  Some  join  us  from  the  capital; 
others,  taking  leave,  return  thither.  The  duty  of  acting 
as  scouts  and  sentinels  to  our  camp  as  far  as  Enzeli 
devolves  upon  the  2nd  regiment.  Our  Chief  Groom-in- 
Waiting,  Biwak  Khan,  returned  to  town  from  Kan. 

Thursday,  drd  (1st  May). — In  the  morning  mounted 

6  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Eur  ope.       [chap,  i.- 

on  horseback,  many  of  our  princes  and  officers  riding  in 
our  suite.  The  Grand  Usher  had  purchased  sixt}^ 
horses  for  the  artillery  of  Azarbayjan  (the  ancient  Atro- 
patene)  ;  he  passed  them  in  review  in  our  presence.  A 
troop  of  cavahy  of  Makran  (the  ancient  Gedrosia),  com- 
manded by  Hajji  Aqa  Beg,  were  also  reviewed.  We 
rode  a  certain  portion  of  the  way  conversing  with  the 
Grand- Vazir ;  after  which  we  entered  our  carriage.  Our 
station  to-day  is  at  Kazran-Sang,  three  leagues'  journey.. 
We  breakfasted  there,  where  the  camp  had  been  pitched 
in  a  beautiful  meadow,^where  all  was  green  and  luxuriant. 
Sari-Aslan  (Yellow-Lion)  came  from  town  and  was  seen 
(by  us). 

Friday,  AtU  {2nd  May). — Mounting  our  carriage  early 
in  the  morning,  we  proceeded  to  'Abdu-'l-'liih-abad,  a 
distance  of  five  leagues  ;  weather  sultry ;  dust  abundant. 
On  reaching  the  last  outskirts  of  winter  cultivation,  we 
breakfasted ;  but,  in  the  first  place,  taking  our  fowling- 
piece  in  hand,  we  sauntered  about  the  environs,  and  shot 
a  hare,  a  quail,  and  a  yellow-hammer  (or  ortolan,  lit., 
yellow-belly).  This  day  I  have  seen  Dr.  Dickson ;  and 
i  also  Mr.  Thomson,  Secretary  to  the  English  Legation,, 
who  accompan}^  me  to  Europe.  Mirza  'Isa,  governor  of 
Tehran,  and  another  official  of  state,  witl^MIrza  Musa, 
paymaster  of  the  forces,  tool^  leave  and  returned  to 

Saturday,  5th  (^rd  May). — To-day  we  arrive  at 
Qazwin ;  that  is  to  say,  they  have  pitched  our  camp  at 
Hazar-Jarib  (Thousand-acres),  near  that  town.  The 
distance  to  travel  is  five  leagues.     Passed  the  village  of 

CHAP.  I.]  Tehran  to  Astrakhan.  7 

Khak-i-'Ali  (Ali's-land),  and  others.  In  the  morning,  as 
we  mounted,  the  Grand- Vazir  brought  to  the  side  of  our 
carriage  the  Kussian  Envoy,  with  his  interpreter,  Grebel, 
and  we  had  some  converse  with  him.  A  body  of  about 
three  hundred  irregular  cavaky  of  nomadic  tribes  was 
drawn  out.  The  Kegistrar  of  Azarbayjan  was  received 
in  audience.  Lt.  Muhammad- Sadiq  Khan,  of  Qara- 
bag,  his  aide-de-camp,  was  with  him.  Several  princes 
detained  at  Qazwin,  several  of  the  Doctors  (of  law  and 
divinity),  of  the  nobles  and  notables  of  the  town,  with 
the  mayor  and  aldermen,  &c.,  were  presented  to  us  in 
batches  by  Ilkhani,  the  governor  of  the  place.  We 
breakfasted  on  the  road ;  and  afterwards  a  violent  wind 
set  in.  Our  Chief  Groom  of  the  privy  chamber,  who  had 
remained  behind,  now  joined  our  party,  having  ridden 
post  from  the  capital.  The  cavalry,  under  the  command 
of  Asad  Khan,  of  Qara-bag,  who  is  a  member  of  the 
corps  of  couriers,  had  come  out  with  the  paymaster  from 
Azarbayjan,  on  their  way  to  the  capital  to  be  reviewed^ 
The  son  of  Asad  Khan,  who  was  in  charge  of  them,  is  a 
nice  youth.  As  we  approached  the  town  we  mounted  oa 
horseback,  and,  conversing  with  the  Grand-Yazir,  we 
reached  our  camp.  He,  with  our  permission,  went  ta 
the  town.  A  cold  and  violent  wmd  was  blowing ;  and, 
as  we  had  passed  the  night  before  with  very  little  sleep^ 
we  soon  felt  an  inclination  ?o  take  our  repose. 

Sunday,  6th  (ith  May). — To-day  Aqa-Baba  is  our 
station.  It  rained  heavily  in  the  morning ;  and,  though 
it  had  already  rained  a  certain  while,  it  poured  down 
afresh.      This  rain  was  of  great  advantage  to  Qazwin. 

8  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Europe.       [chap.  i. 

Ilkhanl  brought  and  presented  to  us  Mirza  Abu-Turab, 
uncle  of  the  late  Mirza  Buzurg,  the  physician,  a  very- 
aged  man.  After  this,  mounting,  we  passed  by  the  out- 
skirts of  the  town  in  conversation  with  the  Grand-Vazir, 
and  reached  the  high-road  to  Aqa-Baba.  The  Secretary 
of  State  now  left  us  to  return  to  the  capital.  To-day, 
differently  to  what  had  hitherto  been  the  case,  the 
weather  was  pleasant,  with  a  cool  and  refreshing  breeze. 
The  fields  are  one  mass  of  verdure  and  blossoms.  In 
the  gardens  of  Qazwin  we  observed  a  species  of  thorn  in 
bloom,  with  a  flower  like  a  yellow  rose,  ver}^  beautiful 
and  pleasing.  We  gave  orders  that  some  roots  and 
seeds  thereof  be  taken  to  Tehran  and  there  planted. 
We  took  our  breakfast  in  our  carriage  below  the  village 
of  Mahmud-abad,  so  named  after  a  late  Shaykhu-'l- 
Islam.  A  bitter  wind  was  blowing.  Several  of  our 
courtiers  were  in  attendance.  We  reached  our  quarters 
four  hours  to  sunset,  when  an  intensely  cold  wind  was 
blowing  with  great  violence,  so  much  so  that  it  tore 
down  all  the  canvas  fences  and  tents,  and  continued 
the  whole  night. '  No  one  could  go  out  of  doors,  and  all 
were  benumbed  with  cold,  so  as  to  be  incapacitated  for 
any  service. 

^  Monday,  7th  {5th  May). — Have  to  reach  Kharzan ;  but 
the  cold  wind  and  the  frost  is  so  intense,  that  even  in  the 
severest  winter  one  does  not  see  such,  nor  has  such  ever 
been  heard  of.  We  rode  a  couple  of  leagues  in  om-  car- 
riage. Then,  the  road  becoming  very  bad,  we  mounted 
on  horseback  and  sent  the  carriages  back.  The  country 
to-day  is  all  verdant  and  in  bloom ;  but  the  frost  con- 

€HAP.  I.]  Tehran  to  Astrakhan.  g 

tinues  so  severe  that  one  could  not  admire,  or  even  notice, 
the  beauty  and  freshness  of  the  landscape.  In  sjjite  of 
my  having  put  on  a  coat  and  cloak  lined  with  fur,  the 
-cold  was  so  penetrating  that  it  seemed  as  if  I  was  devoid 
of  all  clothing.  Below  the  pass  of  Kharzan  there  was 
a  valley  with  but  little  water  in  its  stream ;  and  there  we 
l)reakfasted,  several  of  my  princes  and  officers,  with  Dr. 
Tholozan,  being  in  attendance.  After  breakfast  we  as- 
cended the  defile.  The  mountain  of  Kharzan  has  no 
rocks  or  stones;  it  is  all  soft  earth,  and  everywhere 
-covered  with  verdure,  flowers,  and  odoriferous  herbs.  In 
many  places  we  saw  cultivation  without  the  aid  of  irri- 
gation. The  tribe  of  Giyaswand  do  the  cultivation  of 
tliis  mountain.  General  Hasan- 'Ali- Khan,  one  of  those 
to  accompany  me,  joined  the  party  to-da3\  Conversing 
with  the  Grand- Vazir,  we  ascended  the  steep.  At  the 
top  I  saw  a  village,  which  I  took  to  be  Kharzan.  On 
enquiry,  it  proved  to  be  Isma'il-abad,  lately  erected  and 
peopled  bylsma'il  Khan  Giyaswand,  chief  of  the  tribe  of 
Gi^^aswand.  A  beautiful  spot  has  he  populated,  as  its 
produce  needs  no  irrigation.  From  thence  we  proceeded 
a  league  and  a  half  to  Kharzan.  I  saw  some  of  our 
l>rinces  on  the  road,  and  spoke  with  them.  They  com- 
plained bitterly  of  last  night's  cold  and  wind,  from  which 
they  had  suffered  much.^  Thanks  be  to  God,  we  reached 
our  station.  There  was  then  no  wind,  but  a  dense  fog 
filled  the  aii',  with  occasional  showers  of  rain.  The  frost 
was  so  intense  that  the  water  froze  as  in  winter. 

Tuesday,  Sth  {Qth  May). — To-day  w^e  reach  Lushan. 
Mountmg  our  horse  at  da3^break,  we  set  out  chatting  by 

lo  Diary  of  a   Toitr  in  Europe.       [chap,  i.. 

the  way  with  the  Grand- Vazir,  Ilkhani,  and  the  Paj^master 
(of  Azarbayjan).  The  road  hereabouts  has  been  some^ 
what  hnproved  by  order  of  the  Government,  Cultivation 
goes  on  in  the  valleys  and  on  the  hills.  Mahdi-quli 
Khan  had  gone  on  ahead  for  a  little  sport  after  partridges, 
and  he  mentioned  having  found  the  yellow  jessamine  in. 
flower  in  all  the  valleys.  We  went  over  the  whole  of  the 
ground  that  he  had  explored.  They  had  erected  our  sun- 
shade tent.  The  Shah-rud  (King  River,  which  falls  into- 
the  Safld-rud  at  Manjil,)  was  very  full  of  water,  and 
extremely  turbid.  Many  of  our  princes  and  officers  were 
present.  Breakfast  was  served.  One  of  the  attendants, 
on  Prince  Wajihu-'l-'lah  Mirza,  who  had  plunged  into  the 
Kufa  branch  of  the  Euphrates  (when  the  Shah  visited  the 
sacred  shrmes  of  'Ali  and  Husayn  at  Najaf  and  Kerbela 
in  Babylonia),  here  also  most  bravely  urged  his  horse 
into  the  stream.  Truly  it  was  an  exhibition  of  courage- 
We  remained  there  till  the  middle  of  the  afternoon,  and 
then  proceeded  towards  our  station.  Below  the  bridge  I 
noticed  two  carriages,  very  elegant,  which  a  merchant  of 
Shirwan  (in  Georgia)  was  taking  u^)  to  Tehran  to  sell. 
We  reached  our  station  at  sundown.  They  had  pitched 
our  camp  in  a  wide  valley  at  a  considerable  distance  from 
the  bridge.  Thanks  be  to  God,  there  was  no  wind 
neither.  The  Grand-Vazir  brought  us  some  disj^atches 
from  the  Mu*tamadu-'1-Mulk,'^\vhich  we  read. 

Wednesday,  9th  {7th  May). — To-day  we  go  to  Manjil.. 
We  started  early  in  the  morning  on  horseback.  Prince 
Husamu-'s-'Saltana  joined  us  from  the  road  to  Bakandi, 
which  he  has  recently  purchased,  and  to  which  he  had 

ciiAP.  I.]  Tehran  to  Aslrakhaji.  1 1 

diverged  from  our  camj)  at  Aqa-baba.  We  journeyed  on^ 
chatting  with  him,  the  Grand- Vazir,  and  Ilkhani.  Con- 
trary to  what  we  had  experienced  for  some  days,  the 
weather  was  warm,  and  the  flies  were  numerous.  The 
pathway  was  very  bad,  and  we  rode  along  out  of  the 
track  until  we  reached  the  forest  of  Bala-bala.  We 
reached  the  bank  of  the  river  at  breakfast- time.  At  dawn 
to-day  we  had  taken  some  qumine.  After  breakfast  we 
again  mounted  and  pushed  on.  During  the  journey  we 
saw  Mirza  Ibrahim  Khan,  Governor  of  Eahmat-abad, 
Ni'matu-'l-'lah  Khan  of  Rasht,  and  Nasru-'l-'lah  Khan,  a 
Talish-man  from  Gurgan-rud  (on  the  Caspian).  The 
cavalry  of  this  latter  chieftain  were  very  well  dressed  and 
armed.  Nearing  our  quarters,  his  Reverence  the  MuUa 
Hajjl  RafP,  a  jurisconsult  of  Gilan,  had  an  audience.  As 
it  was  not  possible  to  pitch  our  camp  on  the  same  spot  as 
in  our  former  visit,  at  the  foot  of  the  cypress  of  Harzabil, 
by  reason  of  its  having  been  laid  under  crops,  we  found 
it  erected  in  a  valley  near  to  Manjil,  sheltered  from  the 
wind.  In  spite  of  this  j)recaution,  a  high  wind  arose  in 
the  afternoon.  It  is  one  of  the  wonders  and  singularities 
of  nature,  that  in  this  valley,  at  all  seasons  of  the  year,  a 
violent  breeze  sets  in  every  afternoon,  so  impetuous,  and 
with  such  force,  that  all  the  olive-trees  gi-owing  there  lean 
over  in  one  direction,  according  as  the  blast  has  impelled 
them.  The  whole  of  the  lands  of  Manjil  and  Harzabil 
are  under  cultivation,  so  that  the  country  has  an  aspect 
of  fertility  and  joy. 

Yesterday  a  snake  bit  one  of  the  tent-pitchers,  and 
Dr.  Tholozan  treated  him ;  according  to  his  report,  the 

12  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Etirope.       [cirAP. 

man's  life  is  saved.  Hereabouts  snakes  are  very  numerous 
(as  was  found  by  Marc  Antony  Avhen  he  invaded  the 

Tliursclay,  10th  {Sth  May). — Rustam-abad  is  our  next 
station.  We  started  rather  later  than  usual,  and  journeyed 
on,  conversing  with  the  Grand- Vazir ;  also  we  had  an  inter- 
view with  Mulla  RafP  the  jurisconsult  at  the  foot  of  the 
bridge  of  Manjil,  which  spans  the  Safld-rud  (White  River), 
xind  over  which  tlie}^  pass  who  journey  to  or  from  GTlan. 
Formerly  there  was  a  wooden  bridge  here,  the  passage 
over  which  was  very  difficult  for  caravans ;  but  a  few 
y^ears  since  a  strong  stone  bridge  has  been  built  at  the 
cost  of  the  public  exchequer,  and  under  the  superintend- 
ence of  his  Reverence  Hajji  Mulla  Rafi'.  His  Reverence 
is  in  the  same  state  of  robust  health  that  he  enjoyed 
when  we  first  saw  him,  eight  years  ago.  Passing  his 
bridge,  we  pushed  on  to  FTl-dih  (Elephant-village),  and 
in  the  very  spot  where  we  had  breakfasted  several  years 
before,  in  our  journey  to  GTlan,  did  we  take  our  morning's 
meal  to-day.  The  oranges  are  in  bloom,  and  the  pome- 
granates have  just  done  flowering.  The  length  of  to-day's 
journey  fatigued  me.  We  reached  our  quarters  three 
hours  to  sunset,  and  found  the  tents  pitched  on  the  river- 
bank.  As  we  journeyed  to-day  we  saw  m^y  swimmers 
and  bathers  amusing  themselves  in  the  river,  along  which 


our  road  lay. 

Friday  11th  {9th  May). — ^We  go  to  Imam-zada  Hashim. 
Mounted  at  dawn,  and  journeyed  conversing  with  the 
Orand-Vazir.  In  some  places  the  path  was  bad  to-da}^ ; 
that  is  to  say,  that  above  Rustam-abad  some  places  were 

CHAP.  I.]  Tehran  to  Astrakhan.  13 

under  water,  and  a  distance  of  over  a  thousand  feet  was 
very  deej)  with  mud.  In  other  places  again  rocks  and 
stones  abounded.  Here  and  there  I  was  forced  to  dis- 
mount and  walk;  and,  as  I  conversed  in  one  place 
with  the  Grand- Yazir,  the  foot  of  his  horse  slipped  in 
the  mud,  and  he  was  thrown;  fortunately,  he  was  not 
hurt.  It  was  reported,  however,  that  one  man  had  fallen 
from  his  beast;  and,  upon  enquiry,  I  found  it  was  an 
attendant  of  the  Ammu-'s-Saltana,  who  had  fallen  from  a 
mule,  and  was  killed.  Some  of  our  princes,  &c.,  received 
permission  to  go  on  from  this  station  to  Rasht.  A  bridge 
(now  completed)  over  the  Siyah-rud  (Black  River)  has 
also  been  built,  under  the  care  of  MuUa  Raf  r,  with  the 
public  money.  There  was,  however,  but  little  water  in 
that  stream,  and  a  child  might  have  waded  across  it. 
Sometimes  again  it  runs  with  so  full  and  impetuous  a 
flood  as  to  be  unfordable  by  horsemen.  We  reached  the 
mouth  of  this  stream,  where  it  falls  into  the  Saf  id-rud,  at 
breakfast-time.  There  was  a  pretty  meadow,  and  we  sat 
down  in  the  shade  of  a  tree,  several  of  our  household 
being  in  attendance.  As  we  approached  the  end  of  our 
day's  journey,  the  mountains  were  left  behind,  and  we 
entered  on  a  level  country,  where  my  di'oshka  had  been 
prepared  for  me.  Mounting  this  carriage,  I  drove  to  the 
vicinity  of  our  station. 

Saturday y  12th  {10th  May), — To-day  we  arrive  at  the 
town  of  Rasht.  Last  night  the  air  was  very  cold.  Rising 
betimes,  we  rode  a  certain  distance  on  horseback;  then 
took  our  seat  in  the  droshka,  and  drove  on.  The  Russian 
Envoy,  with  M.  Grebel,  the  interpreter,  was  waiting  by 

14  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Europe.       [chap.  i. 

the  side  of  the  carriage,  and  we  had  some  chat  with  them. 
The  smi  was  verj^  hot.  The  nightingales  every  now  and 
ihen  sang  in  the  woods.  We  passed  the  villages  of  Sara- 
wan  and  Shah-Aqachi.  Below  this  latter  we  saw  the 
Mu'tamadu-'l-Mulk,  who  had  come  out  from  Easlit  to 
meet  us;  and  also  the  Sa'idu-'l-Mulk,  Mirza  *Abdu-'r- 
Rahlm  Khan,  who  had  come  from  St.  Petersburg  with 
Prince  Menschikoff,  appointed  to  attend  upon  us.  The 
Haklmu-'l-Mamalik,  commissioned  from  Tehran  to  go 
and  meet  the  Russian  officials  sent  to  attend  upon  us, 
also  joined  our  part3\  We  took  our  breakfast  in  the 
shade  of  some  forest  trees  on  the  left-hand  side  of  the 
road;  and  before  we  had  gone  very  far  forward  from 
thence,  we  observed  on  the  road  a  very  handsome  bazaar, 
entirely  built  of  bricks  and  mortar.  We  were  informed 
that  the  Mu*inu-'t-Tujjar-i-Gilani,  in  partnership  with 
some  others,  had  erected  this  bazaar.  From  Lahijan  a 
large  company  of  Doctors  of  law  and  divinity,  &c.,  had 
come  forth  to  meet  us.  Near  to  the  town  (of  Rasht), 
Their  Reverences  HajjT  MuUa  Rafi',  Hajji  Mulla  Tahir, 
and  Hajjl  Mirza  *Abdu-'l-Baqi,  jurisconsults  of  the  town 
of  Rasht,  formally  met  us.  There  we  dismounted  from 
the  carriage  and  got  on  our  horse,  the  Grand-Vazir  and 
the  Russian  Envoy  being  also  on  horseback,  and  con- 
versing with  us.  A  large  concourse  of  women  and  men, 
inhabitants  of  Rasht,  also  came  out  to  meet  us.  Six 
hours  to  sundown  we  reached  the  Nasiriyya  Palace,  where 
a  tent  had  been  pitched  for  us.  At  one  hour  and  a  half 
to  sunset  Prince  Menschikoff,  in  attendance  on  us.  Colonel 
Bazak,  special  aide-de-camp  of  the  Emperor  of  Russia, 

>cHAP.  I.]  Tehran  to  Astrakhan.  15 

the  Kussian  Envoy,  with  his  interpreter,  M.  Grebel,  and 
the  Hakimu-'l-Mamalik,  were  admitted  to  an  audience. 
Prince  Menschikoif  is  a  personage  of  distinction,  one  of 
the  notables  of  the  Eussian  empire,  and  a  special  aide- 
de-camp  general  of  the  Emperor ;  he  is  about  sixty  years 
of  age. 

Sunday t  V^ili  {lltli  May), — In  the  morning  we  mounted 
•our  horse  and  started  for  Enzeli,  passing  through  the 
whole  of  the  town  and  bazaar  (of  Rasht).  Multitudes 
were  assembled  along  the  road  as  far  as  Busar.  From 
henceforward  we  rode  in  our  droshka.  They  have  made 
the  road  to  Pira-Bazar  very  nicely.  At  this  latter  place 
we  breakfasted  in  front  of  the  gate  of  the  custom-house. 
Here  they  had  prepared  barges  and  man-of-war  boats, 
^c. ;  and  after  breakfast  we  mounted  a  barge  to  go  off  to 
the  small  steam-vessels  that  were  anchored  somewhat  far 
from  the  mouth  of  the  river.  One  of  these  belongs  to 
our  own  Government,  and  has  been  very  nicely  fitted  up. 
Two  others  belonged  to  Russia.  In  one  of  the  latter 
the  Russian  Envo}^  Admiral  Sivnikin,  and  Dr.  Tholozan 
were  mounted;  in  the  other  was  a  Russian  band  of 
musicians ;  while  we  embarked  in  our  own  ship,  which 
I)y  our  orders  had  been  recently  built  and  despatched. 
Whatever  is  necessary  as  an  ornament,  whether  plate- 
glass  or  sumptuous  cabin  furniture,  is  all  present  in  this 
«hip.  It  has  a  speed  of  three  leagues  per  hour.  After 
viewing  and  admiring  her  cabins,  we  went  on  deck,  where 
an  awning  of  embroidery  in  flowers  upon  broadcloth 
formed  a  shade.  The  Russian  Envoy  presented  the 
Admiral  in  an  audience.     We  remained  a  sufficient  time 

1 6  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Etcrope,       [char  t, 

for  all  our  party  to  embark  on  board  our  vessel,  princes 
and  household  officers.     Orders  were  then  given  for  the 
ship  to  proceed,  and  four  hours  to  sunset  we  arrived  at 
Enzeli.     Immediately  upon  this,  the   Grand- Vazir,  the 
Mu*tamadu-'1-Mulk,  and  the  Aminu-'s-Saltana  proceeded 
to  the  Kussian  ships  that  were  anchored  in  the  offing  of 
Enzeli,  in  order  to  arrange  the  berths  of  each 'of  our 
attendants  and  the  stowage  of  our  effects.     Five  ships 
had  come  by  orders  of  the  Russian  Government ;  all  men- 
of-war,  acknowledged  by  the  Russian  State,  but  not  fast 
ships.    The  vessels  owned  by  "  The  Company  "  are  more 
commodious  than  the  men-of-war,  and  of  greater  speed. 
These  men-of-war  will  not  go  with  us,  but  will  return  (to 
their  stations)  from  Enzeli.    Our  quarters  are  in  a  tower, 
built  by  our  command  by  our  Minister  of  Foreign  Affairs 
when  he  was  governor  of  Gilan,  and  subsequently  fitted 
up  by  Mirza  Muhammad-Husayn  while  he  was  acting  as 
deputy-governor  of  Gilan  for  the  late  Nizamu-'d-Dawla. 
It  still  wants  a  little  of  completion,  which  the  Mu'tamadu- 
'1-MuLk  will  see  to.     This  tower  is  of  five  stories,  and 
each  story  has  a  saloon  and  a  balcony  all  round.     It  is 
entii-ely  built  of  bricks,  stone,  and  lime ;  excepting  the 
balconies,  which  are  of  timber,  painted.     AU  kinds  of 
needful  furniture,  as  carpeting  (or  its  substitutes,  matting, 
floor-cloth,  &c.),  chairs,  tables,  candlesticks,  &c.,  are  there 
existing  and  ready.     The  view  from  this  tower,  on  all 
four   sides,  is   over  the  sea.     Well;    a   cold  wind  was 
blowing,  but  the  night  was  one  of  beautiful  moonlight. 
It  was  settled  that  we  should  embark  to-morrow.     There 
was  an  exhibition  of  fireworks  at  Gaziyan. 

CHAP.  I.]  Tehran  to  Astrakhan.  17 

Monday,  14:th  (12th  May). — To-day,  God  willing,  we 
embark  on  board  ship,  and,  under  the  Divine  favour, 
proceed  to  HajjT-Tarkhan  (Astrakhan,  lit.,  the  Tarkhan, 
the  pilgrim  to  Makka — a  Tarkhan  having  been  a  kind  of 
superior  feudal  baron  with  the  Tatar  and  Mogul  sove- 
reigns, by  one  of  whom  probably  the  place  was  founded). 
We  rose  earl}^  in  the  morning.  Looking  out  over  the 
sea,  we  saw  an  unbroken, line  of  boats  and  barges,  con- 
ve5dng  men  and  effects  from  Enzeli  to  the  ships.  The 
air  was  rather  hazy,  and  a  light  wind  was  blowing  on  to 
the  shore.  This  rather  alarmed  us.  After  awhile,  how- 
ever, the  air  cleared  up,  the  haze  disappeared ;  but,  as 
the  sky  w^as  somewhat  threatening,  it  was  judged  better 
to  hasten  our  departure.  I  sent  therefore  for  the  Grand- 
Vazir,  and  ordered  all  my  suite  to  embark.  I  then  came 
down  from  the  tower  ;  and  the  jurisconsult,  Hajji  Mulla 
EafiS  offered  up  a  prayer  for  our  voj^age.  A  wonderful 
assemblage  of  all  sorts  and  conditions  had  collected.  In 
the  first  place  I  embarked  in  my  own  steamer,  and  in  her 
proceeded  to  the  "  Constantine,"  sent  on  purpose  for  me. 
Prince  Menschikoff  and  the  others  in  attendance  were  on 
board.  We  waited  another  couple  of  hours  while  the 
baggage  and  our  followers  were  being  shipped,  and  then, 
five  hours  to  sunset,  the  ship's  anchor  was  got  up,  and 
we  started.  Three  of  the  men-of-war  present  incessantly 
fired  guns,  and  got  under  way,  one  ahead  of  our  ship, 
one  astern,  and  one  on  each  beam.  After  awhile  the}'- 
stopped;  and  our  ship  then  put  on  full  speed.  This 
vessel  has  beautiful  cabins ;  all  with  embellishments,  and 
sumptuous,  and  clean -by  rule.     Servants  were  on  board. 

1 8  Diary  of  a  Toitr  in  Eicrope.        [chap.  i. 

specially  sent   from   St.   Petersburg,  of  the   Emperor's, 
household,  with  all  the  requisites  for  taking  coifee,  &c. 

The  following  is  the  list  of  the  personages  who  accomx- 
pany  us  to  Europe  : — 

1.  Those  on  board  the  *'  Constantine,"  our  own  ship. 
The  Grand-Vazh\ 
The  Mu'tamadu-'l-Mulk. 

The  'Azdu-'l-Mulk  (Privy  Seal ;  cousin  to  the  Shah). 
The  Court  Secretary. 
The  Aminu-'s-Sultan. 

The  Sani'u-'d-Dawla  (Private  Secretary  to  the  Shah). 
The  Aminu-'s-Saltana. 
Mahdi-quli  Khan  (a  chamberlain). 
Dr.  Tholozan.  * 

The  Chief  Photographer. 
Gulam-Husayn  Khan. 

The  Muhaqqiq  (Court  collector  of  information). 
The  Chief  Groom  of  the  Privy  Chamber. 
Farrukh  Khan. 

Prince  Wajihu-'l-'lah  (cousin  to  the  Shah). 
Ja'far-quli  Khan. 

The  Chief  Groom  of  the  Coffee-Service. 
Aqa  Eiza,  Corporal. 

Mirza  'Abdu-'l-'lah,  (Groom  of  the  Privy  Chamber), 
Mirza      'Abdu-'r-Eahim    Rhan,     the     Sa'idu-'l-Mullc 

(Minister  Plenipotentiary  at  St.  Petersburg). 
Prince  Sultan  Husayn  Mirza. 
Hajji  Haydar,  Special  Barber. 
Aqa  Hasan-*Ali,  (Water-Bearer). 

CHAP.  I.J  Tehran  to  Astrakha^t.  19 

Aqa    Muhammad-* AH   Jabbar,     (Groom     of     Coftee- 

Three  attendants  of  the  Grand- Vazir.     Aqa  Baqir. 

2.  Those  on  board  the  ship  "  Baratinski." 

The  *Azzu-'d-Dawla. 

The   I'tizadu-'s-Saltana    (great-uncle    to   the    Shah ; 

Mmister  of  Commerce). 
The  Husamu-'s-Saltana. 
The  Nusratu-'d-Dawla  (uncle  to  the  Shah). 
The  'Imadu-'d-Dawla. 
The  *Ala'u-'d-Dawla. 
The  Ilkhani  (Governor  of  Qazwin). 
Hasan-'Ali  Khan,  (Minister  of  Public  Works)* 
The  Paymaster- General  of  the  Forces. 
The  Hakimu-'l-Mamalik. 
The  Ihtishamu-'d-Dawla. 
The  Nasru-'l-Mulk. 
The  Mukhbiru-'d-Dawla! 
The  Shuja'u-'s-Saltana. 
General  Hasan- 'Ali  Khan. 

Mirza  Riza  Khan,  (Aide-de-Camp  to  Grand- Vazir). 
Lt.  Ibrahim  Khan. 

Mirza  Ahi^ad  Khan,  (son  of  the  'Ala'u-'d-Dawla). 
Two  Equerries. 
One  groom. 

Eight  servants  to  members  of  the  suite. 
M.  Dubeski,  (Austrian  Envoy). 
Mr.  Thomson,  (Secretary  of  Legation  of  England). 
Dr.  Dickson,  (Physician  of  Legation  of  England). 

c  2 

20  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Europe.       [cHAr.  i. 

Names  of  the  horses  : — 

The  horse  Julfa. 

The  horse  Zilki-'s- Sultan. 

The  horse  Jafi. 

The  horse  Sabahu-'l-Khayr  \\ic  with  a  "  blaze  "  in  Ms 

(The  horse  of)  the  Husamu-'s-Saltana. 

Dr.  Tholozan  informed  me  that  the  Russian  admiral 
had  been  opening  a  bottle  of  soda-water,  when  the  bottle 
burst  and  a  piece  of  the  glass  flew  into  his  eye,  so  as  to 
make  him  blind  of  that  one  eye.  I  afterwards  saw  the 
admiral,  who  had  put  on  blue  spectacles.  I  enquired 
of  him  what  had  happened,  and  he  narrated  the  same 
circumstances.  I  was  grieved.  Towards  the  middle  of 
the  afternoon,  when  I  went  up  on  deck,  I  saw  the  "  Bara- 
tinski  "  was  a  full  league  distant.  I  slept  m  great  comfort 
during  the  night. 

Tuesday,  Ibth  (ISth  May). — At  sunrise  we  had  reached 
the  commencement  of  the  promontory  of  Absharan  (The 
Waterfalls ;  Cape  Abcheran,  of  Black's  Atlas ;  C. 
Aspheron  or  Shakoo,  of  General  Monteith ;  the  pro- 
montory of  Baku).  The  more  we  advanced,  the  more 
and  the  better  did  the  land  of  the  promontory  become 
visible.  These  coasts  are  arid  and  treeless,  and  are 
included  in  the  district  of  Bad-Kuba  (Wind-beaten; 
Baku) ;  many  tamarisk-bushes  were  growing  on  them, 
and  in  some  places  rocks  were  visible.  The  ship  hugged 
the  shore  so  closely  that  the  men  and  animals  thereon 
were  distinguished.     On  the  central  point  of  the  pro- 

CHAP.  I.]  Tehran  to  Asti^akhan.  21 

montoiy,  a  square  tower  is  built  for  the  purposes  of  a 
sea-lamp  (lighthouse) ;  and  around  it  several  houses  of 
stone  for  the  attendants  of  the  tower.  On  our  right 
there  was  an  island  (Sviatoi,  of  Black;  Piralagai,  of 
Monteith),  on  which  we  observed  some  large  buildings. 
On  enquiry  I  learnt  that  they  were  a  manufactory  for  the 
purification  of  naphtha,  but  are  at  present  unoccupied, 
there  being  no  one  on  the  island.  From  what  was  said, 
the  proprietor  had  been  ruined.  Here  they  stopped  the 
ship  for  a  short  time,  while  the  Grand-Vazir  wrote  some 
telegrams,  which  he  gave  to  be  carried  to  Bad-Kuba,  to  be 
from  thence  telegraj)hed  to  Persia  and  to  Europe.  The 
sea  was  calm  until  about  two  hours  to  noon ;  then,  little 
by  little,  it  became  agitated,  so  that  the  waves  rolled 
mountains  high,  and  everyone  on  board  was  taken  unwell, 
excepting  ourselves,  our  Chief  Photographer,  the  Sani'u- 
'd-Dawla,  the  Corporal,  and  Dr.  Tholozan.  We  were 
not  cast  down,  but  proved  our  self-possession.  The 
whole  of  the  officers  and  crew  of  the  vessel  were  cast 
down  also,  with  the  exception  of  the  admiral  and  a  few 
of  the  sailors,  &c.  In  fine,  we  should  have  been  caught 
in  a  peril  of  great  magnitude,  but  the  Divine  mercy 
encompassed  our  situation,  and  a  favourable  breeze  sprung 
up  astern,  c^anying  us  more  quickly  forward  to  our 
desired  haven.  All  night,  until  dawn,  the  sea  continued 
thus  agitated  and  billowy ;  in  spite  of  which,  however,  I 
slept  a  little.  Kising  at  dawTi  and  looking  out  at  the  sea, 
I  saw  it  was  still  boisterous.  I  desired  the  admiral  to  be 
called,  and  with  him  I  examined  the  chart  that  I  might 
know   our   exact   joosition.     The    admiral   gave   me   an 

2  2  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe.       [chap.  i. 

assurance  that  in  ten  hours'  time  we  shoukl  arrive  off  the 
mouth  of  the  river  Volga,  where  there  would  be  but  four 
or  five  cubits  (or  ells,  of  forty-two  inches  each),  of  water, 
and  that  therefore  the  sea  would  be  smoother.  In  the 
middle  of  the  afternoon  we  saAv  some  sailing  vessels ; 
and  among  them  was  one  bound  on  a  voj^age  to  the 
coasts  of  Langaran  and  Mazandaran.  We  also  saw  a 
man-of-war  steamer,  named  the  *'  Iran."  One  hour  and 
a  half  after  nightfall  we  arrived  at  a  place  called  the 
"  Quarantine,"  beyond  which  large  ships  cannot  enter. 
It  was  therefore  necessary  for  us  to  leave  our  steamer 
and  go  on  board  a  small  vessel  that  would  carry  us  to 
Hajji-Tarkhan.  Our  ship  anchored  in  that  spot,  and  we 
dined.  They  who  had  been  sea-sick  and  unwell  gradually 
recovered.  After  dinner  Prince  Menschikoff  brought 
and  presented  the  Governor  of  HajjI-Tarkhan,  Avho  was 
named  M.  Pipine,  and  who  had  every  appearance,  to 
one's  eyes,  of  being  a  man  of  integrity  and  ability.  He 
spoke  French  well.  On  leaving  our  presence  he  returned 
by  night  to  Hajji-Tarkhan,  so  as  to  be  in  attendance  on 
our  arrival  there.  The  small  vessel  that  is  to  carry  us 
to  the  city  is  named  the  "  Coquette,"  and  is  very  hand- 
son^e.  After  the  time  of  night  Divine  service,  we  went 
on  board  this  vessel ;  another,  similar  to  hei\  having  been 
provided  for.  our  suite,  and  a  small  steam-tug  taking  us 
in  tow.  This  night  I  enjoyed  aTdelicious  and  comfortable 

CHAPTER    11. 


EDNESDAY,  16th  (Uth  May). -^AiriYed  at 
Hajji-Tarkhan.  At  dawn  I  rose  and  looked 
around.  Thanks  be  to  God,  we  have  escaped 
from  the  high  sea,  and  have  entered  a  large 
river  named  the  Volga,  which  has  a  great  charm.  This 
stream  is  very  wide ;  so  much  so,  that  the  one  branch  of 
it  which  we  were  navigating  is  at  least  a  thousand  ells 
(about  1200  yards)  across,  and  an  ordinary  musket-ball 
would  not  carry  from  bank  to  bank.  Its  waters  are 
turbid,  and  flow  with  a  rapid  current,  so  as  to  raise 
waves  like  those  of  the  sea.  The  banks  are  everywhere 
clothed  with  green  forest-trees,  common  willows  and 
Egyptian  willows ;  the  land  is  all  grass  and  pastm-age. 
For  the  most  part  these  regions  are  inhabited  by  tribes 
of  pagan  Kalmuks,  who  pitch  their  felt  tents  by  the  side 
of  the  streams  and  rear  vast  herds  of  cattle,  horses, 
mares,  oxen,  sheep,  &c.  We  saw  also  some  large  villages, 
,Eussian  villages,  pertaifiing  to  the  district  of  Hajji- 
Tarkhan,  and  standing  on  the  banks  of  the  river.  Seen, 
from  a  distance,  they  appear  to  be  of  considerable  extent 
and  very  populous.  In  each  village  a  chmxh  has  been 
built,  very  fine  and  majestic.     The  occupation  in  general 

24  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe.       [chap.  n. 

of  the  people  of  these  villages  is  that  of  fishing.  As  our 
vessel  came  opposite  to  each  of  these  villages  in  suc- 
cession, the  inhabitants  flocked  to  the  river-bank,  and 
cried  out  hurrah !  They  did  not  appear  to  have  any 
gardens  or  sown  fields,  excepting  in  one  instance  where 
we  saw  a  very  large  mansion  and  an  extensive  garden  of 
trees  in  a  village  at  a  distance,  belonging  to  the  tribe  of 
Sapogenikoff.  They  had  shot  down  a  good  quantit}^  of 
dead  fishes  into  their  vessels,  and  had  made  the  banks 
of  the  river  stink.  Such  fishes  as  they  had  not  been 
able  to  salt  and  preserve,  and  which  had  consequently 
putrefied,  they  cast  into  the  river.  The  water  of  the 
Volga  is  very  light  of  digestion.  We  noticed  many  birds, 
such  as  magpies,  crows,  and  cormorants  (?  lit.,  great 
piscivorous  starlings),  flying  in  the  air;  we  shot  one  of 
each  of  the  latter  as  they  flew  past.  AVe  saw  two  small 
vessels  with  steam  and  sails,  laden  with  merchandize. 
We  thus  continued  our  course,  until  about  mid-day  the 
mass  of  Hajji-Tarkhan  began  to  appear,  the  first  building 
seen  being  the  large  chiu-ch  of  the  city,  which  is  very 
lofty  and  majestic.  The  city  is  like  an  island  encom- 
passed by  two  or  three  branches  of  the  river.  One  large 
branch  skirts  the  town,  and  another  branch  passes 
through  it,  bemg  spanned  by  many  bridges,  and  its  banks 
occupied  by  streets  and  houses.  It  has  numerous 
mosques,  the  greater  part  of  which  belong  to  the  Tatars, 
one  very  fine  one  belonging  to  the  Muslims  of  Iran 
(Persia).  Well,  we  arrived  at  the  town.  Skirting  the 
town  were  all  kinds  of  craft,  and  wmdmills  in  abundance 
were  seen.     Astonishing  multitudes  of  men  and  women 

CHAP.  II.]  Russia.  25 

were  congregated,  of  various  nationalities; — Tatars, 
Russians,  Persian^^^-Cossacks,  Circassians,  Kalmuks,  &c., 
in  groups  on  groups,  were  in  the  streets  and  thorough- 
fares, continually  shouting  hurrahs  at  each  spot  we  arrived 
aj^^along  the  course  of  the  river,  until  we  reached  the 
landing-place  and  our  vessel  stopped.  It  then  wanted 
four  hours  and  a  half  to  sunset. 

This  da}^,  early  in  the  morning,  Mirza  Malkam  Khan, 
and  Nanman  Khan,  with  MTrza  Asadu-'l-'lah  Khan,  our 
Consul  at  Tiflis,  and  Mirza  Mika'il,  brother  of  Mirza 
Malkam  Khan,  had  come  down  from  Hajji-Tarkhan  and 
joined  our  part}^  on  board  ship. 

Descending  from  the  vessel,  we  landed.  The  instant 
we  put  our  foot  on  shore,  the  whole  of  the  men  and 
women  assembled  there  simultaneously  raised  a  loud 
shout  of  hurrah!  It  was  an  extraordinary  crowd,  a 
strange  hubbub  of  voices.  In  the  streets  and  thorough- 
ftires  men  and  women  were  standing,  as  closety  packed 
as  the  space  would  hold.  They  had  raised  a  triumphal 
arch  of  great  altitude  and  of  imposing  appearance.  A 
triumphal  arch  is  customary  to  be  erected  on  the  arrival 
of  sovereigns  in  a  town.  From  the  landing  to  the 
triumphal  arch  the  passage  was  carpeted  over.  In  con- 
formity with  a  Russian  custom,  obseiTed  by  them  when 
the  Emperor  or  a  King,  but  no  one  else,  arrives  in  a  town, 
the  mayor  brought  forward'bread  and  salt.  On  the  salt- 
cellar of  gold,  and  on  the  gilt  silver  salver,  on  which  the 
salt  and  bread  were  presented,  the  date  of  our  arrival  at 
Hajji-Tarkhaji  had  been  inscribed.  An  open  carriage 
harnessed  with  four  handsome  horses,  and  the  coachman, 

26  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Europe.       [chap.  n. 

Eussian  fashion,  standing  with  the  reins  in  his  hand,  was 
in  waiting.  We  made  Prince  Menschikoff  mount  this 
carriage  with  us.  A  troop  of  mounted  Cossacks  followed 
as  our  escort,  and  a.  crowd  of  men  and  women,  old  and 
young,  ran  along  hy  our  side  shouting  hurrahs.  Dust 
and  noise  there  were  in  plentj^  Everywhere,  hy  the 
sides  of  the  streets,  in  the  balconies,  and  on  the  roofs, 
were  people  standing  to  witness  the  spectacle,  until  we 
reached  the  Government  House,  in  which  they  had  ap- 
pointed oui*  quarters.  A  battalion  of  troops  was  drawn 
up  in  military  order  opposite  the  gate  of  the  Government 
House,  all  handsome  young  men,  dressed  and  armed  in 
the  most  desirable  manner.  I  dismounted  and  walked 
down  their  line.  They  saluted  me  with  military  honours, 
and  shouted  hurrahs.     We  then  entered  the  house. 

The  edifice  of  the  Government  House  is  a  very  im- 
posing and  spacious  structure,  full  of  inhabited  apart- 
ments. By  the  sides  of  the  staircase  by  which  one 
enters  the  house,  and  which  leads  to  a  great  hall,  nume- 
rous vases  of  flowers  had  been  collected  especially  for 
our  reception.  The  house  contains  many  apartments 
and  halls,  reception-rooms,  dining-rooms,  bed-chambers, 
&c.,  all  furnished  and  decorated.  ,  In  most  of  these  they 
had  served  sweetmeats,  sherbets,  fruits.  The  stoves  of 
the  establishment  are  the  reverse  of  the  ordinarj^  Persian 
hearths, — that  is,  in  a  corner" of  a  room  a  portion  of  the 
wall  forms  a  kind  of  projection,  which  is  tesselated  with 
white  glazed  tiles,  and  behind  this  they  light  the  fire. 
Tubes  are  arranged  within  this  projection,  and  through 
them  warm  air  comes  into  the  room. 

CHAP.  II.]  Russia.  2  7 

The  bath  of  this  establishment  is  on  the  ground  floor, 
and  one  descends  to  it  by  a  flight  of  many  steps.  The 
bath-room  was  elegantly  fitted  up  with  chairs,  tables, 
couches ;  i)erfumes,  flowers,  and  the  like,  were  collected 
there  in  abundance  of  varieties.  In  one  corner  was  a 
basin  with  two  taps  for  water,  hot  and  cold,  so  that  the 
temperature  of  the  water  in  the  basin  could  be  regulated 
and  kept  to  any  desired  degree  of  heat.  The  floor  of 
the  bath  was  covered  with  a  very  soft  mat.  At  a  certain 
point  there  were  a  few  wooden  steps,  with  a  kind  of  trap- 
door at  the  top  ;  and  whenever  it  is  desired  that  hot  air 
enter  the  bath-room,  they  open  it.  There  were  many 
taj3S  for  hot,  cold,  and  tepid  water,  all  round  the  room. 

When  I  quitted  the  bath,  M.  Dubeski,  the  Austrian 
Envo}^  and  Mr.  Thomson,  Secretary  of  the  English 
Legation,  had  an  audience  of  leave,  being  introduced  by 
the  Grand- Vazir ;  they  precede  us  to  Moscow.  After 
them,  the  Governor  of  HajjI-Tarkhan,  Prince  Menschi- 
koff.  Colonel  Bazak,  and  M.  Grebel,  came  and  enquired 
whether  we  would  feel  an  inclination  to  witness  the 
practice  of  the  fire  brigade.  We  liaving  signified  our 
assent,  the  ''  alarm  "  was  given — i.e.,  the  signal  was  given 
that  a  fire  had  broken  out,  and  caused  a  general  pertur- 
bation. This  signal  was  displayed  on  a  tower  that 
dominates  the  town.  Immediateh^  from  every  ward  the 
firemen  presented  themselves  with  their  wheeled  fire- 
engines  and  their  ladders,  the  horses  of  the  engine  of 
each  ward  being  of  a  special  colour.  No  sooner  were 
they  assembled  in  the  square  in  front  of  our  quarters, 
than  their  officer  feisjned  that  fire  had  broken  out  in  a 

2S  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe.       [cHAr.  n. 

building  that  stood  on  one  side  of  the  square.  Instantly 
did  they  direct  the  whole  of  their  engines  on  that  build- 
ing, and  incessantly^  did  they  discharge  water  upon  it. 
They  performed  a  ver}"  fine  exercise. 

In  the  evening  there  was  an  illumination  in  front  of  the 
house,  and  after  dinner  we  went  to  the  theatre,  where  the 
air  was  excessively  hot.  The  theatre  is  small,  and  the 
crowded  state  of  the  audience  was  wonderful.  The  house 
has  two  galleries ;  no  more.  As  soon  as  we  entered  the 
cui'tain  rose,  and  various  actings  were  produced.  At 
fii'st  we  might  have  imagined  that  the  players  were  figures 
of  i)asteboard ;  but,  little  by  little,  it  became  evident 
that  they  were  human  beings.  Thrice  did  the  curtain 
rise,  and  three  different  plays  did  they  enact.  Each  time 
the  curtain  fell,  an  interval  of  a  few  minutes  elapsed  ere 
it  rose  again.  This  interval'  was  of  sufficient  duration 
for  us  to  go  from  the  pit  of  the  theatre  to  an  upper 
chamber  b}^  the  side  thereof,  and  to  become  somewhat 
refreshed  from  the  heat,  when  we  returned.  Had  it  not 
been  for  the  heat,  the  sight  would  have  been  something 
worth  witnessing. 

Thursday,  17th  {15th  May). — This  is  the  day  of  the 
festival  of  the  nativity  of  His  Holiness  the  Seal  of  the 
Prophets  {i.e.,  of  Muhammad  ;  whom  \\;e  vulgarly  call 
Mahomet),  upon  whom,  and  upon  whose  household  be 
salutations  and  benedictions.  And  to-day  we  have  to 
start  by  water  for  Tsaritsin,  from  whence  we  shall  pro- 
ceed by  railway. 

Early  in  the  morning  we  breakfasted,  and  then  went  to 
the  state  saloon  to  hold  a  levee,  to  which  all  the  nobles 

CHAP  II.]  Russia.  29 

and  notaUes  of  HajjT-Tarldian,  and  all  the  officers  of  the 

regular  and  irregular  foi;ces  in  garrison  there,  came  and 

were  presented.     The  levee  over,  we  mounted  a  carriage 

and  drove  to  the  mosque  belonging  to  the  Muslims  of  the 

Shi'a  sect,  the  Precentor  of  which  is  MuUa  Muhammad- 

Husayn,    of   Tabriz, — a   very   agreeable    man.      Again, 

to-day,  through  whichever  street  we  passed,  the  people 

ran  by  the  side  of  our  carriage  shouting  hurrahs.     Bain 

had  fallen  in  the  night,  and  had  laid  the  dust  of  the 

streets.    The  mosque  is  in  the  form  of  an  upper  chamber, 

reached  by  a  wooden  staircase.     Arrived  there,  we  found 

a   great   concourse   present,   of  merchants    and   others, 

subjects  of  Persia,  all  being  of  the  Shi'a  sect.    They  were 

received  in   audience.     The  princes   of  our   suite    were 

there  also.     We  there  acquitted  ourselves  of  our  noon 

and   afternoon   service    of  Divine    worship.      After   the 

seiTice,  Mulla  Muhammad-Husayn,  the  Precentor,  recited 

a    glorious    Khutha    (discourse,    sermon  ;    vide    Lane's 

*  Modern  Egyptians,'  p.  85,  1.  26)  in  the  Arabian  tongue ; 

following  upon  which,  a  certain  Mulla  Alimad,  of  Rasht, 

a  Licentiate  of  Law  and  Theology,  recited  some  Persian 

verses  of  his  own  composition. 

From  thence  I  went  to  the  mosque  of  the  Tatars, 
where  a  large  congregation  of  Tatars  and  of  Doctors  of 
the  Sunni  (Traditionist)  sect  were  assembled.  Men  of 
handsome  form  and  features  met  my  sight,  who  offered 
prayers  for  me.  One  of  their  Doctors  ascended  a  pulpit, 
and  recited  a  Khutba  ;  he  also  presented  me  with  a  copy 
of  the  Qur'an  {vulgarly  Jmoiun  as  the  Koran).  The  build- 
ing of  this  mosque  is  similar  to  that  of  the  Shi'a  sect. 

30  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe.       [chap.  h. 

Next  I  proceeded  to  an  establishment  where  are  pre- 
served various  relies  of  Peter, the  Great,  Emperor  of 
Eussia.  I  saw  there  two  large  boats  built  by  Peter  the 
Great  with  his  own  hands,  and  more  especially  one  of 
them  that  is  ornamented  with  verj^  fine  carvings.  There, 
too,- are  portraits  of  Peter  and  Catherine.  An  immense 
glass  tumbler  was  also  shown,  out  of  which  it  is  well 
known  that  Peter  the  Great  drank  wine  with  Prince 
Menschikoff,  ancestor  of  the  very  Prince  Menschikoff 
who  is  in  attendance  on  us.  There  was  also  a  large 
chair  presented  by  Catherine  to  the  Governor  of  Hajji- 
Tarkhan  of  her  day :  and  further,  a  law  book  {query, 
chai-ter),  which  Catherine  sent  for  the  inhabitants  of 
Hajji-Tarkhan.  Again,  there  were  the  carpenter's  tools 
of  Peter — his  saw,  chisel,  axe,  &c.,  with  which  he  built 
vessels.  On  the  walls  were  certain  ancient  weapons  and 
warlike  instruments  suspended,  such  as  fire-arms,  &c. ; 
and  outside  the  door,  on  either  side,  a  pair  of  old  bomb- 
shells.    These  are  not  devoid  of  some  interest. 

I  now  got  into  my  carnage  and  drove  to  the  steam- 
boat named  the  "Alexander,'*  belonging  to  "the  Com- 
pany," and  embarked  in  her,  my  suite  being  already  on 
board.  She  is  a  very  handsome  vessel,  with  excellent 
and  spacious  cabins,  elegantl}^  fitted  up.  Five  hours 
to  sunset  she  got  undei  w^v.  Besides  her  other  good 
qualities,  she  is  a  very  fast  boat.  On  our  passage  we 
noticed  several  vessels  on  their  voyage  from  Tsaritsin  to 
Hajji-Tarkhan,  and  with  a  numerous  company  of  mixed 
passengers  on  board. 

The  river  Volga,  as  before  mentioned,  is  like  a  sea ; 

<  iiAr.  II.]  Russia. 

i.e.,  in  some  parts  is  so  wide  that  the  banks  cannot  be 
seen.  Large  islands  are  embraced  in  its  channel ;  exten-^ 
sive  villages  are  found  on  its  banks.  On  the  right  bank 
of  the  river  (in  ascending)  an  enormous  and  beautiful 
temple  was  noticed,  which  belongs  to  the  idolatrous 
Kalmuks.  The  whole  of  the  banks  of  the  river,  where 
visible,  are  hilly,  with  grass  and  trees  forming  a  pleasant 
aspect.  Herds  of  swine,  piebald  and  black,  w^ere  pas- 
turing on  shore.  The  flesh  of  these  animals  is  eaten  by 
the  inhabitants  of  the  countries  bordering  on  the  river. 
No  other  river  of  equal  magnitude  and  with  equally  beau-^ 
tiful  sites  on  its  banks  was  seen  by  us  in  those  parts.  I 
could  not  for  one  moment  cease  to  admire  them.  The 
vessel  never  stopped.  At  nightfall  we  dined,  and  subse- 
quently retired  to  rest. 

Friday,  ISth  {16th  May).  —  When  I  arose  in  the 
morning  it  was  evident  that  it  had  rained  heavily  all 
night.  The  river  banks  are  like  those  seen  yesterday, 
but  the  number  of  villages  is  less.  A  telegraph  from  the 
Dabiru-'l-Mulk  was  received  and  read  :  "  On  the  16th  of 
this  month  (Wednesday,  14th  May,)  a  typhoon  of  furious 
wind  occurred  in  Tehran.  The  inhabitants  of  Tehran 
were  in  a  state  of  alarm  lest  this  typhoon  should  have 
assailed  us  at  sea."  At  three  hours  and  a  quarter  to 
sunset  we  arrived  at  the  town  of  Tsaritsin,  from  whence 
the  railway  commences. 

Tsaritsin  is  built  on  an  eminence  on  the  bank  of  the 
river  Volga,  the  length  of  the  town  following  the  course  of 
the  stream,  and  a  branch  of  the  river  flows  through  it, 
dividing  the  town  into  two  parts  united  by  a  bridge,  over 

3  2  Diary  of  a   Toiu^  m  E^trope.       [chap.  h. 

which  peoi)le  pass  from  one  section  to  the  otlier.  Multi- 
tudes were  assembled  from  the  town  and  its  environs.  As 
soon  as  the  vessel  anchored,  on  board  of  which  we  were 
travelHng,  the  railway  train  that  was  to  carry  us  forward 
made  its  appearance.  We  performed  our  devotions,  and 
then  came  out  of  the  ship's  cabin.  The  Governor  of 
Saratov,  within  whose  jurisdiction  the  town  of  Tsaritsin  is 
situated,  was  presented.  His  name  was  Gavkin  Varafski. 
He  was  a  noble,  pleasant-faced  man,  and  had  come  a  great 
distance.  The  Chief  of  the  Nobles  of  Saratov,  &c.,  and 
many  officers  of  all  kinds,  were  assembled  and  were  pre- 
sented. There  was  also  an  excellent  band.  The  landing- 
place  was  beautifully  decorated,  and  the  Persian  flag 
hoisted  over  a  triumphal  arch.  After  giving  audience  to 
these  who  had  thus  come  to  receive  us,  we  returned  to 
the  ship's  cabin,  performed  our  devotions  of  sunset,  and 
dined,  proceeding  to  the  railway  one  hour  afterwards. 
The  Governor  of  Hajji-Tarkhan  here  took  leave  and 

From  the  wharf,  for  a  certain  distance,  the  railroad 
was  illuminated  on  both  sides.  Our  railway  carriages 
are  a  special  train  of  saloons  for  the  use  of  the  Em- 
peror, very  handsome,  spacious,  and  beautifully  fitted 
up.  They  contained  many  different  apartments,  dining- 
saloons,  sleeping-carriages,  reception-saloons,  all  fur- 
nished with  lamps,  tables,  chairs,  sofas,  and  couches. 
They  all  communicated  with  one  another,  so  that  one 
could  go  and  come  from  end  to  end  of  the  train.  Those 
of  our  suite  who  accompanied  us  on  board  the  "  Constan- 
tine  "  were  placed  in  the  same  saloon  with  ourselves  ;  our 

CHAP.  IT.]  Russia,  33 

princes  and  the  rest  following  in  a  separate  train.  This 
is  the  first  time  we  travel  on  a  railway,  and  very  nice  and 
comfortable  it  is  :  it  goes  five  leagues  in  an  hour. 

Eisiag  in  the  morning  (17th" May)  it  became  evident 
that  during  the  night  we  had  been  passing  through  a 
beautiful  country;  for,  whichever  way  we  looked  out  over 
the  land,  we  saw  green  fields,  meadows,  flowers,  grass, 
tented  tribes,  mares,  sheep,  swine,  &c.,  and  every  two  or 
three  leagues  a  handsome,  populous  village.  These  parts 
are  celebrated  for  their  productiveness.  Everywhere  we 
looked  we  saw  sown  fields  that  required  no  irrigation,  or 
else  grass  lands.  We  crossed  a  large  and  handsome 
bridge  over  a  stream,  full  of  water,  that  flows  into  the 
river  Don.  Every  now  and  then  we  passed  over  smaller 
bridges  ia  great  numbers.  At  distances  of  two  or  three 
miles  were  guard-houses  for  the  care  of  the  road ;  and  a 
few  leagues  apart  were  stations.  A  "station"  is  a  place 
where  the  trains  stop  to  have  their  wheels  greased,  and 
where  the  passengers  take  coffee  and  refreshments ;  so 
that  it  really  is  a  post-house.  These  stations  are  prettily 
built ;  and  at  each  of  them  there  are  always  several  car- 
riages for  the  conveyance  of  passengers  and  inerchandize. 
To-day  we  are  passing  through  the  government  of  Tam- 
bov; and  at  one  of  the  stations  we  alighted  from  our 
carriage,,  and  found  a  concourse  of  officers,  troops, 
women,  and  men  assemblecJT  We  walked  down  in  front 
of  the  line  and  inspected  the  troops,  who  were  all  fine 
young  men  and  well  armed.  This  station  was  at  the 
town  of  Borisoglebsk,  the  whole  of  the  civil  and  military 
functionaries  of  which  had  come  out  to  meet  us.     After 

34  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Europe.       [chap.  h. 

receiving  tliem  we  returned  to  our  carriage  and  continued 
our  journey.  Our  road  now  lay  chiefly  through  forests 
of  fir  and  pine.  The  pace  of  the  train  was  such  that  we 
overtook  the  flying  crows,  passed  them,  and  left  them 
behind.  Emerging  from  the  forests,  we  again  came  upon 
cultivation,  meadows,  and  open  country.  At  this  season 
the  crops  in  these  parts  are  not  more  than  one  finger- 
joint  out  of  the  ground. 

We  now  arrived  at  Kozlov,  where  we  found  all  the 
local  authorities  assembled,  as  well  as  a  crowd  of  spec- 
tators. It  is  a  fine  town,  and  a  handsome  hotel  of  large 
dimensions  was  by  the  roadside,  in  which  they  had  pre- 
pared a  breakfast.  The  nobles  and  wealthy  men  of 
Eussia  have  here  a  breeding  stud,  where  very  fine  horses 
are  reared.  They  brought  several  for  our  inspection. 
A  few  Eussian  generals  and  ofiicials  were  presented  in 
audience.  After  a  stroll  we  returned  to  our  train,  and 
shortly  proceeded  on  our  journey.  In  less  than  every 
half  hour  we  passed  by  a  very  large  village.  The  night 
found  us  still  continuing  our  onward  course.  Early  in 
the  morning  (of  May  the  18th)  we  traversed  a  long 
bridge  over  a  river  (the  Oka)  that  falls  into  the  Volga, 
having  passed  Eiazan  about  midnight ;  and  two  hours 
after  daylight  we  reached  the  station  of  Faustovo,  where 
our  train  was  made  to  wait  until  the  other,  with  our 
princes,  &c.,  should  come  up.  We  then  all  of  us  put  on 
our  state  dresses  for  our  entry  into  Moscow.  Prince 
Dolgoruki,  the  Governor  of  Moscow,  an  old  and  vene- 
rable man,  full  of  honours  and  dignities,  had  come  here 
to  meet  us,  and  was  admitted   to  an  audience  in  our 

CHAP.  II.]  Russia,  35 

carriage.  M.  Gamasoif,  the  interpreter  of  His  Most 
Exalted  Majesty  the  Emperor,  was  also  introduced  to 
our  presence,  having  been  sent  by  the  Emperor.  He  is 
a  very  old  man,  and  has  visited  Persia. 

We  now  proceeded  till  the  city  of  Moscow  appeared  in 
sight.  The  cupolas  of  its  churches — all  gilded,  the 
magnificent  houses,  the  gardens,  the  parks,  the  summer 
residences,  the  manufactories,  were  well  seen.  We  ar- 
rived at  the  station — the  terminus,  where  the  train  stops, 
and  where  an  immense  multitude  of  men  and  women 
were  assembled.  We  alighted  from  the  train.  The  Go- 
vernor of  the  city,  the  Generals,  the  Civil  Functionaries, 
were  all  there.  The  crowd  was  beyond  all  calculation. 
A  carriage  and  four,  with  escort,  and  with  footmen  in  the 
splendid  liveries  of  the  Emperor,  awaited  us.  The 
Grand- Yazir,  the  princes,  the  officers  of  our  household, 
and  the  rest,  were  placed  in  other  carriages,  forming 
a  cavalcade  behind  us.  In  this  manner  did  we  pass 
through  the  streets;  everywhere  marvellously  thronged 
with  women  and  men,  until  we  reached  the  gate  of  the 
citadel-palace  of  the  Kremlin,  which  is  one  of  the  grand 
palaces  of  Eussia — nay,  of  all  the  Franks.  It  has  a 
brick  wall  of  great  height  and  ancient  construction, 
being  situated  on  the  top  of  a  hill-like  elevation,  and 
so  overlooking  the  city  of  Moscow.  The  arsenal  and 
armoury  are  also  within  this  palace,  and  we  passed  near 
them.  There  is  a  very  large  gun  placed  in  the  entrance 
to  the  palace,  such  that  few  so  large  will  be  seen.  The 
beU  of  the  church  of  Moscow,  which  fell  down  in  times  of 
old  and  was  broken,  is  near  the  Arsenal.     No  bell  of  its 

D   2 

36  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Ettrope.      [chap.  h. 

size  is  visible  in  any  other  place.  Cannon  captured  from 
the  first  Napoleon  in  the  battle  of  Moscow  are  collected 
in  the  Arsenal. 

At  length  we  reached  the  steps  of  the  palace.  Count 
Lensdorf,  Marshal  of  the  Palace  and  Intendant  of  the 
Parks  and  Domains  of  Moscow,  a  pleasant-looking  young 
man,  who  speaks  French  extremely  well,  showed  us  the 
wa}'',  and  explained  the  details  of  the  palace.  I  really 
cannot  undertake  to  write  a  description  of  the  Palace  of 
the  Kremlin.  We  went  up  many  stairs,  so  constructed 
as  to  be  mounted  with  the  utmost  comfort.  In  the  corri- 
dors are  huge  columns  of  porphyry  and  other  stones. 
The  middle  part  of  the  staircase  and  corridors  is  car- 
peted. As  one  goes  up  the  stairs,  one  sees  on  the  right 
hand  a  picture  representing  a  battle  between  the  Russians 
and  the  Moguls.  Thence  one  enters  a  large  saloon,  and 
from  it  passes  into  the  still  vaster  Hall  of  the  Knights 
of  St.  George,  i.e.,  of  those  who  are  decorated  with  the 
insignia  of  the  Order  of  St.  George,  the  names  of  every 
one  of  whom,  ancient  or  recent,  is  inscribed  in  this  hall, 
which  is  very  spacious  and  lofty,  with  large  candelabra 
and  chandeliers.  Thence  one  passes  to  the  Throne - 
Boom, — also  a  very  large,  oblong,  and  lofty  hall,  on  a 
dais  in  which  the  throne  is  placed,  embroidered  with  a 
crown,,  seated  on  which  the  Russian  Emperors  are 
crowned.  Still  passing  on,  I  entered  two  or  three  other 
rooms,  and  from  thence  to  the  sleeping  apartments. 
From  the  hall  there  is  a  door  leading  to  a  kind  of  terrace, 
from  whence  the  whole  city  of  Moscow  and  the  surround- 
ing country  is  visible,  and  where  I  walked  about  a  while. 

CHAP,  il]  Russia.  37 

In  this  palace  they  have  executed  some  surprising 
works  in  the  art  of  converting  lime  (or  plaster)  into 
stone,  so  that  the  plaster  is  as  lustrous  as  a  mirror,  and 
as  hard  as  stone.  There  are  some  heautiful  columns  in 
these  rooms ;  for  instance,  two  columns  of  porphyry, 
lofty  monoliths,  in  the  hed-chamber;  while  in  the  hall 
there  are  many  columns  of  malachite.  All  the  stairs  are 
of  marble.  The  number  of  apartments  in  the  palace,  up- 
stairs and  downstairs,  is  so  great  that  a  stranger  would 
lose  himself  among  them,  and  that  one  cannot  inspect 
them  all  in  a  day.  There  are  large  numbers  of  crystal 
and  china  vases  in  it;  also  a  small  winter-garden,  like 
the  orangeries  (conservatories)  of  Tehran,  contiguous  to 
it,  and  filled  with  strange  exotic  flowers,  brought  and 
cultivated  there, — very  pretty.  The  palace  has  a  pic- 
ture gallery, — an  oblong  hall,  filled  with  ancient  paint- 
ings in  oil, — very  fine  pictures,  and  set  off  with  rows  of 
large  china  vases. 

After  dinner,  a  meal  pai-taken  of  before  the  sun  had 
gone  down,  we  stai-ted  for  the  theatre.  Crowds  were  in 
all  the  streets.  Arrived  at  the  theatre  we  went  upstairs, 
passed  the  crush-room,  and  took  our  seat  in  a  box 
fronting  the  stage, — the  place  where  the  acting  is  per- 
formed. The  theatre  is  of  large  size,  and  was  built  by 
the  Emperor  Nicholas.  It  has  six  tiers  of  seats,  and  all 
of  them  were  crowded  with  women  and  men.  A  large 
chandeHer  is  hung  in  the  middle  of  the  theatre.  Prince 
Dolgoruki,  the  Governor  of  Moscow,  sat  in  our  box. 
The  curtain  rose,  and  a  strange  world  made  its  appear- 
ance.    A  large  number  of  dancing- women  set-to  dancing. 

38  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Eii.7^ope.       [chap.  h. 

This  dancing  and  performance  is  called  a  ballet,  i.e.,  a 
performance  and  dance  without  speaking.  In  its  course 
they  both  dance  and  perform  in  various  ways,  which  it  is 
not  possible  to  describe.  Opposite  the  audience  and 
below  the  stage  there  were  also  a  great  number  of  musi- 
cians who  unceasingly  sounded  their  instruments.  Every 
now  and  then  a  light,  produced  by  electricity  and  variously 
coloured,  was  thrown  from  the  corners  on  to  the  stage ; 
this  had  a  very  pleasing  effect.  The  dancers,  too,  every 
now  and  then  changed  their  costumes.  Such  dancers 
as  danced  well  were  applauded  by  the  audience  clapping 
their  hands,  and  crying  "bis,"  i.e.,  "encore."  At  the 
conclusion  of  one  act  the  curtain  fell ;  and  after  a  quarter 
of  an  hour,  when  people  had  reposed  somewhat,  the 
curtain  again  rose  and  another  act  was  performed.  At 
the  end  of  one  act,  I  went  to  another  box  near  to,  and 
looking  on  to,  the  stage.  Our  princes  and  attendants 
were  seated  in  our  first  box.  Five  times  did  the  curtain 
rise,  and  five  times  was  a  different  kind  of  play  brought 
out.  It  lasted  till  midnight.  The  theatre  was  extremely 
hot.  We  went  home.  The  name  of  the  director  of  the 
theatre  was  Gavelin. 

Tuesday,  %^nd,  (20th  May). — ^We  remained  at  Moscow. 
This  day  we  visited  the  lower  apartments  of  the  Kremlin, 
where  the  jewelled  regalia,  ancient  crowns  of  the  Empe- 
rors, &c.,  are  collected;  and  these  we  inspected.  It  is  a 
magnificent  edifice,  apartment  within  apartment,  being 
both  an  armoury  and  a  crown-jewel  office.  All  the 
various  articles  are  tastefully  arranged  in  glass  cases  ; 
ancient  porcelains,  gold   and  silver  utensils,  objects  of 

CHAP,  II.]  Russia.  29 

curiosity  and  virtu,  spoils  taken  in  battles,  &c. ;  and  all 
were  pointed  out  to  us  by  the  custodian  and  registrar, 
whose  name  was  ^  Solo viessa.  Among  them  were  some 
things  taken  from  Charles  XII.  of  Sweden  by  Peter  the 
Great  at  the  battle  of  Pultawa ;  especially  the  litter  on 
which  Charles,  after  being  wounded,  caused  himself  to  be 
carried  about  as  he  gave  directions  for  continuing  the 
fight ;  also  some  of  the  flags  of  that  king.  There  were 
about  ten  crowns, — crowns  of  the  old  sovereigns  down 
to  the  time  of  Peter  the  Great,  most  of  them  set  with 
fine  precious  stones  in  gold  of  old-fashioned  work- 
manship :  there  were  jewelled  sceptres,  and  one  without 
jewels  that  had  been  used  by  Peter  the  Great ;  there 
were  old  royal  robes  and  dresses,  and  others  more 
recent ;  also  the  furniture  of  the  chamber  of  Alexander  I. 
and  of  that  of  Peter  the  Great.  I  saw  two  thrones  set 
with  turquoises  and  gold  and  other  precious  stones, 
which  had  been  sent  as  presents  to  the  sovereigns  of 
Russia  by  Shah  'Abbas,  the  Safawl  (i.^.,  of  the  race 
of  the  Shaykh  SafT  or  Safiyyu-'d-DTn,  who  lived  in 
the  days  of  Timurleng,  and  whose  descendant  in  the 
sixth  degree,  his  great-great-great-great  grandson,  Shah 
Isma'll,  founded  the  Safawi  dynasty  of  Persia  in  a.d. 
1501 ;  the  title  of  Sofi,  or  Sophi,  attributed  to  the 
kings  of  this  dynasty  by  European  writers,  being  an 
ignorant  corruption  of  thts  word  Safawl).  I  also  saw 
two  saddles,  with  their  equipments,  jewelled,  sent  by 
the  Ottoman  Sultan  (*Abdu-'l-)  Hamid  Khan  to  the 
Empress  Catherine  ;  also  the  boots  of  Peter  the  Great 
and  of  Alexander  I. ;  and  furthermore,  a  colossal  marble 

40  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Eicrope.      [chap.  n. 

statue  of  Napoleon  I.  There  were  also  some  ancient 

From  thence  I  went  to  visit  the  Lazarof  College,  a 
beautiful  place  of  education,  where  Armenian,  Muham- 
madan,  and  Eussian  youths  are  taught  the  Oriental  and 
European  languages.  The  name  of  the  superior  was 
Delianof.  Keturning  from  the  college,  the  generals  and 
military  officers  stationed  at  Moscow  were  received  in 
audience.  The  General  commanding-in-chief  the  whole  of 
the  forces  in  Moscow,  a  tall  old  man,  was  Gildenstol.  In 
the  evening  I  went  to  the  theatre,  and  saw  some  nice 
acting.  From  thence  to  the  house  of  Prince  Dolgoruki, 
to  a  ball.  As  his  wife  was  dead,  his  niece,  daughter  of 
his  sister,  did  the  honours  of  the  evening. 

23r6Z  {Wednesday f  21st  May). — In  the  morning  I 
mounted  a  carriage  and  for  a  space  drove  about  the 
streets  of  Moscow.  The  companies  of  the  fire-brigade 
went  through  a  portion  of  their  exercise  ;  and  afterwards 
I  went  to  the  Ethnographic  Museum,  a  fine  building,  in 
which  they  have  collected  wax  images  of  all  the  different 
tribes  and  nationalities  subject  to  Russia,  each  dressed  in 
its  special  local  costume,  so  as  to  look  like  living  men. 
There  I  also  saw  the  arms  and  implements  of  the  savages 
of  America  and  Africa,  which  are  exhibited  as  curiosities. 
There  is  also  a  library  said  to  contain  two  hundred 
thousand  volumes.  Whenever  the  Emperor  visits  Moscow, 
he  resides  in  the  apartments  on  the  ground-floor  of  the 
Kremlin ;  and  these  too  we  went  through.  They  are 
beautiful  rooms  ;  and  nothing  can  be  conceived  finer  than 
the  furniture  there  seen,  the  porphyries,  the  balustrades  of 

CHAP.  Ti.]  Ritssia.  4 1 

marble,  the  tables,  chairs,  looking-glasses,  and  couches. 
In  the  Emperor's  own  room  there  were  the  skins  of  two 
bears  shot  by  himself  and  serving  as  rugs  in  front  of 
couches.  Having  finished  this  survey,  I  drove  to  the 
Nicholas  terminus,  the  end  of  the  railway  to  St.  Peters- 
burg ;  as,  under  God's  will,  we  go  to-night  to  that  city. 
The  streets  were  illuminated  all  the  way  from  the 
Kremlin  to  the  terminus,  and  vast  crowds  of  citizens 
lined  the  road  and  showered  upon  me  the  extremest 
tokens  of  respect  and  reverence. 

The  pojiulation  of  Moscow  is  three  hundred  and  fifty- 
one  thousand  souls.  The  Order  of  my  Portrait  was  con- 
ferred upon  the  Governor  of  Moscow.  Our  princes  were 
put  into  my  own  carriage,  in  which  I  dined  and  then  lay 
down  to  sleep. 

24^/i  {Thursday,  2^nd  May). — Awaking  in  the  morning, 
I  saw  that  both  sides  of  our  road  was  a  forest  of  firs.  We 
crossed  two  iron  bridges  of  great  length,  carried  over  two 
wide  valleys,  of  which  the  one  was  waterless,  the  other 
possessing  a  stream.  After  a  while  the  road  passed  over 
a  large  river  named  the  Wok,  which  is  spanned  by  a  very 
long  iron  bridge  that  carries  the  railway  over.  This 
river  forms  numerous  backwaters,  among  which  are  large 
numbers  of  villages.  We  proceeded  until  we  came  to 
a  station  where  we  alighted  amidst  an  immense  crowd, 
and  some  officials  of  the  Ministry  for  Eastern  Affairs  were 
presented  by  Stramakof,  the  Under-Secretary  of  Prince 
Gorchakof,  and  an  elderly  person,  but  very  shrewd,  able, 
and  diplomatic.  We  had  a  little  conversation,  and  then, 
re-entering   our    carriage,   we    continued    our    journey. 

42  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe.      [chap.  h. 

Nearing  St.  Petersburg,  we  put  on  our  state  costume, 
ready  for  our  arrival.  When  the  train  stopped  at  the 
terminus.  His  Most  Exalted  Majesty  the  Emperor,  with 
the  Nawwab  ^  the  Heir- Apparent,  and  his  other  sons,  as 
also  the  whole  of  the  princes  of  the  Imperial  House,  the 
Commanders-in-Chief,  and  Generals  of  the  army,  were 
there.  His  Most  Exalted  Majesty  the  Emperor  Alex- 
ander II.,  Autocrat  of  aU  the  Eussias,  received  us  with 
the  perfection  of  warmth  and  friendship.  The  Nawwab 
the  Grand  Duke  Nicholas,  Commander-in-Chief  of  all  the 
Eussian  forces  and  brother  of  His  Most  Exalted  Majesty 
the  Emperor,  handed  in  a  state  of  the  forces  stationed  at 
(St.)  Peter (sburg).  The  Nawwab  the  Grand  Duke  Con- 
stantine  Nicholaievich,  another  brother  of  His  Most 
Exalted  Majesty  the  Emperor,  was  also  present.  In  short, 
giving  our  hand  into  the  hand  of  the  Emperor,  we  walked 
forward  on  foot.  Very  many  of&cials  in  uniform  lined  the 
passage,  and  we  thus  reached  the  head  of  the  street  known 
by  the  name  of  Newskj^,  which  is  a  very  wide  and  long 
street,  with  houses  three  and  five  stories  high  on  both  sides. 
On  each  side  of  the  streets  there  are  stone  pavements, 
while  the  middle  is  of  wood,  which  makes  no  noise  when 
carriages  pass  over  it.  Whenever  a  vehicle  passes  over  a 
stone  pavement,  a  disagTeeable  sound  arises  therefrom  ; 
but  they  roll  along  over  the  wood  noiselessly  and  with 
great  comfort. 

At  length  we  took  our  seat  with  the  Emperor  in  an 
open  carriage,  the  air  being  serene  and  the  sun  shining. 
Both  sides  of  the  road,  the  balconies,  and  the  roofs,  were 
fuU  of  men  and  women,  who  shouted  hurrahs.      Inces- 

CHAP.  II.]  Russia.  43 

santly  did  we  and  the  Emperor  bow  to  the  people.  For 
a  while  we  drove  on,  until  at  length,  passing  beneath  an 
arch  and  a  lofty  gateway  we  entered  the  square  in  front 
of  the  Winter  Palace.  In  this  square  there  is  a  very  tall 
and  stout  column  of  stone,  a  monolith,  bearing  on  its 
summit  a  statue  in  metal  of  the  Emperor  Alexander  I. 
Leaving  the  square  we  entered  the  palace,  and  went 
upstairs  with  the  Emperor.  Decidedly  there  were  at  least 
a  thousand  officers  and  generals  on  the  steps  and  stairs, 
and  in  the  halls.  We  passed  through  rooms,  each  one 
more  sumptuous  than  the  other,  and  more  perfect. 
Beautiful  paintings,  columns  of  porphyry,  tables  of  choice 
stones,  chairs,  vases,  and  other  articles  of  furniture  im- 
possible to  describe  in  writing,  (did  we  see) ;  especially  a 
vase  of  malachite  was  there,  at  the  head  of  the  staircase, 
most  choice.  The  Emperor  pointed  out  the  rooms  one 
by  one,  until  we  reached  the  apartments  allotted  to  us. 
There  the  Emperor  took  leave  and  went  to  his  own  resi- 
dence. The  Emperor  is  a  man  tall  of  stature  and  majestic, 
who  speaks  with  great  gravity,  and  walks  with  a  stately 
gait.  We  sat  down  a  while,  and  then  Count  Alderberg, 
Minister  of  the  Court  of  His  Most  Exalted  Majesty  the 
Emperor,  and  a  very  pleasant  man,  of  robust  frame,  came 
and  brought  to  us  from  His  Most  Exalted  Majesty  the 
Emperor,  the  Order  of  St.  Andrew  set  in  diamonds,  with 
its  blue  riband, — the  most  noble  of  all  the  Eussian  orders. 
After  the  lapse  of  a  minute  or  two  we  went  to  return  the 
Emperor's  visit.  He  was  standing  in  his  own  chamber. 
Taking  each  other's  hand,  we  sat  down,  our  Grand-Vazir 
and  M.  Gamazof,  the  Emperor's  interpreter,  being  pre- 

44  Diary  of  a  Totcr  in  Ettrope.       [chap.  ir. 

sent.  A  long  and  pleasant  conversation  ensued.  The 
Emperor  lias  two  very  handsome  black  slaves,  dressed  in 
the  costume  of  Constantinople,  who  waited  on  us.  In  a 
few  minutes  we  rose  and  returned  home.  After  an  interval 
we  set  out  to  return  the  visit  of  the  Nawwab  the  Heir- 
Apparent.  The  residence  of  the  Heir- Apparent  is  at  a  dis- 
tance from  the  imperial  palace.  The  Nawwab  the  Heir- 
Apparent  is  a  young  man  of  graceful  form,  and  about 
twenty-five  years  of  age.  His  wife  is  the  daughter  of  the 
sovereign  of  Denmark.  Having  sat  there  a  little  while, 
we  took  tea,  chatted  considerably,  and  returned  home  to 
dinner.  About  the  hour  of  sunset  His  Most  Exalted 
Majesty  the  Emperor  came  to  our  quarters  ;  wx  mounted 
a  carriage  together  and  drove  to  the  theatre.  The  air  was 
so  cold  that  we  stood  in  need  of  a  wadded  cloak.  The 
way  was  long.  We  alighted  at  the  door  of  the  theatre, 
mounted  many  steps,  and  took  a  seat  in  a  box  facing  the 
stage.  In  this  box  were  the  Emperor,  I,  the  Heir- 
Apparent,  the  wife  of  the  Heir- Apparent,  the  Grand  Duke 
Constantine,  the  rest  of  the  Emperor's  sons  and  of  the 
imperial  family.  The  pit  was  filled  with  officers,  generals, 
&c.  This  theatre  has  six  tiers  of  seats,  and  every  tier 
was  full  of  women  and  men.  The  Persian  princes  and 
others  of  our  retinue  were  present.  The  chandelier  hung 
in  the  middle  of  the  theatre  was  lighted  with  gas,  which 
burnt  beautifully.  But  the  theatre  of  Moscow  was  larger, 
and  its  players  were  better  than  here.  As  soon  as  the 
curtain  fell  the  first  time,  we  went  to  another  box.  Here 
we  saw  the  French  Ambassador,  a  very  old  man,  named 
General  Le  Flo ;  also  the  Ottoman  Ambassador,  Kyamil 

CHAP.  II.]  Rtissia.  45 

Pasha.  When  the  curtain  was  agam  raised  we  went  with 
the  Emperor  to  a  lower  box  nearer  to  the  stage.  Two 
acts  were  played  here,  after  which  we  returned  home. 

25f/t  {Friday,  2Qrcl    May),— In  the   morning    Prince 
Gorchakof,  the  Eussian  Prime  Minister,  came  to  us,  and 
with  him  we  had  a  long  conversation,  M.  Grebel  acting 
as  interpreter.    Prince  Gorchakof  is  a  man  of  great  intel- 
ligence and  shrewdness,  and  is  seventy-five  years  old. 
After  he  had  left.  His  Most  Exalted  Majesty  the  Emperor 
came,  and  we  went  together  in  a  carriage  to  the  Champ 
de  Mars,  i.e.,  the  parade  ground,  where  more  than  twenty 
thousand  troops  were   drawn   up,  infantry  and   cavalry. 
Crowds  of  spectators,  women  and  men,  stood  around  the 
square.     A  tent  somewhat  like   a    sun- shade   tent  was 
pitched  in  one  part  of  the  ground,  in  which  were  the  wife 
of  the  Nawwab  Heir- Apparent,  the  foreign  representatives, 
and  our  princes.     After  going  down  the  whole  of  the 
lines  of  infantry  and  cavalry  with  the  Emperor,  we  came 
to    the   vicinity    of  that  tent  and  took  up    a  position, 
sitting  on  horseback.     The  troops  then  marched  past  us. 
Two  buglers  on  horseback,  posted  behind  the  Emperor, 
conveyed  his  orders  to  the  troops  by  notes  of  their  bugles. 
First  came  a  company  of  Mussulman  cavahy  of  the  Guards ; 
next  the  regiments  of  Foot-Guards  in  various  beautiful 
uniforms ;  then  the  other  troops  followed,  artillery  and 
infantry ;  and,  lastly,  some  squadrons  of  cavalry,  all  hand- 
some young  men,    with   choice  uniforms   and  powerful 
horses  all  of  the  same  colour. 

The  review  being  over,  we  went  as  we  were,  on  horse- 
back, to  the  house  of  the  Prince  of  Oldenburg,  where  we 

46  Dimy  of  a  Tour  {71  Europe.       [chap.  n. 

became  his  guests  at  breakfast.  His  house  looks  on  to 
that  square.  The  daughter  of  this  prince  is  the  wife  of 
the  Nawwab  Grand  Duke  Nicholas,  brother  of  His  Most 
Exalted  Majesty  the  Emperor,  and  she  was  our  hostess  and 
mistress  of  the  house.  She  is  a  lady  princess  very  much 
venerated.  We  went  upstairs  ;  our  i^rinces,  the  G?rand- 
Vazir,  'and  others  were  present.  At  this  breakfast 
members  of  the  imperial  family  alone  were  invited. 
Before  breakfast  we  saw  the  maidens  that  study  at  a 
college,  under  the  protection  of  the  Empress,  and  also 
their  teachers.  The  Empress  herself  is  not  at  (St.) 
Peter (sburg) ;  having  a  chest  complaint,  she  is  gone  to 
Firangistan  (Europe).  We  now  sat  down  to  table.  The 
wife  of  the  Nawwab  Grand  Duke  Nicholas,  mistress  of 
the  house,  was  on  my  right,  and  His  Most  Exalted  Majesty 
the  Emperor  sat  on  my  left.  The  Emperor  conversed 
with  Dr.  Tholozan.     I  too  conversed  in  French. 

Breakfast  over,  we  mounted  our  carriage  at  the  same 
time  with  His  Most  Exalted  Majesty  the  emperor,  who 
went  to  his  house  at  Tsarskoi-selo,  one  of  the  imperial 
summer  residences  outside  of  the  city,  by  railway  ;  for  he 
has  to  return  to  town  and  be  present  at  a  ball  given  to-night 
in  the  club  of  the  nobles.  We  took  a  little  turn  in  the 
museum  of  the  Hermitage,  which  adjoins  our  quarters. 
It  possesses  some  splendid  jewels  and  various  objects 
worthy  to  be  seen.  I  made  the  resolution  to  visit  them  in 
detail  on  another  occasion,  if  God  so  will. 

About  midnight  I  went  to  the  ball  of  the  nobles.  The 
chiefs  of  the  nobles  met  me  at  the  foot  of  the  staircase. 
The   Emperor  had  come    there    beforehand    and    was 

CHAP.  II.]  Russia.  47 

awaiting  us.  He  came  forward  ;  we  took  each  other  by 
the  hand,  walked  about  a  while  and  then  sat  down.  There 
was  a  numerous  assemblage  of  women  and  men.  The 
following  is  the  arrangement  of  this  edifice :  In  the  middle 
there  is  a  very  large  hall,  which  is  the  place  for  dancing  ; 
around  this  and  looking  down  on  the  hall  is  a  gallery  where 
people  walk  about  or  sit  down.    After  a  while  I  went  home. 

The  river  Neva  flows  from  the  north  of  (St.)  Peter- 
(sburg)  in  a  direction  between  south  and  east;  and  is 
a  very  large  river.  Large  steamers  navigate  it.  Every 
day  many  pieces  of  ice  like  mountains  are  brought  down 
by  it  from  the  north,  which  are  extremely  pure  and 
beautiful,  like  the  ice  in  ravines  of  the  Albm-z  mountains. 
It  is  said  that  the  water  of  the  Neva  is  not  wholesome ; 
and  the  Emperor  cautioned  us  against  drinking  it.  On 
one  side  of  the  stream  is  the  palace  in  which  we  have  our 
quarters,  and  on  the  other  side  is  the  old  fort  built  in  the 
time  of  Peter  the  Great,  within  which  there  is  a  church 
with  a  high  tower  and  spire  of  gold.  The  tombs  of  the 
sovereigns  of  Eussia  are  in  that  church.  The  mint  of  the 
Government  is  also  within  the  fort.  The  streets  of 
St.  Petersburg  are  lighted  with  gas. 

26i/t  {Saturday,  24:thMay). — Arose  in  the  morning,  and 
after  a  while  the  foreign  representatives  came  and  were 
received  in  an  audience.  Four  were  Ambassadors,  who 
were  introduced  singly  iSi  a  private  chamber,  and  on 
retiring  remained  in  the  hall  (of  audience),  to  which  we 
followed.  There  I  spoke  to  each  of  the  representatives, 
enquiring  after  their  health.  They  then  presented  the 
members  of  their  establishments.    Our  princes  and  others 

48  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe.       [chap.  n. 

were   also   present.     It  was  a  grand   ceremony.      The 
following  are  the  names  of  the  fom^  Ambassadors  :  General 
Le  Flo,  Ambassador  of  France,  an   old  man  of  sense  ; 
Lord  Loftus,  the  English  Ambassador;  Kyamil  Pasha, 
the    Ottoman  Ambassador ;    the   Prince   of  Keuss,    the 
German  Ambassador.    Ministers  and  Charges-d'Aifaires 
from    most    of   the   states    of    Europe,    America,    and 
Greece,  came   to   the   audience.      After  seeing  them,  I 
came  back  and  breakfasted.      The  Prince  of  Oldenburg, 
at  whose  house  I  breakfasted  yesterday,  came  also  to  pay 
a  visit ;  and  then  His  Most  Exalted  Majesty  the  Emperor 
came.     We  had  a  httle  friendly  chat,  and  he  went  to  a 
parade  of  troops.     We,  however,  having  arranged  to  visit 
the  Hermitage,  did  not  go   to  this   parade.     The  fire- 
brigade  went  through  their  manoeuvres  to-day  at  the  foot 
of  our  palace,  which  we  witnessed  from  a  window.     We 
now  went  to  the  Hermitage.  The  director,  a  M.  Kidianof, 
who  is  also  the  director  of  the  theatre,  and  is  an  old  man, 
was  presented,  and  one  by  one  pointed  out  the  various 
objects, — rooms  full  of  pictm-es,  of  marble  statues,  large 
and  small  water-basins  of  rare  stones  from  Siberia  and 
elsewhere,  the  most  part  of  their  columns  beiug  monoliths 
from  Finland,  tall  and  stout;  tables  of  stone  enriched 
with  mosaics  in  colours,  tables  and  vases  of  malachite, 
which  is  a  Siberian  stone,  and  many  strange  and  wonder- 
ful things  worthy  to  be  seen.   More  especially,  there  were 
marble  statues  in  the  form  of  men,  women,  and  children, 
standing,  or  \js3\g  down,  at  which  one  marvelled.     One 
standing  (figure  of  a)  woman  was  most  graceful,  so  that 
one  could  have  admired  it,  seated  before  it  for  three  whole 

CHAP.  II.]  Russia.  49 

days.  To  see  every  picture  and  every  statue  in  every 
room  would  require  ten  days  or  more  ;  as  we  merely 
looked  on  them  for  a  moment,  we  really  compre- 
hended nothing  about  them.  We  incessantly  strolled 
from  room  to  room  and  from  hall  to  hall,  and  then 
descended  by  a  great  number  of  steps,  by  the  sides  of 
which  were  tall  and  stout  columns  of  porphyry,  to  the 
ground  floor,  where  also  many  ancient  statues  from  Egypt 
and  elsewhere  were  seen,  which  the  director  had  himself 
gone  for,  purchased,  and  brought  there.  There  was  one 
colossal  statue  of  a  man  sitting,  as  large  as  an  elephant, 
but  with  all  the  limbs  and  parts  in  due  proportion.  There 
were  ancient  coins,  vessels  of  gold,  &c.,  dug  up  in  the 
Crimea  out  of  the  earth,  or  out  of  graves.  All  these  were 
in  glass  cases.  The  pictures  were  by  old  masters, 
English,  Italian,  or  Spanish, — most  beautiful  pictures, 
more  beautiful  than  which  cannot  be  imagined.  After  a 
long  inspection,  we  returned  home,  rested  a  while,  and 
then  dressed  for  the  banquet  to  which  we  were  invited  by 
the  Emperor,  for  the  middle  of  the  afternoon. 

At  the  proper  time  we  went.  One  hundred  and  seventy 
individuals  were  invited, — members  of  the  Eussian 
imperial  family,  with  our  princes  and  officials.  It  was  a 
numerous  assembly.  We  first  went  to  a  private  chamber, 
where  the  Heir-Apparent,  his  wife,  and  others  were.  We 
sat  there  a  while,  and  then,  proceeding  to  the  banquetting- 
hall,  we  took  our  seats  at  the  table.  The  Emperor  was 
on  our  left,  the  wife  of  the  Heir- Apparent  on  our  right. 
The  dinner  was  eaten.  In  the  middle  of  the  dinner  the 
Emperor  arose,  upon  which  we  all  got  up.     He  drank  a 

50  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe.       [chap.  n. 

glass  of  wine  to  my  health  ;  and  at  the  very  instant  guns 
were  fired  from  the  fort.  After  a  minute  or  so  I  rose, 
and  again  all  rose  ;  I  drank  a  glass  of  sherbet  to  the 
health  of  the  Emperor.  At  length  the  dinner  ended ;  it 
had  passed  pleasantly. 

"We  now  went  to  the  apartments  of  the  Emperor's 
mother  and  walked  about.  The  Emperor  presented  his 
ministers  and  some  generals.  We  then  retu-ed,  and  the 
Emperor  also  returned. 

An  open  carriage  was  ready ;  mounting  it,  we  drove 
about  the  city  and  passed  near  to  a  statue  of  the  Emperor 
Nicholas,  in  cast-metal  of  large  size,  and  seated  on 
horseback.  It  is  opposite  the  church  of  St.  Isaac,  which 
too  is  a  grand  structure  entirely  of  stone,  its  domes  being 
gilt  and  its  columns  of  poi-phyry  tall  and  stout  in  large 
numbers.     The  air  was  cold ;  so  we  returned  home. 

In  the  evening  we  went  to  the  Michael  theatre.  The 
Emperor  did  not  come,  being  at  Tsarskoi-selo.  Our 
Grand-Vazir  and  the  Kussian  Lord  Chamberlain,  &c.,  were 
there.  We  sat  in  another  box.  This  theatre  is  smaller  than 
the  one  first  visited,  but  is  very  pretty  and  nicely  decorated. 
It  has  six  tiers  of  seats.  Women  and  men  were  there  in 
crowds.  We  were  extremely  near  to  the  stage.  In  this 
theatre  they  act  comedies,  i.e.,  they  talk.  One  Swedish 
woman  performed  well  on  the  tight-rope.  Some  indivi- 
duals  performed  wonderful  feats.  For  example,  one  man 
brought  forth  from  a  locked  wooden  box  a  lad,  a  graceful 
woman,  and  another  human  being,  after  having  opened  it 
to  show  it  was  empty.  Another  stood  upon  a  large  globe, 
and  waUied  about  with  it,  at  the  same  time  casting  knives, 

CHAP.  II.]  Russia.  5 1 

&c.,  into  the  air  with  both  his  hands  and  catching  them 
during  a  considerable  space  of  time.  Again  a  fat  woman 
clothed  in  tights,  with  naked  bosom  and  legs,  mounted  a 
three-wheeled  velocipede  and  went  along  at  a  rapid  rate  ; 
then,  a  black  man  brought  many  wine-bottles  and  placed 
them  on  the  floor  which  was  covered  with  cotton-wool 
wetted  with  spirits  of  wine ;  this  was  set  fire  to  and  the 
woman  then  urged  the  velocipede  about  among  the  bottles 
at  a  high  speed  ;  ultimately  she  fell  over  from  the  vehicle 
to  the  floor,  and  her  skirts  took  fire.  It  was  a  great  piece 
of  folly.  Again,  they  several  times  represented  a  tableau- 
vivant,  which  was  a  very  strange  and  pretty  sight.  Several 
women,  children,  and  others,  stood  or  sat  motionless  in 
beautiful  postures,  which  were  exceedingly  interesting, 
and  like  the  pictures  of  a  painter.  While  motionless  they 
were  turned  round  and  round  by  a  rotating  floor,  so  that 
they  might  be  seen  in  various  aspects.  When  all  was 
over,  we  returned  home  and  went  to  bed. 

News  has  come  from  Paris  that  M.  Thiers,  President  of 
the  Republic,  has  resigned,  and  that  they  havfe  made 
Marshal  MacMahon  president,  who  was  Commander-in- 
Chief  of  the  army, 

27i/t  {Sunday,  25th  May). — When  I  rose  in  the 
morning  it  was  raining  heavily.  The  Emperor  is  at 
Tsarskoi-selo,  and  it  had  been  arranged  that  to-night 
there  should  be  a  display  of  fireworks  at  the  islands. 
This  was  put  off  on  account  of  the  rain.  We  paid  some 
visits  to-day.  We  first  went  to  the  house  of  the  Grand 
Duke  Constantine,  brother  of  the  Emperor,  and  an 
admiral.     He  has  a  very  fine  house,  with  many  rooms,  all 

5  2  Diary  of  a  '  Tour  m  Europe.      [chap.  it. 

full  of  things ;  esi^ecially,  there  is  a  room  fitted  up  Con- 
stantinople fashion.  Here  we  sat.  Water  flowed  into 
basins  from  the  walls  and  from  taps.  Around  the  room 
were  written  verses  from  the  Kur*an  (Koran),  the  blessed 
name  of  ('Ali)  the  Commander  of  the  Faithful,  with  those 
of  the  Iman  Hasan  and  the  Iman  Husayn,  upon  each  of 
whom  be  peace.  The  names  of  the  Caliphs  (Khalifa) 
were  also  there.  It  was  a  small  circular  room  very  cheer- 
ful ;  and  there  I  smoked  a  qalj-an  (a  Persian  huqqa, 
hubble-bubble,  or  water-pipe).  We  then  rose  and  went 
to  see  the  other  rooms.  There  were  many  models  of 
naval  appliances,  of  ships,  of  guns,  &c.,  also  a  library  and 
a  museum.  We  went  upstairs,  and  there  too  were  many 
things.  The  Grand  Duke  Constantine  leaves  to-morrow 
for  the  Black  Sea,  where  a  ship  has  been  built  which  he 
is  to  launch. 

Eeturning  thence,  we  went  to  the  house  of  the  Grand 
Duke  Nicholas,  another  brother  of  the  Emperor,  who 
was  not  at  home.  His  wife,  the  daughter  of  the  Prince  of 
Oldenburg,  and  his  son,  a  handsome  youth,  tall  in  stature, 
were  in.  Daughters  and  sons,  small  and  grown  up,  of  his 
family,  were  also  there.  He  has  a  fine  palace.  We  sat 
a  while,  took  tea,  left,  and  went  to  the  house  of  Prince 
Gorchakof,  which  is  his  official  residence.  We  sat  down 
in  a  back  room,  after  ascending  many  stairs,  and  we  had 
a  little  conversation  with  him.  Eeturning  from  there,  we 
proceeded  to  the  quarters  of  Barinyotiski,  which  are  under 
our  own  residence.  This  person  is  the  friend  of  the 
Emperor,  and  was  at  one  time  the  Governor  of  the 
Caucasus.     He  it  was  who  brought  to  a  close  the  war 

CHAP.  II.]  Russia.  53 

with  Shainil,  and  took  Shamil  prisoner.  He  was  lying  on 
a  bed,  with  a  coverlet  drawn  up  over  his  face,  so  that  no 
part  of  him  was  visible  but  his  head.  He  is  an  old  man. 
It  was  merely  because  he  was  a  great  man,  respected,  and 
unwell,  that  I  went  to  visit  him.  He  shaves  his  chin,  but 
his  cheeks  have  whiskers.  He  spoke  in  French.  We  sat 
down  awhile.  His  wife,  who  is  a  native  of  Georgia,  was 
received.     Then  I  returned  home. 

After  an  interval,  I  went  to  the  jewel-office  of  the 
Hermitage.  There  was  a  golden  peacock  there,  which 
they  wound  up,  and  which  then  spread  its  tail  beautifully. 
There  was  also  a  golden  cock,  that  crowed  as  the  domestic 
fowl.  We  walked  about  a  considerable  time,  arrived 
at  the  back  door  of  the  building,  and  then  went  up  a 
staircase  to  where  are  kept  the  Emperor's  crown,  the 
Lazarof  diamond,  which  is  mounted  on  the  top  of  the 
Emperor's  sceptre,  and  the  jewels  of  the  Empress.  All 
these  we  saw.  The  large  diamond  is  a  fine  stone.  The 
crown  also  is  set  with  many  fine  brilliants,  with  a  large 
ruby  on  the  summit.  There  was  also  a  small  crown  in 
diamonds,  with  a  necklace  of  very  fine  brilliants,  belong- 
ing to  the  Empress.  There  were  also  other  jewels.  We 
now  returned  home  again. 

In  this  palace  there  are  eleven  hundred  rooms,  the 
greater  part  of  which  we  went  through. 

At  night,  after  dinner,^  we  went  to  the  great  theatre, 
where  we  found  the  Emperor,  and  had  a  long  conversation. 
We  sat  in  a  lower  box  near  the  stage.  The  Grand-VazTr, 
Alderberg,  the  Grand  Duke  Constantine,  &c.,  were  also 
there.     The  acting  lasted  a  long  time  in  different  modifi- 

54  Diary  of  a   Totcr  m  Etirope.       [chap.  n. 

cations.  When  the  curtain  fell  we  went  with  the  Emperor 
to  a  small  room  and  there  smoked  a  cigar.  In  one  of  the 
intervals  hetween  two  acts  we  went  on  to  the  stage  with 
the  Emperor,  where  there  was  a  great  crowd.  The  girls 
threw  themselves  down  and  kissed  the  Emperor's  hands. 
Our  princes,  &c.,  were  in  a  hox  opposite  the  stage.  All 
being  over,  we  mounted  our  carriage  with  the  Emperor 
and  went  home.     Praise  be  to  God  for  all  things  ! 

In  Hajji-Tarkhan,  Moscow,  and  (St.)  Peter(shurg) , 
multitudes  of  pigeons  walk  about  the  streets  and  city, 
without  taking  flight  for  fear  of  man. 

Monday,  28f/i  (26i/i  May). — In  the  morning  rose, 
breakfasted,  and  dressed.  To-day  the  Grand-Vazir  had 
an  audience  of  His  Most  Exalted  Majesty  the  Emperor, 
and  afterwards  we  drove  with  the  Emperor  in  an  open 
carriage  to  the  parade-ground,  where  two  or  three  thou- 
sand regular  cavalry  and  Cossacks  were  drawn  up  to  be 
reviewed.  The  sky  was  cloudy,  and  it  began  to  rain,  so 
that  our  clothes  were  wet.  Arrived  on  the  ground,  we 
mounted  our  horses,  and  the  troops  were  put  through 
some  manoeuvres.  The  rain  ceased  awhile.  After  their 
evolutions,  the  regular  cavalry  dismounted  and  fired 
volleys  like  infantry.  The  artillery  also  opened  fire. 
Afterwards  the  Circassian,  Cossack,  and  Muhammadan 
horsemen  of  Qara-Bag,  to  the  number  of  over  a  hundred, 
went  through  their  equestrian  fcats  in  our  presence,  dis- 
charging their  muskets  and  pistols.  Some  of  them  had 
severe  falls,  the  ground  being  very  muddy.  After  this  I 
got  into  my  carriage  and  drove  home,  the  Emperor  pro- 
ceeding by  railway  to  Tsarskoi-selo. 

CHAP.  II.]  Russia.  55 

Arriving  at  our  quarters,  we  reposed  a  while  and  then 
drove  to  the  fort  and  the  State  Bank.  We  first  reached 
the  bank,  which  is  a  wonderful  place.  In  reality,  it  ig 
the  treasury  and  storehouse  for  the  cash  and  for  the  gold 
and  silver  of  the  Government.  There  were  altogether  to 
the  value  of  at  least  two  crores  of  Persia  (500,000  tiimans 
each ;  i.e.,  1,000,000  tumans,  at  eight  shillings  per  tuman, 
is  400,000Z.)  in  cash  and  ingots  of  gold  and  silver. 
The  iQgots  were  made  in  the  form  of  half  bricks  of  Tehran, 
and  laid  on  the  floor.  The  Russian  Home  Miuister,  whose 
name  is  Reiteme,  explained  all  to  us  on  the  spot. 

Leaving  the  bank,  we  mounted  and  drove  a  considerable 
distance,  passed  over  a  great  and  long  bridge  that  crosses 
the  river  Neva,  and  entered  the  fort.  The  governor  of 
the  fort  is  a  very  old  general  w^ho  shakes  with  palsy.  His 
name  is  Karsakof.  We  proceeded  first  to  visit  the  tombs 
of  the  Russian  sovereigns,  in  a  place  like  a  church.  The 
marble  sarcophagi  over  the  imperial  tombs  are  collected 
in  the  corners  {or,  in  chapels).  From  Peter  the  Great 
to  Nicholas,  all  are  buried  here. 

From  thence  we  went  to  the  mint,  which  is  within  this 
fort.  Gold  imperials  and  silver  coins  are  struck  here. 
After  looking  on  a  while,  we  proceeded  on  foot  to  the  place 
where  medals  are  struck.  They  struck  a  large  gold 
medal  in  memory  of  us,  on  one  side  of  which  is  the  profile 
of  the  Emperor,  extremdy  resembhng,  and  on  the  other 
side,  in  Persian  characters,  the  date  of  our  arrival  and 
%T.sit,  together  with  our  name.     We  now  returned  home. 

To-night  there  is  a  ball  at  the  Emperor's  palace.  In 
the  night  we  went  to  the  ball,  again  passing   through 

56  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe.       [chap.  it. 

those  saloons  and  long  halls.  Our  princes,  court  officials, 
&c.,  were  present.  First  we  went  to  the  apartments  of 
the  second  son  of  the  Emperor  to  return  his  visit.  After 
sitting  there  a  short  time,  I  went  to  the  Emperor's 
chamher,  the  Heir- Apparent  and  others  being  present. 
The  Emperor  invited  me  to  proceed  to  the  ball-room, 
where  was  a  numerous  assembly  of  men  and  women, 
officers,  and  generals.  Our  own  suite  were  also  present, 
with  the  exception  of  the  IHizadu-'s-Saltana  and  the 
'Ala*u-'d-Dawla,  who  had  pleaded  indisposition.  The 
entrance  to  the  ball-room  was  in  this  wise.  In  the  first 
place,  I  took  the  hand  of  the  Heir- Apparent 's  wife  and 
walked  in  advance,  and  then  the  Emperor,  taking  the 
hand  of  the  wife  of  Prince  Alderburg,  followed  behind. 
The  women  and  men  had  formed  a  circle.  Two  complete 
rounds  did  we  walk  in  this  fashion,  and  then  stood  still. 
The  foreign  Ambassadors — the  Ottoman,  the  English,  the 
German,  and  the  French — were  all  present.  The  women 
and  me;a  of  the  imperial  family  and  others  set-to  dancing, 
and  all  danced  much.  We  sat  with  the  Emperor  a  while, 
we  stood  up  a  while,  we  went  to  another  room  and  reposed 
a  while,  incessantly  conversing  with  the  Emperor,  the 
Ambassadors,  and  others.  After  the  dancing,  again  in  the 
same  manner  did  I  take  the  hand  of  the  wife  of  the  Heir- Ap- 
parent and  went  to  the  supper-room,  a  large  hall  lighted 
up  with  many  lamps.  Numerous  date-pahns  in  vases  were 
beautifully  arranged  in  the  hall,  and  around  each  palm-vase 
were  collected  a  table  and  many  chairs,  food  being  placed 
ready.  The  Emperor  led  us  to  the  large  middle 
table,   placed  the  other  people  at  the  other  tables,  and 

CHAP.  II.]  Russia,  57 

he  liimself  walked  about.  Every  individual  present  at 
the  ball  sat  down  to  a  table.  According  to  the  number 
of  persons  were  there  palm-trees.  So  many  flowers, 
roses  or  hj^acinths,  were  there  collected  or  scattered 
about  that  it  is  impossible  to  imagine  more.  The 
musicians  also  played.  Around  our  table  were  seated 
the  Ambassadors,  the  Heir-Apparent's  wife,  the  Grand- 
Vazir,  and  others.  After  supping  I  again  took  the  hand 
of  the  Heir-Apparent's  wife  and  returned  to  the  ball-room, 
where  I  stood  a  while,  and  again  they  danced.  This 
finished,  I  went  home.     All  passed  off  very  pleasantly. 

Saturday  (Tuesday),  2Wi  {27th  May), — To-day  I  have 
to  visit  Peterhof  and  Cronstadt.  The  air  is  very  clear, 
with  a  beautiful  sunshine.  All  my  suite  accompanied 
me.  Mounting  our  carriage,  we  went  to  a  landing-place 
which  they  had  constructed.  Alighting  at  this  landing, 
we  went  on  board  a  small  steamer,  in  which  the  whole 
party  was  collected.  We  started  towards  the  sea  and 
Cronstadt.  As  far  as  Cronstadt  the  sea  is  very  cahn  and 
smooth.  The  air  was  very  cold.  We  breakfasted  in  the 
steamer.  In  an  hour  and  a  half  we  reached  the  tower 
and  forts  of  Cronstadt.  It  has  several  very  important 
forts.  They  have  built  some  turrets  and  batteries  of 
stone,  with  several  tiers  of  embrasures  for  guns.  The 
most  important  work  is  named  Fort  Constantine,  which 
is  above  the  town  of  Cronstadt  by  a  space  of  ^  thousand 
ells  or  more.  Alighting  from  the  steamer,  we  first  went 
to  see  an  iron  man-of-war  steamer  named  the  Kremlin, 
and  went  all  over  her,  above  and  below.  She  has  about 
ten  guns  of  very  large  size.     The  crew  were  put  through 

58  Diary  of  a   Toitr  in  Etcrope.       [chap.  it. 

their  exercise,  and  a  few  shots  were  fired  from  the  upper 
tier  of  large  guns.  We  then  descended,  and  mounting  a 
small  steam  launch,  we  went  to  Fort  Constantino.  The 
foundations  of  the  batteries  and  fort  are  of  stone.  About 
twenty  large  guns  are  placed  in  two  batteries,  such  that 
each  gun  weighs  420  ass-loads  (of  one-third  of  a  ton ;  i.e., 
140  tons)^,  while  each  shot  is  of  the  weight  of  70  maunds 
(of  7J  lbs.;  i.e.,  525  lbs.).  These  guns  are  of  Prussian 
make,  and  are  breech-loaders.  They  bring  the  shot  on 
a  truck,  lift  it  with  a  mechanical  apparatus,  and  then 
pass  it  into  the  gun.  The  loading  of  a  gun  occupies  a 
space  of  five  minutes.  There  is  another  battery  and 
turret,  named  Fort  Menschikof ;  and  yet  another,  named 
Fort  Alexander  ;  but  these  are  small.  Again,  another 
turret  was  seen  in  the  distance.  Leaving  the  fort  and 
mounting  a  small  vessel,  we  pushed  off.  On  reaching 
the  landing-place  of  the  town,  we  alighted  amid  a  great 
concourse  of  women  and  men.  Our  suite  followed  after 
us.  The  Governor  of  the  town  of  Cronstadt,  named 
Kazakevitch,  with  the  mayor,  aldermen,  and  notables 
of  the  place,  as  also  the  military  officers,  had  brought  a 
gilt  tray  and  a  golden  salt-cellar,  with  bread  and  salt. 
We  walked  a  little  way  and  then  mounted  a  carriage. 
Everywhere  were  we  surrounded  with  men  and  women 
on  both  sides  of  the  streets.  Passing  over  the  bridge  of 
the  dockyard,  we  went  to  the  ^workshops  for  iron,  where 
two  ships  had  been  built,  but  not  yet  finished.  The  port 
of  the  town  was  full  of  merchantmen  and  other  craft. 
This  town  carries  on  commerce  with  Denmark,  England, 
the  coasts  of  Kussia,  Prussia,  Sweden,  and  Norway.     In 

CHAP.  II.]  Russia.  59 

the  works  they  had  cast  a  large  slab  of  iron ;  with 
certain  apparatus  established  in  the  upper  part  of  the 
shop  they  brought  this  slab,  red-hot  as  it  was,  under  a 
2:)ress  and  bent  it  somewhat.  It  is  an  important  (estab- 
lishment for  the)  casting  of  iron.  After  going  about 
a  while  we  turned  back,  mounted  our  carriage  and  went 
to  our  steamer.  The  town  of  Cronstadt  is  very  beautiful. 
Its  inhabitants  are  all  sailors,  or  soldiers,  or  artificers. 
It  has  a  public  garden,  fine  houses,  and  a  population  of 
thirty  thousand.     Thence  we  proceeded  to  Peterhof. 

In  half  an  hour  we  arrived  there.  The  Governor  is  an 
old  man  of  robust  form,  and  named  Bomgarden.  Numbers 
of  officers  and  of  men  and  women  had  come  to  the  land- 
ing-place. From  the  very  seashore  it  is  a  park  with 
avenues,  the  end  of  which  cannot  be  discovered.  The 
carriage-drives  are  covered  with  a  red  earth,  as  soft  as 
collyrium,  while  beneath  the  trees  all  is  greensward, 
lawns,  and  flowers  ;  but  the  trees  are  not  yet  in  leaf,  nor 
the  flowers  in  bloom.  We  mounted  a  carriage  and  our 
suite  followed.  The  Governor  went  before  us  in  a 
carriage,  and  led  us  from  avenue  to  avenue,  from  path- 
way to  pathway.  Everywhere  jets-d'eau  were  methodically 
disposed  in  order.  Children  besieged  us  in  our  carriage, 
and  ran  after  us  everywhere.  It  is  really  impossible  to 
give  a  written  description  of  the  parks,  avenues,  fountains, 
which  must  be  seen  with  one's  own  eyes.  There  are 
four  hundred  jets-d'eau,  all  lofty  and  large,  their  source 
being  very  elevated  and  distant.  "Whenever  they  wish, 
they  can  in  one  instant  set  them  all  playing  at  once,  or 
turn  them  all  off.     These  fountains  are  of  different  kinds. 

6o  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Europe.      [chap.  n. 

There  was  a  stone  colonnade  without  a  roof,  and  very 
elegant,  out  of  every  part  of  which  Sijet-d'eaii  spouted  up. 
Some  of  them  play  together,  like  one  mountain  of  water ; 
others  separately  from  one  another.  Some  are  like  water- 
falls ;  in  some  places  the  water  fell  from  the  roofs  of 
buildings.  After  a  long  drive,  we  went  to  the  house  of 
Peter  the  Great,  which  is  in  a  park,  is  very  pretty,  and 
full  of  things.  There  were  many  articles  that  had 
belonged  to  Peter  himself.  Eeturning  thence,  again  we 
mounted.  In  one  place  there  was  the  Emperor's  bath,  a 
spacious  enclosure  without  a  roof,  in  four  walls.  Nume- 
rous fountains  sprang  from  the  interior  of  the  basin  of 
this  bath,  like  a  white  mountain.  It  was  a  place  like 
paradise.  At  times  the  Emperor  there  takes  a  cold  bath. 
Diverging  from  this,  we  saw  a  fountain  like  the  mass  of  a 
Pyramid  of  Egypt,  of  a  conical  shape — a  beautiful  foun- 
tain. Next  we  visited"  the  middle  palace,  which  is  better 
than  the  rest,  and  has  twofa9ades;  two  hundred  jets-d^eaio 
play  in  front  of  it.  Statues  of  men  and  other  figures,  of 
cast  metal,  are  there  arranged,  out  of  the  mouths  or  orifices 
of  which  the  water  runs.  One  of  the  fountains  threw  its 
water  to  a  height  of  twenty  ells  (70  feet).  The  water  of 
these  jets  becomes  a  cascade,  flowing  down  a  succession 
of  steps.  In  front,  too,  there  is  an  avenue  and  a  long 
basin  of  water,  with  jets  on  either  side.  The  sea  even 
enters  into  the  view  from  this  palace.  To  say  the  truth, 
a  description  of  the  palace  and  its  abounding  contents  does 
not  admit  of  being  recorded.  The  palace  is  one  of  the 
buildings  of  Peter  the  Great  and  Catherine.  Descending 
thence,  we  again  drove  on  to  the  palace  of  the  Emperor 

CHAP.  II.]  Rtcssia.  6 1 

and  to  that  of  the  Heir- Apparent.  In  fine,  there  was  no 
end  to  this  visiting  of  palaces  and  of  drives ;  besides  which, 
we  had  not  the  time  ;  so,  with  the  utmost  reluctance,  we 
turned  back,  and  getting  out  of  our  carriage  near  to  some 
magnificent  and  numerous  fountains,  we  walked  about 
a  while.  The  wonder  is  that  in  this  vast  park  and  ample 
space  such  neatness  and  cleanliness  were  maintained,  that 
not  a  leaf  from  a  tree,  not  a  chip  or  a  straw  was  seen 
on  the  ground.  The  trees  are  all  forest  trees,  but 
planted  out  regularly,  and  made  to  interlace  over  the 
avenues.     There  are  also  avenues  of  firs  and  yews. 

We  at  length  regained  our  steamer,  and  paddled  away 
back  to  the  islands  of  Ilakin,  which  are  near  to  the  city 
of  (St.)  Peter(sburg),  where  to-night  there  is  to  be  an 
exhibition  of  fireworks. 

Crossing  the  sea,  we  arrived  at  the  mouth  of  a  stream, 
both  sides  of  which  are  occupied  by  houses  and  by  green 
and  pleasant  trees.  On  the  right-hand  side  of  this  river 
the  preparations  for  the  fireworks  were  ready ;  while  on 
the  left  tents  were  pitched.  Passing  a  little  farther  up,  we 
landed  at  the  stairs  on  the  left  hand.  Here  were  collected 
great  numbers  of  officers,  of  women,  of  men,  and  of 
carriages  in  which  the  people  had  come  out  from  the  city 
to  witness  the  fireworks.  The  arrangement  of  the  ground, 
trees,  and  avenues  was  the  same  in  this  place  as  at 
Peterhof.  We  walked  on  until  we  arrived  at  a  very 
handsome  house,  where  we  found  the  wife  of  the  Heir- 
Apparent,  the  Heir-Apparent  himself,  the  princes,  and 
others.  We  sat  down  a  while,  and  the  Emperor  came. 
Salutations  and  conversation  ensued.     Kemaining  still  a 

62  Diary  of  a  Totcr  in  Eitrope.        [chap,  n 

little  space,  we  then  mounted  our  carriage  with  the  Em- 
peror, the  wife  of  the  Heir- Apparent,  the  Heir-Apparent, 
the  wife  of  Prince  Alderburg,  and  the  other  children  of 
the  Emperor,  setting  out  for  a  drive  to  pass  away  the 
time  until  darkness  should  set  in  and  the  hour  for  the 
fireworks  come.  Our  suite  followed  us  in  other  carriages. 
The  air  was  exceedingly  cold.  Driving  about  in  a  devious 
manner,  we  went  about  a  league.  Numerous  detached 
houses  and  innumerable  avenues,  neat  and  cleanly,  were 
seen.  We  then  turned  back  to  the  same  house  from 
whence  we  had  started,  stopped  there  a  little,  mounted 
again,  and  went  to  the  tent  we  had  noticed  before.  An 
assembly  of  Europeans  and  of  Iranis  was  in  the  tent,  and 
a  crowd  of  spectators  was  in  ships,  in  boats,  and  on  the 
river-banks.  We  sat  down  within  the  tent.  The  fire- 
works were  excellent,  with  a  novelty.  They  had  written 
our  name  in  Persian  characters,  with  the  device  of  the 
"  Lion  and  Sun."  It  was  plainly  legible.  After  the 
fireworks,  we  mounted  a  carriage  with  the  Emperor  and 
drove  back  to  the  former  house.  Tarrying  there  awhile, 
our  carriage  was  announced.  We  then  left,  and  driving 
by  many  a  pretty  place  and  beautiful  summer  residences, 
in  front  of  the  mint,  and  along  the  fort,  we  crossed  the 
long  bridge,  and  reaching  home,  dined,  and  retired  to 

The  admiral  that  accompanied  us  to-day  from  (St.) 
P6ter(sburg)  was  a  short  man,  who  had  lost  an  arm  by  a 
shot  at  the  battle  of  the  Alma  in  the  Sebastopol  campaign, 
and  his  name  was  Skolkof. 

\$t  Rabl'U''s-Sdni  {the  Second  RahV ;  Wednesday,  28th 

CHAP.  II.]  Russia.  6 

May). — Rising  in  the  morning  from  sleep,  we  dressed  in 
state  to  receive  Prince  Gorchakof,  with  whom  we  had  a 
lengthened  conference,  and  then  drove  to  a  photo- 
grapher's. Dismounting  at  his  door,  we  went  upstairs. 
His  name  was  Levitski — a  fat,  bulky  man,  with  a  certain 
wit.  He  possessed  good  and  numerous  apparatus,  and 
spoke  French  well.  He  took  several  negatives  of  us, 
which  were  extremely  good.  After  concluding  this  busi- 
ness, I  returned  home,  performed  my  devotions,  and  took 
some  tea.  This  evening  we  are  invited  to  dine  with  the 
Emperor  at  Tsarskoi-selo,  a  special  palace  and  park  of 
the  Emperor's,  rather  less  than  four  leagues  from  town, 
which  are  got  over  in  half  an  hour  by  the  railway. 

At  the  appointed  time  we  drove  to  the  station,  where  a 
great  crowd  had  gathered,  and  took  our  seat  in  an  elegant 
and  comfortable  carriage,  special  to  the  Emperor.  Start- 
ing thence,  we  reached  the  first  buildings  of  Tsarskoi-selo 
in  half  an  hour.  It  is  a  beautiful  town,  nicely  situated, 
and  with  a  large  population.  Its  streets  are  all  straight 
and  clean.  Alighting,  we  mounted  a  carriage,  and  our 
suite  were  placed  in  others ;  thus  we  reached  the  palace, 
which  is  very  grand  and  beautiful.  There  is  a  church 
adjoining  it,  and  special  to  it,  with  four  or  five  gilded 
cupolas.  We  passed  along  by  beautiful  and  spacious 
avenues  like  those  of  Peterhof ;  we  then  turned  back, 
ahghted  at  the  steps  of  the  palace,  and  went  upstairs. 
It  is  impossible  to  imagine  a  more  delightful  residence. 
All  these  improvements  are  from  the  time  of  Catherine. 
The  Emperor  -had  not  arrived,  so  we  sat  down  a  while 
in  an  apartment  that  had  been  specillay  designated  for  us 

64  JDiary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe.       [chap,  n, 

until  he  came.  We  went  together  to  stroll  through  the 
rooms,  and  we  saw  numerous  and  charmmg  halls  and 
saloons,  which  cannot  be  described.  Exquisite  pictures, 
the  works  of  old  and  modern  painters,  were  there.  One 
room  was  visited  in  which  the  whole  of  the  walls  were 
inlaid  with  amber ;  i.e.,  infixed  piece  by  piece.  It  was 
truly  a  magnificent  room.  These  pieces  of  amber  were 
sent  by  Frederick  the  Great,  King  of  Prussia,  to  Cathe- 
rine II.,  and  she  had  them  set  in  this  room.  I  visited 
the  rooms  separately,  one  by  one  ;  all  were  beautiful.  At 
the  back  there  is  a  private  chapel  for  the  Emperor,  with 
gilded  cupolas — a  very  attractive  fane.  This  place  of 
worship  is  on  the  ground-floor,  and  above  it  are  windows 
and  an  outlook  over  what  is  below.  We  then  returned 
through  the  same  chambers  to  the  first  one,  in  order  to 
take  our  dinner ;  and  we  passed  through  a  marvellously 
beautiful  hall — impossible  to  describe — and  thence  to  a 
room  where  we  stayed  a  short  time  with  the  Emperor, 
after  which  dinner  was  announced.  The  Emperor,  the 
members  of  the  imperial  family  of  Russia,  the  great 
officers  of  state,  and  others,  with  our  princes,  the  Grand- 
Vazir,  and  others,  were  present.  An  exquisite  dinner 
was  served,  during  which  a  band  played.  Then,  rising, 
we  walked  about  for  a  time  with  the  Emperor  on  a 
terrace  overlooking  the  park ;  and  afterwards  I  retired  to 
my  own  room.  Standing  there*  a  short  time,  the  Emperor 
came  to  join  me,  and,  with  two  of  his  sons,  we  got  into  a 
carriage  and  drove  for  some  time  about  the  avenues  of 
the  park.  Many  women,  on  foot  and  in  carriages,  went 
also  about  the  park.      Everything   here  resembles  the 

CHAP.  II.]  Russia.  65 

park  at  Peterhof,  but  there  are  no  fountains.  There  are 
some  handsome  barracks  for  the  military,  cavahy  and 
infantry ;  and  never  is  any  untidiness  seen  in  this  park. 
Some  ancient  ruins  were  seen ;  and  all  these  buildings, 
ruined  or  inhabited,  are  from  the  times  of  Catherine. 
At  length  we  returned  to  the  palace,  and  the  Emperor 
told  me  he  had  a  winter  apartment  on  the  ground  floor, 
inviting  me  to  see  it.  We  alighted  and  entered.  There 
were  there  two  large  dogs  of  the  Emperor's,  the  one  black 
and  the  other  yellow.  In  this  apartment  were  all  sorts  of 
things  that  could  be  imagined,  such  as  Kurdish  lances, 
Tm"kman  spears,  muskets,  and  pistols,  and  swords,  and 
other  implements  of  the  Ked-Heads  (old  Persian  militia 
of  the  Safawi  dynasty),  bow-horns  and  quivers,  skins  of 
lions  and  tigers,  daggers  and  the  like  set  with  precious 
stones  and  sent  by  the  Khan  of  Bukhara,  china  coffee- 
cups  with  holders  of  gold,  and  a  scrap-book,  bound  in  gold 
covers,  enamelled,  sent  by  the  late  Prince-Eegent  ('Abbas 
Mirza,  grandfather  of  the  Shah)  after  the  peace  of  Turk- 
man-Chay,  were  all  collected  there.  It  was  a  collection 
well  worth  seeing  ;  but,  alas  !  there  was  no  time.  Issuing 
from  hence,  we  again  went  to  the  palace ;  and  after  an 
interval,  mounting  in  carriages,  we  all  went  together  to  a 
theatre  in  the  park.  I  and  the  Emperor,  with  the  wife  of 
the  Heir- Apparent,  went  to  a  box  near  the  stage.  It  was 
a  pretty  theatre  with  three  tiers  of  seats.  The  Grand- 
Duke  Nicholas,  the  Prussian  Ambassador,  with  other 
officials  and  notables,  were  in  the  pit  on  chairs.  The 
curtain  rose,  and  the  play  of  Don  Quixote  was  acted. 
They  had   got  up   a  Don  Quixote  and  Sancho  Panza, 

66  Diary  of  a  Toitr  in  Europe.       [chap.  ii. 

his  servant,  that  were  very  funny  and  suggestive.  In  the 
meanwhile,  maidens  in  very  pretty  costumes  danced. 
When  all  was  over,  we  departed.  The  sky  was  brilliant 
as  though  it  were  day.  We  also  saw  the  new  moon  of 
the  second  EabP,  and  we  returned  many  thanks  unto 
God.  We  next  got  into  the  train,  returned  to  town, 
descended,  mounted  our  carriage,  and  went  home. 

This  night  his  Imperial  Majesty  the  Emperor  presented 
to  every  one  of  our  suite,  to  each  according  to  his  rank 
and  dignity,  either  an  order,  a  ring,  a  watch,  or  the  like ; 
I,  too,  presented  to  the  Emperor  my  Jaf  i  horse,  and  to 
the  wife  of  the  Heir- Apparent  my  Julfa  horse. 

MIrza  Ahmad,  Aide-de-Camp  to  the  Grand-Vazir,  who 
had  been  sent  from  Tehran  to  Constantinople,  was 
received  in  audience  at  (St.)  Peter(sburg). 

%%d  (Thursday,  Wth  May). — To-day  I  have  to  go, 
God  willing,  via  Wilna,  a  Bussian  town,  and  Konigsberg, 
a  Prussian  city,  to  Prussia  and  Germany.  To-morrow, 
also,  the  Emperor,  with  the  Heir- Apparent,  the  wife  of 
the  Heir-Apparent,  and  others,  is  to  start  for  Firan- 
gistan  (Europe). 

As  I  rose  from  sleep  in  the  morning  the  Emperor 
came.  After  expressing  our  adieux,  we  mounted  together 
in  an  open  carriage,  and  started.  A  great  concourse 
was  collected  on  either  side  of  the  way,  who  cheered. 
Many  manufactories  were  seen  at  a  distance  on  the  out- 
skirts of  the  city ;  and  so  we  arrived  at  the  terminus  of 
the  railroad  to  Prussia.  Alighting  with  the  Emperor,  we 
again  mutually  said  good-bye,  and  then  passed  down  the 
line  of  troops  drawn  up  at  the  station.     We  then  took 

CHAP.  II.]  Russia.  6  J 

our  seat  in  the  train,  but  again  said  good-bye  to  the 
Emperor,  and  started  with  our  suite.  This  was  the  very- 
same  train  of  carriages  in  which  we  had  travelled  from 
Tsaritsin  to  Moscow. 

Again  every  spot  on  the  plain  was  green  and  smiling, 
with  forests  of  fir  and  yews,  &c.  We  passed  several 
bridges.  About  sunset  we  dined.  At  the  station  of 
Pskow,  which  is  the  seat  of  an  important  government, 
we  made  a  stay  of  about  fifty  minutes,  and  the  Governor 
was  received  in  audience.  Then  again  we  sped  along ; 
and  every  now  and  then  halting  a  few  minutes,  we  con- 
tinued our  journey  until  night.  Rain  also  fell.  This 
day  we  have  seen  a  good  deal  of  cultivatioi?,  and  signs  of 
population.  The  farther  we  went  the  warmer  did  the  air 
grow.  The  trees  in  these  parts  were  in  flower  and  in 
leaf.  During  the  night  we  slept  with  difficulty,  through 
the  motion  of  the  carriage. 

Of  the  things  frequently  seen  in  Russia  were  the 
abundance  of  carriages  in  (St.)  Peter (sburg),  many  tram- 
ways of  iron  in  the  streets,  and  also  many  beautiful  dogs, 
large  and  small. 

^  Tliis  title  of  Nawwab  (Nabob)  is  never  used  in  Persia,  but  is  imitated 
from  expressions  probably  used  by  English  officers  from  India,  and  is  in- 
tended to  represent  "Son  Altesse  Imperiale,"  or  "Son  Altesse  Royale," 
&c.— J.  W.  JR. 

2  The  weight  of  140  tons  for  a  gun  is  evidently  a  confusion  of  weights. 
If  we  take  the  Persian  "ass-load"  here  to  stand  for  the  Kiissian  "pood," 
of  36  lbs.,  the  420  ass-loads  become  135  cwt.,  or  nearly  7  tons,  which  may 
bo  the  true  weight. — J.  W.  E. 

F  2 



3RD  (Friday,  SOth  May). — In  the  morning,  on 
arising,  tliey  told  me  immediately  that  we  were 
on  the  limits  of  the  government  of  Wilna,  and 
that  the  Governor,  named  Patapoff,  had  to  come  and 
say  adieu  before  returning.  There  was  a  halt  until  he 
came  and  left.  We  then  passed  over  a  very  long  iron 
bridge,  which  they  have  built  over  the  river  Niemen.  In 
the  morning,  whilst  I  slept,  as  they  said,  the  train 
passed  through  a  "hole  in  the  mountain"  (tunnel),  of 
about  400  ells  (470  yards)  in  length.  After  a  short 
interval  we  came  to  another  "hole,"  of  a  thousand  four 
hundred  ells  (1633  yards)  long,  and  as  dark  as  night 
It  occupies  six  minutes  to  traverse  it.  We  now  went  on 
till  we  reached  the  frontier  place  between  Russia  and 
Prussia,  named  Aidgone.  At  the  station  of  the  Prussian 
town  we  alighted.  There  were  many  soldiers,  officers, 
and  peasants,  men  and  women,  present.  The  officials 
sent  by  the  Prussian  Government  to  be  in  waiting  on  me 
all  came  into  the  carriage  and  were  presented.  The 
chief  official  in  waiting  was  a  general  of  distinction, 
aide-de-camp  (to  the  Emperor),  and  named  Boien.  We 
passed  down  in  front  of  the  troops,  and  then  retired  to  a 

CHAP,  in.]      Prussia,   Germany,  Belgmm.  69 

room  in  the  station.  The  rooms  of  this  station  and 
their  furnitm-e  are  plain.  A  breakfast  had  been  prepared 
for  my  suite,  of  which  they  partook.  They  transferred 
our  luggage  from  the  Russian  to  the  Prussian  train. 
We  had  to  wait  a  considerable  time.  I  was  in  a  small 
room  with  the  officers  of  my  household,  and  for  a  while 
I  wrote  up  my  Diary.  A  great  crowd  of  spectators,  men 
and  women,  scrambled  up  to  the  glass  of  the  windows  to 
have  a  look,  and  they  squabbled  with  each  other.  The 
liberty  (or  hcence)  of  this  place  is  very  much  more  than 
what  was  seen  in  Russia.  When  they  dispersed  we  went 
and  seated  ourselves  in  our  carriage.  The  Prussian 
train,  unUke  that  of  Russia,  has  carriages  that  do  not 
communicate  with  one  another ;  so  that,  wherever  one 
takes  one's  seat,  you  have  no  knowledge  of  the  rest, 
excepting  at  intervals  when  a  halt  occurs  for  a  minute 
or  so. 

Prince  Menschikof  and  General  Bazak  came  and  took 
leave  ;  and  at  length  we  got  in  motion.  The  pace  was 
several  degrees  swifter  than  that  used  in  Russia.  My 
carriage  was  spacious  and  handsome.  On  either  side 
there  was  a  small  coffee-room.  In  these  regions  every- 
thing became  changed, — the  men,  the  country,  the 
carriages,  the  food,  &c.  The  populousness  and  cultiva- 
tion in  the  land  of  the  Prussian  are  greater  than  in 
Russia.  Whenever  I  looked  out  there  were  villages, 
houses,  men,  horses,  oxen,  mares,  sheep,  meadows, 
sown-fields,  water,  and  flowers  of  all  colours.  We 
crossed  many  rivers.  Human  improvements  of  charm- 
ing aspect  came  in  sight,   near  and  afar.     And  so  we 

70  Diary  of  a  Tozir  m  Eu7'ope.      [chap.  m. 

came  to  a  station.  The  train  stopped;  the  Grand- Yazlr 
came  to  our  carriage.  The  Prussian  telegraph  officer 
handed  in  a  numher  of  telegrams  from  Tehran,  and  these 
were  perused.  Thanks  he  to  God,  they  conveyed  good 

Again  we  started.  As  the  Prussian  trains  travel  very 
fast,  it  was  hut  two  hours  and  a  half  smce  leaving  the 
Eussian  frontier  hefore  we  arrived  at  Konigsherg,  a  city 
of  Prussia,  and  very  near  to  the  Baltic  Sea.  A  large 
river  passes  through  this  cit}^  which  is  named  the 
Pregel.  Merchant  steamers  come  up  from  the  sea  to 
the  middle  of  the  city,  and  return  in  like  manner.  It  is 
a  small  city,  but  pretty ;  its  population  is  95,000  souls. 
"We  have  to-day  seen  in  the  Prussian  territory  the  culti- 
vation of  rape,  which  has  a  yellow  flower  of  a  very 
charming  tint.  It  is  sown  for  its  oil  (colza  oil),  which  is 
much  used  for  the  lubrication  of  machinery  on  railways, 
and  the  like.  It  was  very  extensively  cultivated,  and  it 
gave  a  peculiar  charm  to  the  landscape.  Naturally,  the 
whole  country  is  a  meadow,  with  forests  of  fir  and  yews, 
though  in  much  less  quantities  than  in  Eussia. 

We  reached  the  station,  where  there  was  a  large  body 
of  troops  and  officers,  all  very  handsome  young  men, 
with  helmets  on  their  heads,  and  beautiful  clothing  on 
their  bodies.  They  were  a  very  pretty  soldiery.  The 
Prussian  kingdom  is  all  soldiery.  The  bands  here,  Hke 
those  in  Tehran,  have  all  drums  and  fifes,  whereas  in 
Eussia  this  kind  of  fife  was  not  observed.  Infinite 
numbers  of  men  and  women  lined  both  sides  of  the  streets 
everywhere.     I  mounted  an  oj^en  carriage  and  drove  ofi". 

CHAP.  III.]      Prussia,  Germany,  Belgium.  71 

Crowds  of  children  ran  by  its  side.  It  was  a  curious 
hubbub.  A  long  street  was  passed  down.  The  houses 
are  all  of  three  or  four  stories,  small,  and  narrow.  We 
arrived  at  an  ancient  palace,  built  five  hundred  years 
ago ;  dismounted  at  its  gate,  and  went  up  many  stairs. 
It  is  an  old  structure.  The  whole  of  our  suite,  princes, 
household  officials,  &c.,  all  came  there.  As  the  people 
of  this  city  had  never  seen  a  Persian,  they  were  much 
surprised  at  sight  of  us.  The  name  of  the  Governor  of 
the  city  is  Vivekler.  The  carriages  of  this  plac3,  and 
the  horses  in  the  carriages,  are  not  so  numerous  nor  so 
beautiful  as  those  in  Kussia. 

Black-tailed  tumbler  pigeons,  and  others,  swifts, 
storks,  and  magpies,  appeared  very  numerous  in  this 
country  ;  windmiUs  are  in  great  plenty. 

In  the  night  several  bands  of  music  stood  beneath  the 
palace  and  played  a  long  time,  i.e.,  they  beat  the  retreat 
on  the  drums.  The  harmony  of  the  fifes  of  these  bands, 
and  the  tenue  of  the  men,  were  excellent.  A  great 
military  drum,  too,  was  fastened  to  a  large  dog,  with  a 
truck  beneath  it,  which  the  dog  drew.  Heavy  rain  fell, 
but  great  crowds  congregated. 

Ailfi  (Saturday,  dlst  May). — This  day,  God  willing,  we 
are  to  go  to  Berlin*  This  city  (of  Konigsberg)  being 
near  the  sea,  the  air  was  extremely  cold.  The  palace 
contains  some  small  pictures  by  old  masters,  which  are 
very  good.  On  the  ground-floor  is  a  very  large  oblong 
hall,  with  a  low-pitched  timber  ceiling,  in  which  the 
kings  of  Prussia  are  crowned.  We  had  to  wait  some 
little  while;  then  mounted  a  carriage,  and  by  the  yery 

72  Diary  of  a  Tour  iJi  Europe,      [chap.  m. 

same  road  we  had  followed  in  coming  did  we  return.  It 
was  early  morning,  so  that  the  congregations  of  people 
were  less  than  yesterday.  We  reached  the  station ;  we 
all  took  our  seats,  and  started.  The  train  went  at  an 
extremely  rapid  pace,  and  in  an  hour-and-halfs  travel- 
ling we  came  in  sight  of  a  lake  (the  Frische-Haff)  on  our 
right,  wliich  must  be  twenty  leagues  round.  Its  environs 
were  all  populous,  with  trees,  while  sailing-vessels  and 
others  were  on  it.  On  both  sides  of  our  road  every- 
where we  saw  villages,  towns,  cities,  populousness, 
forests,  numerous  trees,  firs,  yews,  and  others.  Here 
the  forests  of  firs  are  more  frequent  than  in  Russia. 
Some  parts  of  the  forests  were  hilly  and  elevated. 
Many  very  pretty  avenues  of  willows  and  great  poplars 
were  seen,  wliich  are  places  of  promenade  for  carriages 
and  pedestrians.  We  passed  man}^  streams,  large  and 
small,  but  aU  bridged  over,  and  so  went  by  the  town  of 
Marienburg,  through  which  the  Vistula,  a  great  river, 
flows.  Numbers  of  vessels  ply  on  this  stream.  It  has 
an  iron  bridge  over  it  of  very  great  length.  At  the 
stations  and  guardhouses  along  our  line  of  road  we  saw 
very  pretty  gardens,  and  cultivations,  and  many  pretty 
flowers.  The  jasmine  of  Shirwan,  called  by  the  Franks 
the  lilac,  was  everywhere  in  flower.  As  far  as  the  eye 
could  reach,  all  was  cultivation,  human  improvements, 
rivers,  guardhouses,  hotels,  avenues,  forests,  flowers, 
meadows.  Many  oxen  were  seen,  resembling  those  of 

And  thus  we  sped  on  our  way,  until,  in  the  middle  of 
the    afternoon,    we    arrived    at  a    station  to   breakfast. 


Przcssia,   Germany^  Belgium.  ']'^ 

Tliey  brought  me  a  little  food  in  tlie  carriage,  of  which  I 
partook;  the  rest  went  out  to  breakfast,  and  then  re- 
turned. Again  we  proceeded,  and  reached  a  large  town 
with  very  strong  fortifications,  named  Custrin,  where  a 
salute  of  cannon  was  fired.  We  stopped  ;  the  Governor 
of  the  city,  and  the  General  of  the  place,  were  received  in 
audience.  Women  and  men  in  crowds  were  collected. 
After  an  interval  we  went  on,  and  arrived  at  another 
station,  where  we  had  to  put  on  our  state  costume,  being 
near  to  Berlin.  Our  suite  did  the  same.  We  then 
drove  on  a  long  way,  and  ultimately  reached  the  out- 
skirts of  the  city.  Our  train  was  taken  sometimes  over 
a  bridge,  sometimes  up  and  sometimes  down,  and  then 
again  turned  back,  like  a  horse,  the  bit  of  which  is  in 
the  hand  of  a  man.  This  was  to  us  a  source  of  wonder. 
Many  lines  of  railway  are  laid  down  in  everj^  direction. 
Carriages  and  engines  without  number  were  seen  on  the 
lines,  and  many  trains  passed  us  on  the  road  to-day. 

At  last  we  reached  the  station,  and  alighted.  His 
Most  Exalted  Majest}^  the  Emperor  of  Germany, — Wil- 
liam, the  Nawwab  the  Heir-Apparent, — his  son,  the 
Nawwab  Prince  Charles, — his  brother,  Frederick-Charles, 
— son  of  a  brother  of  the  Emperor  and  captor  of  Metz, 
together  with  other  princes  of  the  royal  family,  such  as 
Prince  HohenzoUern,  a  youngster,  and  the  very  prince 
respecting  whom  the  war  between  Germany  and  France 
occurred,  as  the  French  were  not  willing  that  he  should 
become  king  of  Spain;  also  Prince  Bismarck, — the  famous 
Chancellor  of  Germany,  Marshal  Boon,  the  Minister  of 
War  and  Premier  of  Prussia,  and  General  Moltke,  now 

74  Diary  of  a  Tottr  in  Europe,      [chap.  tit. 

Marshal  and  Generalissimo,  very  celebrated,  and  much 
spoken  of,  and  other  generals  and  officials,  with  a  batta- 
lion of  the  Guards,  a  band,  a  cavalry  regiment,  and  others, 
as  also  a  concourse  of  people  beyond  all  compute  on  the 
roads,  were  there  to  receive  us.  They  gave  us  a  most 
cordial  reception.  Taking  the  hand  of  His  Most 
Exalted  Majesty,  we  mounted  an  open  carriage,  and 
drove  along  a  wide  street,  bordered  on  either  side  with 
ancient  trees  and  white  cluster  roses  in  flower,  every- 
where paved  with  stones,  and  spacious,  with  houses  the 
whole  way.  The  crowds  were  great,  and  shouted 
hurrahs.  I  saluted  them  all,  together  with  the  Emperor. 
We  conversed  together  in  French,  until  we  reached  a 
place  like  a  gateway,  where  the  trees  ended.  It  was  a 
wide  street,  with  sumptuous  palaces  on  either  side,  of 
several  stories.  We  noticed  a  column  recently  erected 
in  commemoration  of  the  victory  over  France,  and  not 
yet  completed.  A  statue  of  Frederick  I.,  i.e.,  of  Fre- 
derick the  Great,  cast  in  metal,  was  in  our  path.  We 
passed  by  the  University,  a  great  place  of  instruction 
where  two  thousaud  students  are  taught;  by  the  Arsenal, 
which  was  on  our  left  hand ;  while  on  our  right  was  the 
Emperor's  own  palace,  in  which  he  has  resided  from  the 
days  when  he  was  Heir-Presumptive  until  now.  Next 
we  passed  the  palace  of  the  Heir- Apparent,  and  so 
reached  a  square  with  two  basins  of  water,  from  whicli 
sprang  lofty  jets-d'eau.  On  our  right  was  a  royal  resi- 
dence, that  was  assigned  to  us.  There  was  a  crowd  up 
to  the  very  edifice.  We  alighted.  Veteran  troops  in 
beautiful  uniforms,  who  are  the  guards  of   the  palace. 

CHAP.  III.]      Prussia,   Germany,  Belgium.  75 

were  in  the  rooms ;  patrols  of  cavalry,  all  handsome 
young  men,  with  good  figures,  and  well  dressed,  were  at 
the  gate,  with  officers  of  the  household,  &c.,  all  sta- 
tioned. We  went  upstairs.  The  middle  of  the  square 
in  front  of  the  palace  was  laid  out  in  beautiful  beds  of 
flowers  and  shrubs,  lilacs,  and  the  like.  There  were 
also  two  statues  of  horses,  of  cast-metal,  each  held  by  the 
mouth  by  a  man. 

The  Emperor  showed  me  all  the  apartments.  There 
are  some  beautiful  paintings  and  portraits  in  this  palace. 
I  presented  the  Grand-Vazir,  the  princes,  and  others  ; 
the  Emperor  also  at  the  station  had  presented  his 
princes  and  servants.  Next  we  went  to  a  private  apart- 
ment with  him,  and  had  some  conversation,  at  which  the 
Grand- Yazir  was  present.  When  the  Emperor  left,  I 
waited  a  short  time,  then  mounted  my  carriage,  and 
drove  to  his  residence.  He  came  to  the  foot  of  the 
stairs  to  meet  me  ;  we  went  in  ;  we  sat  down ;  a  conver- 
sation ensued ;  and  after  a  few  minutes  I  returned.  The 
Emperor  is  seventy-six  years  of  age;  his  brother  seventy- 
three.  Both  of  them,  however,  are  perfect  in  bodily 
health  and  strength.  Prince  Bismarck  is  fifty-eight; 
Marshal  Moltke  seventy-five.  The  Nawwab  the  Heir- 
Apparent  is  of  the  age  of  forty- two. 

This  evening  I  went  nowhere.  The  city  of  Berlin  is 
lighted  with  gas ;  the  lamps  being  more  numerous  here 
than  at  (St.)  Peter(sburg).  Opposite  our  palace,  on  the 
other  side  of  the  square,  is  the  establishment  of  the 
Museum  of  Berlin.  On  one  side  is  a  church,  and  oppo- 
site it,  the  Armoury.     In  the  centre  of  the  square  is  a 

^d  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Europe,     [chap.  m. 

raised  platform,  with  steps  all  round,  on  which  is  a  cast- 
metal  equestrian  statue  of  Frederick  the  Great.  The 
exteriors  of  the  buildings  of  Berlin  are  coloured  ash- 
colour,  which  takes  away  somewhat  from  the  appearance 
of  the  city  ;  on  the  contrary,  at  (St.)  Peter(sburg)  the 
edifices  are  of  all  colours.  The  river  that  flows  by  one 
side  of  Berlin  is  named  the  Spree,  a  branch  of  which 
runs  through  the  middle  of  the  town ;  but  it  is  narrow, 
and  its  waters  very  filthy.  To-day  we  travelled  eighty 
leagues  distance  in  eleven  hours  or  less. 

hill  {Sunday,  1st  Jwwe).— To-day  we  went  to  the  town 
of  Potsdam,  which  is  outside  of  Berlin.  Mounting  our 
carriage,  we  drove  along  the  same  track,  and  through 
the  very  gateway  that  we  had  traversed  yesterday,  passed 
by  many  avenues,  noble  forest  trees,  beautiful  houses 
with  exquisitely  pretty  flower-gardens  in  front  of  them, 
and  basins  of  water  with  fountains  and  jets-d'eau,  so 
arriving  at  the  station.  We  took  our  seat  in  the  train, 
started,  and  in  half  an  hour's  time,  getting  over  the 
journej^,  arrived  at  that  town. 

It  is  a  small  place,  with  forty-two  thousand  inhabi- 
tants, for  the  most  part  regular  troops.  The  Governor 
of  the  town,  &c.,  came  to  receive  us.  We  alighted. 
There  is  also  a  large  river  here,  named  the  Havel.  We 
mounted  a  carriage,  and  passing  by  the  houses,  &c.,  of 
the  town,  we  entered  an  avenue.  The  parks,  avenues,  &c., 
here  are  similar  to  those  in  Eussia.  Of  the  two  palaces, 
one  is  called  Potsdam,  and  the  other  Sans-Souci;  both 
built  by  Frederick  the  Great.  The  quarters  of  the  Heii'- 
Apparent  are  in  that  of  Potsdam.      We  drove  in  our 

CHAP.  III.]      Prussia,  Germany^  Belgmm.  jy 

carriage  to  that  palace ;  lie  was  not  at  home.  We  then 
drove  for  a  promenade,  and  passed  through  magnificent 
avenues  in  beautiful  parks.  The  parks  here  are  great 
forests,  like  those  of  Mazandaran.  To-day  being 
Sunday  (Whitsunday),  the  whole  world  was  out  for  a 
promenade,  and  great  crowds  were  in  the  avenues.  We 
came  to  a  large  fountain,  the  water  of  which  spouted 
thirty  ells  (105  feet)  high.  Statues  of  marble,  very 
beautiful  and  antique,  were  seen  around  the  gardens  and 
the  basins*  In  short,  this  fountain  is  one  of  the  wonders 
of  the  world.  Its  head  is  due  to  steam  power,  by  the 
force  of  which  the  water  is  raised.  Through  the  throng- 
ing of  the  people,  we  were  somewhat  impeded  in  going 
about.  Lilacs  abounded.  Nightingales  and  wrens  sang 
in  the  trees.  It  was  a  world  of  delight.  We  next  went 
into  an  avenue  opposite  that  fountain,  at  the  end  of 
which  was  another  basin,  the  jet-d'eau  of  which  was  very 
lofty,  but  not  equal  to  that  of  the  first.  We  then  got 
into  our  carriage,  and  went  to  the  palace  of  Sans-Souci 
to  visit  the  Queen  Dowager,  wife  of  the  former  Sovereign 
of  Prussia,  who  was  a  brother  of  the  reigning  Emperor. 
The  first  Lord-in- Waiting,  and  the  Chief  Usher  of  the 
Queen  (Dowager)  and  others  received  us.  We  went  to 
the  apartment  of  the  Queen  (Dowager) ;  she  rose  and 
came  outside  of  the  apartment.  She  is  a  woman  seventy 
years  of  age,  or  even  more  of  her  life  may  have  elapsed. 
We  sat  down,  and  conversation  ensued.  We  then  arose 
and  passed  on.  This  is  the  special  pa^lace  of  Frederick  the 
Great.  The  very  room  in  which  he  died  was  seen  by  us. 
The  chair  in  which  he  expired,  his  writing-table,  a  time- 

78  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Eicrope.     [chap.  m. 

piece,  and  other  effects  of  Frederick,  were  all  there. 
Some  things  were  placed  on  chairs  merely  from  venera- 
tion, and  the  hands  of  the  timepiece  have  remained  since 
his  death  in  the  very  same  position  to  a  minute,  never 
having  been  set  since  then.  There  were  many  beautiful 
paintings,  left  from  that  time.  They  told  me  that  when 
the  first  Napoleon  took  possession  of  this  town,  he  tore 
the  cloth  on  the  table  of  Frederick,  and  that  it  has  been 
so  preserved  since,  torn.  There  were  beautiful  rooms, 
and  many  relics  of  antiquity. 

We  then  descended.  In  front  of  the  palace  there  is  a 
lofty  terrace.  In  front  of  the  eminence  there  are  very 
beautiful  gardens,  with  small  basins  of  water.  From  the 
top  they  have  arranged  statues,  from  the  mouths  of  which 
water  flows  into  basins.  The  view  from  this  terrace  and 
this  eminence  has  not  its  equal  in  the  world.  That  lofty 
jet-d'eau  is  opposite  to  this  eminence.  In  short,  the 
fountains,  the  parks,  and  the  beautiful  avenues  were 
numberless.  We  w^alked  about  a  while ;  we  then  mounted 
our  carriage,  and  drove  to  a  place  where  we  saw  a  ruined 
mill,  which  has  remained  from  the  time  of  Frederick  the 
Great,  and  has  a  date  on  it.  From  this  we  gathered 
that  when  Frederick  wished  to  build  this  place,  he  was 
unable,  do  what  he  would,  to  content  the  proprietor  of 
the  mill,  and  induce  him  to  sell  his  property,  so  that  the 
park  might  not  remain  incomplete.  He  would  not  con- 
sent ;  and,  as  an  instance  of  equity,  the  mill  has  been 
preserved  in  the  same  condition  ever  since. 

We  next  went  to  the  hot-houses  and  orangeries  (con- 
servatories),   which    are     constructed    with    brickwork, 

CHAP.  III.]      Prtcssia,  Ge^nnany,  Belghcm.  79 

glass,  and  other  appliances ;  but  we  did  not  enter  them, 
the  whole  of  the  flowers  and  shrubs  having  been  brought 
out  of  doors.  In  front  of  the  conservatory  there  is  a 
garden,  a  basin  of  water,  and  a  terrace,  which  have  beau- 
tiful parterres  of  flowers,  with  statues  of  marble.  From 
hence  there  are  many  steps,  as  they  have  arranged  very 
beautiful  parterres  range  upon  range.  Here  we  walked 
about  a  bit ;  and  then,  mounting  our  carriage,  we  drove 
to  the  palace  and  summer  residence  of  the  wife  of  Prince 
Charles,  a  sister  of  the  Queen  of  Prussia,  i.e.,  of  the  wife 
of  the  Emperor,  and  is  mother  of  Frederick  Charles. 
It  has  a  pretty  courtyard,  with  statues  and  ancient  stone 
figures  and  carvings,  of  Egypt,  Syria,  Nineveh,  Mawsil 
(Mosul),  &c.,  such  as  a  leg,  a  head  of  a  shoulder,  an 
arm  (or  hand),  of  the  figure  of  an  animal  or  man,  large 
or  small,  imperfect  or  whole,  collected  therein  of  every 
kind,  and  fixed  to  the  walls  in  an  artistic  manner.  It 
became  evident  that  Prince  Charles  and  his  wife  are 
persons  of  learning  and  taste. 

In  short,  most  beautiful  gardens,  fountains,  lawns,  and 
the  like,  were  there  seen.  We  went  upstairs  and  sat 
down  a  while  in  a  room.  The  wife  of  Prince  Charles 
ofi'ered  many  excuses,  and  expressed  great  chagrin  that 
notice  had  been  given  to  her  late,  saying :  They  tele- 
graphed to  inform  me  that  you  would  not  come  to- 
day. She  brought  out  a  book,  and  we  inscribed  our 
name  therein.     She  is  an  aged  woman. 

Rising  from  thence,  we  took  our  seat  in  our  carriage  to 
go  to  the  residence  of  the  wife  of  Frederick-Charles. 
She  was  not  at  home.     In  front  of  the  avenue  leading  to 

So  Diary  of  a   Toitr  in  Europe,      [chap.  m. 

the  gate  of  Frederick-Charles,  there  were  two  statues  of 
stags  lying  down,  on  the  top  of  the  railings,  most  beau- 
tifully executed.  We  drove  on  ;  we  passed  some  charm- 
ing spots ;  and  we  came  upon  a  small  pavilion  most 
beautifully  placed,  which  belongs  to  the  Emperor.  It 
has  some  pretty  gardens,  and  a  charming  prospect  over  a 
large  river. 

We  then  went  to  the  station  and  returned  to  the  city. 
On  our  passage  we  remarked  a  singular  pastime  which 
they  had  devised.  They  had  fitted  up  a  kind  of  gypsey- 
.tent,  and  around  the  tent  there  were  pasteboard  carriages 
and  horses,  on  which  people's  children  rode,  while  the 
tent  revolved  incessantly,  causing  the  carriages,  the 
horses,  and  their  riders  to  go  round  also. 

We  reached  home.  This  evening  the  Emperor  gave  a 
special  banquet  in  this  very  palace  where  our  quarters 
are.  Our  princes,  the  Prussian  princes,  our  Grand- 
Vazir,  Prince  Bismarck,  Marshal  Moltke,  Marshal  Roon, 
and  others,  were  present,  as  also  Marshal  Wrangel,  with 
whom  we  conversed.  He  is  a  short  and  very  old  man, 
ninety  years  of  age,  but  full  of  mental  vigour.  He 
served  everywhere  in  the  wars  of  the  first  Napoleon. 

After  dinner  we  went  to  the  theatre,  a  beautiful  house 
with  five  tiers  of  seats,  about  the  size  of  the  Michael 
Theatre  at  (St.)  Peter (sburg).  The  audience  was  crowded. 
The  play  was  a  ballet  this  evening,  and  they  danced  well. 
The  dancers  wore  strange  costumes.  I  and  the  Emperor 
went  on  the  stage  and  looked  about  a  little.  We  then 
returned,  and  another  scene  commenced.  They  danced, 
and  represented   some   interesting    situations.      Piince 

CHAP.  III.]       Pricssia^  Germany,  Belgmm.  8 1 

Charles,  the  Emperor's  brother,  also  was  present.  When 
all  was  over  we  went  home. 

On  the  day  w^hen  we  came  away  from  (St.)  Peter- 
(sburg),  the  Mukhbiru-'d-Dawla  remamed  behind  to  see 
his  son,  who  is  to  come  to  (St.)  Peter(sburg). 

6^/i  {Monday,  2nd  June). — After  our  breakfast  the 
foreign  representatives  came  to  an  audience.  The  French 
representative  did  not  come,  because,  M.  Thiers  having 
resigned,  he  had  no  credentials.  We  then  went  to  another 
chamber,  and  spoke  to  each  of  the  representatives,  one 
by  one,  enquiring  after  their  health.  Subsequently  Prince 
Bismarck  came,  and  with  him  a  long  conversation  ensued. 
Next  Marshal  Koon,  the  War  Minister,  came ;  and  then 
Marshal  Moltke,  with  whom  we  conversed  a  little. 

After  this,  changing  our  (state)  costume  (for  a  private 
one),  we  mounted  our  carriage  and  drove  to  the  Zoolo- 
gical Gardens.  To-day  also  (Whit-Monday)  was  a  festival 
of  the  Franks,  and  the  whole  population  of  the  city  were 
in  commotion.  There  was  an  enormous  crowd,  and 
numerous  equipages  in  the  road,  and  on  both  sides.  Bands 
were  playing  in  the  gardens.  There  were  many  jDonds,  and 
various  species  of  aquatic  fowl  in  the  ponds.  Next  we 
came  to  beautiful  separate  large  cages,  in  which  the 
various  kinds  of  beasts  were  kept  apart.  Diiferent  birds 
of  prey, — eagles,  a  i)air  of  condors,  wliich  are  a  well- 
known  bii'd  of  prey  brought  from  the  New-World  (Ame- 
rica). It  is  a  singular  creature,  of  a  dusky  black  colour, 
and  of  great  ferocity ;  but  its  talons  are  not  like  those  of 
the  eagle,  since  it  belongs  to  the  class  of  feeders  on 

82  Diary  of  a  Toicr  in  Etcrope.      [chap.  m. 

There  were  various  kinds  of  cranes  from  Africa,  India, 
the  New-World,  and  other  parts;  much  more  wild  and 
beautiful  than  the  common  crane  of  Persia.  All  the  dif- 
ferent species  of  birds  produced  in  the  whole  world  are 
there  collected  together,  so  that  it  is  impossible  to  mention 
them  all.  What  we  had  formerly  seen  pourtraj^ed  in 
books,  we  here  saw  living. 

We  then  entered  the  corridor  in  which  are  the  cages  of 
the  carnivorous  quadrupeds, — the  beasts  of  prey.  Here 
were  wild  beasts  that  cannot  be  imagined,  maned-lions  of 
Africa, — which  I  had  not  hitherto  seen,  save  in  books, — 
huge  in  bulk,  terrible  in  appearance,  with  very  thick 
black  manes  hanging  down,  their  heads  as  large  as  those 
of  elephants,  or  larger ;  with  glaring  eyes  especially  ter- 
rific ;  with  graceful  bodies  resembling  velvet.  The  keeper 
raised  high  a  piece  of  flesh ;  the  lion  rose  on  his  hind 
feet  and  seized  the  flesh.  His  stature  was  from  three  to 
four  ells  (10 J  feet  to  14  feet).  The  flesh  was  placed  on 
a  truck,  and  so  conveyed  from  den  to  den  and  given  to 
the  beasts. 

The  compartment  which  looks  out  on  this  corridor, 
and  is  subdivided  to  hold  the  diiferent  beasts,  has  a  door 
of  stout  timber  that  can  be  raised  by  a  chain.  The  other 
side  of  the  door  is  where  the  animals  walk  about.  When 
the  door  is  raised,  the  beast  goes  to  that  other  side ;  the 
door  is  then  quickly  lowered,  and  the  den  is  swept  clean. 
The  compartment  is  floored  with  timber  very  carefully. 
No  one  is  allowed  to  go  near  these  creatures ;  and  the 
flesh  is  given  to  them  through  the  interstices  of  the  fronts 
of  their  cages. 

CHAP.  III.]      Prussia,   Germany,  Belgium.  83 

I  was  extremely  tempted  to  stay  and  observe  these 
lions  a  long  while ;  but,  through  the  thronging  of  the 
crowds  of  spectators,  this  was  impossible. 

I  saw  several  enormous  tigers,  African  and  Indian; 
two  black  leopards,  from  Africa,  very  singular  and  ter- 
rific. Also  some  other  lions ;  one,  a  maned-lion,  of  a 
good  size,  though  his  mane  was  not  as  yet  so  large  as 
those  of  the  two  hons  first  seen.  There  was  a  lioness 
that  had  given  birth  to  several  cubs  in  that  very  estabhsh- 
ment,  her  cubs  having  grown  up.  There  were  many 
leopards,  various  chetahs,  strange-looking  hyaenas  from 
Africa  that  made  curious  noises.  In  short,  I  saw  nume- 
rous cages,  in  each  of  which  were  animals  of  many  kinds, 
various  monkeys,  and  the  like.  There  were  two  elephants ; 
one  very  large,  that  had  been  brought  from  India ;  the 
other  from  Africa.  The  African  elephant  is  very  diffe- 
rent from  that  of  India,  its  ears  being  much  broader  and 
larger.  There  were  three  giraffes,  and  a  zebra,  i.<3.,  a 
wild  horse,  the  body  of  which  is  in  stripes,  and  very 
beautiful.  Also  many  bisons, — the  wild  buffaloes  of 
Africa  and  the  New- World ;  and  large  and  small  buffaloes 
(yaks  ?)  of  Tibet,  from  the  sides  of  which  so  much  wool 
hung  as  to  trail  on  the  earth ;  they  looked  very  ferocious. 
Llamas,  an  animal  between  tlie  camel,  ox,  argali,  and 
other  species,  and  which  runs  very  fast,  were  kept  in 
spacious  gardens  enclosed  with  raihngs.  There  were 
argalis,  mountain-goats  (chamois  or  ibexes  ?),  and  ante- 
lopes, from  India  and  Africa;  for  instance,  there  was  one 
argaU  as  big  as  a  horse,  with  long,  thick,  sharp  horns, 
having  no  resemblance  to  the   argali  of  Persia.     Also 


84    •  Diaiy  of  a   Tour  in  Etirope. 

various  kinds  of  swine  and  wild  boars  :  curious  animals, 
too,  of  other  sj^ecies,  and  in  such  varieties,  were  collected 
in  that  place  as  cannot  be  computed.  Every  animal^ 
wherever  it  may  nataralh'  exist,  was  to  be  found  there,, 
and  are  there  fed  with  all  care  and  cleanliness.  Vaiious 
parrots,  peacocks,  golden  pheasants  of  Australia,  that  are 
very  pretty,  were  there ;  also  manj^  kinds  of  birds  with 
magnificently-coloured  plumage  flew  about,  i^laj^ed,  and 
amused  themselves  in  very  large  aviary  cages.  The 
name  of  the  director  of  these  Zoological  Gardens  is 
Doctor  Bodines,  a  learned  and  distinguished  man. 

We  now  returned  home,  and  somewhat  later  took  a 
drive  through  various  streets  of  the  city.  One  i)lace 
attracted  my  attention  as  being  a  j)ark.  I  alighted  and 
entered  ;  then  I  saw  that  it  was  a  cemeter}'-.  But  it  was 
a  charming  place,  where  there  w^ere  many  nurse-maids 
with  infants  and  little  children.  These  flocked  around 

Again  mounting,  w^e  arrived  at  a  circular  open  space 
surrounded  by  buildings,  and  having  pretty  flower-beds 
in  the  middle.  Here,  too,  w^e  got  down  and  strolled 
about  for  a  while ;  thence  returning  home  again. 

The  official  in  attendance  upon  us,  whose  name  is 
General  Bo'ien,  was  also  in  attendance  on  Napoleon 
during  his  captivity  and  seclusion ;  as  also  upon  the 
Sultan  of  Turkey  while  in  Prussia. 

Ith  (Tuesday,  Srd  June). — To-day  I  wish  to  go  to  the 
Aquarium,  a  place  where  they  keep  marine  animals  and 
plants  as  a  spectacle. 

In  the  morning,  on  rising,  we  went  to  visit  the  Empress. 

■CHAP.  III.]       Prussia,  Germany,  Belgium.  85 

Augusta,  who  liacl  newly  arrived.  As  the  Emperor  was 
unwell,  we  did  not  see  him,  but  Avent  to  the  apartments 
of  the  Empress,  which  are  in  the  Emperor's 'palace.  She 
is  an  elderl}^  woman,  seventy  years  of  age.  We  sat  and 
conversed ;  then,  leading  me  away,  she  showed  me  over 
the  apartments,  which  are  nicely  furnished. 

Next  we  went  to  the  residence  of  the  Heir- Apparent  to 
see  liis  wife,  a  daughter  of  Her  Most  Exalted  Majesty  the 
Sovereign  of  England,  and  her  firstborn  child,  "We  sat 
and  conversed  a  little.  She  has  three  sons  and  two 
daughters  b}'  the  Heir-Apparent,  her  eldest  son  being 
fifteen  years  of  age,  and  her  eldest  daughter  ten.  The 
Heir-Apparent's  house  is  plain. 

Keeping  in  mind  the  Aquarium,  we  rose,  mounted  our 
-carriage,  di-ove  there,  alighted  at  the  gate,  and  went 
upstairs.  The  Heir- Apparent  and  a  large  assemblage  of 
people  were  there.  We  were  taken  to  some  very  strange 
iind  marvellous  places, — dark  corridors  and  caverns,  hills 
and  dales,  cascades,  fountains,  all  constructed  of  rocks 
from  the  mountains  in  such  a  manner  that  at  first  one 
cannot  comprehend  that  he  is  not  really  in  a  cavern  of  a 
mountain,  but  is  in  the  midst  of  a  city.  It  is  a  curiosity 
of  design,  and  is  one  of  tlie  things  in  this  world  worthy 
to  be  seen.  The  director,  whose  name  is  Henness, 
explained  all  to  us.  They  have  i3laced  various  kinds  of 
fishes,  with  other  marine  animals  and  seaweeds,  in  tanks 
covered  over  with  large  sheets  of  plate-glass  or  common 
glass  ;  and  the  water  is  incessantly  renewed.  From  the 
spot  where  we  stood  the  bottoms  of  the  tanks  were  seen ; 
so   that  the  fishes,  the  other  animals,   and  the   plants 

S6  Diary  of  a   Totcr  in  Etirope.     [chap.  m. 

appeared  to  Us  in  tlieir  natural  states,  as  though  actually 
in  the  sea.  Some  were  asleep,  others  in  motion.  There 
was  one  kind  of  animal  hke  a  bunch  of  flowers,  roses,  or 
lilies,  full  of  filaments  of  various  colours,  and  attached  to 
a  rock  or  to-  a  plant,  without  the  least  visible  movement. 
Never  could  it  be  known  that  this  is  an  animal  endued 
with  life;  but  when  the  keeper  of  tliis  place  conve3^s 
down  into  the  water  a  wonn,  and  then  lets  it  go,  so  as  to 
fall  into  the  midst  of  this  bunch  of  flowers,  then  it  moves, 
draws  to  itself  the  worm,  and  eats  it. 

There  were  man}^  sorts  of  strange  fish,  of  all  colours, 
some  large,  and  others  small ;  there  were  numerous  shell- 
fish, various  crabs  of  many  colom^s,  frogs,  and  other 
things  extremel}^  interesting.  Descendmg  some  more 
stex)s,  we  reached  another  place,  the  roof  of  wliich  was 
equally  of  rocks  from  the  moimtains,  having  no  difl'erence 
from  a  natm^al  cavern.  Here  were  varieties  of  aquatic 
birds,  parrots  of  all  colours,  one  kind  of  large  white 
parrot  (cockatoo)  that  has  a  voice  extremely  like  that  of 
a  man.  There  was  an  inclosure  (aviary)  like  a  cage,  in 
the  middle  of  which  a  fountain  was  playing,  and  around 
which  again  were  compartments  like  cages,  in  which 
artificial  trees  or  shrubs  were  arranged ;  and  every  kind 
of  bird  that  can  be  imagined  in  the  world,  from  cold 
countries  and  from  tropical  places,  are  there  to  be  found. 
All  the  forms  of  bii'ds  that  I  had  seen  in  books,  there, 
colom'  for  colour,  did  I  witness  them.  To  all  of  them, 
with  the  utmost  cleanliness,  do  they  supply  food 
and  water.  All  these  birds  would  at  one  time  cry  out 
together,    at  another  v/ould  play  or  fly  about;  and   the 

uHAP.  III.]      Prtcssia^  Gerrnany^  Belgizun.  87 

contemplation  of  them  inspired  me  with  the  utmost 

There  was  another  pair  of  animals,  male  and  female, 
very  curious,  for  which  they  had  constructed  in  one 
corner  apart  a  small  house  to  them  alone,  which  had  an 
extremely  small  hole  for  an  entrance,  by  which  they  both 
went  in  together.  They  are  of  a  yellow  colour.  Their 
head,  mane,  shape,  and  tail,  are  like  those  of  the  African 
maned-lion ;  but  their  hands  and  feet  resemble  those  of 
man  and  the  monkey.  Besides,  they  have  a  finger  like 
the  spur  of  a  cock,  at  the  end  of  which  is  a  claw  like  the 
talon  of  a  hawk.  They  were  very  tame,  had  a  singular 
cr}^,  and  were  fed  on  worms.  (Mr.  Bartlett,  of  the  Zoolo- 
gical Gardens,  Regent's  Park,  concludes  from  this  descrip- 
tion that  the  animals  seen  were  Silky  Marmosets,  or  Lion 
Monkeys,  midas  rosalia,  natives  of  Brazil,  ivhich  have 
more  tlian  once  hred  in  the  Society  s  gardens.  I  see  they 
are  also  mentioned  by  the  names  of  Marikina  and  jacchus 

Again  two  other  animals  were  noticed,  exceedingly 
interesting ;  but  these  were  said  to  be  also  visible  at  the 
Zoological  Gardens.  They  are  called  "  Sloths,"  and 
resemble  melancholy,  son'owful  men,  are  very  inoffensive, 
and  continually  utter  a  cry  like  the  chirping  of  a  cricket. 

In  short,  I  witnessed  many  wonders,  and  then  returned 

In  the  afternoon  we  were  the  Emperor's  guest  at  dinner 
in  the  upper  story  of  this  very  palace  in  which  we  are 
quartered.  All  the  wives  and  lad}-  princesses,  all  the 
princes  of  the  Prussian  royal  family,  all  our  princes,  the 

88  Diary  of  a  Toicr  in  Eicrope.      [chap.  m. 

Heir- Apparent,  Prince  Bismarck,  Marshal  Roon,  Marshal 
Moltke,  and  others  were  present.  A  band  played.  This 
upper  palace  is  very  magnificent,  having  many  pictures, 
with  sumptuous  halls  and  apartments. 

After  dinner  we  descended,  and  in  the  evening  went  to 
the  city  theatre,  which  is  small,  and  has  four  tiers  of 
seats.  The  Heir-iVpparent,  the  Grand-Yazlr,  and  others 
were  present.  We  sat  in  a  box  near  the  stage.  They 
gave  a  beautiful  entertainment,  the  last  scene  represent- 
ing the  palace  and  gardens  of  Versailles,  \vith  the  coro- 
nation of  this  very  Emperor.  The  representatives  of  the 
Emperor,  of  all  the  leaders,  of  Marshal  Moltke  and  Prince 
Bismarck,  were  dressed  exactly  like  those  personages.  It 
was  a  beautiful  scene ;  i.e.,  it  was  not  a  picture,  but  a 
collection  of  men  dressed  up.  At  the  conclusion  we 
returned  home. 

8i/t  {Wednesday,  4th  June). — To-day  I  have  to  go  and 
see  a  review.  Having  breakfasted,  I  mounted  my  carriage, 
the  Grand-VazTr,  my  princes,  and  others  with  me.  We 
went  to  the  outskirts  of  the  city,  where  a  large  concourse 
was  assembled.  The  parade-ground  was  a  beautiful  piece 
of  grass-land.  Descending  from  our  carriage,  we  mounted 
the  charger  of  the  Husamu-'s-saltana  (sharp  sword  of 
sovereignty).  The  Empress,  the  wife  of  the  Heir- Ap- 
parent, and  others  were  present.  The  Emperor  is  still 
unwell.  The  battalions  of  infantry,  together  with  the 
cavalry,  were  about  eighteen  thousand  strong.  We  slowly 
went  down  in  front  of  the  line.  The  Heir- Apparent,  the 
whole  of  the  officers,  and  the  Prince  of  Wurtemberg,  who 
was  in  command,  and  is  an  old  man,  tall  of  stature, 

CHAP.  III.]       Pr7cssia,  Germany ^  Belgmm.  89 

Freclerick-Cliarles,  Prince  Charles,  and  others  accom- 
panied us.  We  then  took  up  our  position,  and  the  troops 
marched  past,  the  infantr}^,  cavahy,  and  artiller}^,  in 
beautiful  uniforms,  and  well  armed,  being  reviewed. 
After  the  ceremony,  we  remounted  our  carriage,  and 
returned  home. 

We  were  invited  to  dine  with  the  Empress  in  the 
evening.  We  went;  all  were  there;  dinner  was  eaten; 
and  we  returned  home.  From  thence  we  w^ent  to  the 
theatre.  This  evening  was  a  gala  evening  at  the  theatre. 
All  the  women  wore  magnificent  costumes ;  all  the  men 
were  in  court  dresses.  We,  the  Empress,  the  other 
women,  the  Grand-VazTr,  the  Prussian  princes,  and  our 
X)rinces,  sat  in  a  large  box  fronting  the  stage.  It  was 
very  hot.  They  brought  out  some  pretty  scenes.  They 
danced  nicel}^  After  two  acts,  we  went  for  a  little  space' 
to  a  large  saloon  and  had  some  conversation,  and  from 
thence  to  a  box  near  the  stage.  The  last  scene  enacted 
was  of  a  king  of  Mawsil  (Mosul,  for  Nineveh ;  the  king, 
Sardanapalus),  who,  after  being  vanquished  by  his  ene- 
mies, cast  himself,  with  all  his  effects  and  family,  into 
the  fire.  It  was  a  magnificent  scene.  From  thence  we 
came  home. 

To-day,  while  returning  from  the  review,  we  visited 
the  Arsenal,  i.e.,  the  armoury.  On  the  lower  floor  they 
have  collected  specimens  of  the  cannon  taken  from  the 
French  and  Austrians,  with  those  of  ancient  artillery. 
In  the  middle  of  the  court  of  the  Arsenal  there  was  a 
colossal  figure  of  a  lion  in  metal,  which  had  been  cast 
and  set  up  in  Holstein  by  the  Danish  Government,  in 

90  Diary  of  a  Toitr  in  Europe,      [chap.  m. 

memoiy  of  the  conquest  of  Holstein  from  Germany. 
When  the  Prussians  retook  the  two  provinces  of  Schleswig 
and  Holstein,  they  brought  away  this  lion,  and  placed  it 
here.  It  is  as  big  as  a  mountain.  We  went  to  the 
ui^per  story,  which  is  very  spacious,  and  where  they 
have  collected  an  enormous  number  of  muskets.  Of 
every  model,  ancient,  modern,  or  otherwise,  were  muskets 
to  be  seen  there.  The  general  in  charge  of  this  Arsenal 
was  a  tall  man,  of  the  name  of  Treh,  who  spoke  French 
well.  His  left  arm  had  been  carried  away  by  a  French 
shot  in  the  battle  of  Gravelotte,  the  last  that  was  fought. 

It  is  worthy  of  remark  that  in  this  city  the  noise  of 
carriages  never  ceases  from  evening  until  morning,  nor 
from  morn  to  night.  One  evening  the  Fire -Brigade  came 
with  torches  and  went  through  their  practice  at  the  foot 
of  the  palace. 

9^/t  {Thursday,  5th  June). — This  morning  I  started  by 
train  and  went  to  Potsdam  with  all  my  suite,  excepting 
the  I^tizadu-'d-Dawla,  who  remained  in  town,  as  they 
have  completed  the  telegrai^hic  wires  to  Tehran,  and  he 
is  talking  with  them.  The  Order  of  the  Black  Eagle  in 
diamonds,  with  its  yellow  riband,  &c.,  was  sent  for  us  by 
the  Emperor  through  General  Boien,  who  is  in  attendance 
on  us. 

.Well;  we  arrived  at  Potsdam,  alighted,  and  at  once 
went  upstairs.  The  Empress,  the  wife  of  the  Heir- 
Apparent,  with  others,  were  there.  The  garrison  of  this 
place  is  to  be  reviewed  to-day.  The  whole  of  the  troops 
were  drawn  out  in  a  parade-ground  at  the  foot  of  this 
palace.     When  the  review  was  over,  the  Heir-Apj)arent 

CHAP.  III.]       Prussia,  Germany ,  Betgmm,  9 1 

and  others  came  upstairs,  where  breakfast  was  prepared. 
As  I  had  no  appetite,  I  excused  myself  to  the  Heir- 
Apparent,  mounted  my  carriage,  and  went  for  a  drive  to 
the  Orangery.  It  has  a  very  handsome  and  cheerful  hall, 
well  lighted,  its  roof  being  partially  of  marble,  like  a 
vault.  Paintings,  marble  statues,  and  beautifully  fur- 
nished apartments  there  were.  It  is  one  of  Frederick's 
buildings.  From  thence  we  went  driving  about,  and 
ahghted  near  a  large  fountain,  sat  down  awhile  on  the 
stejDS,  and  contemplated  the  jet-d'eau.  Again  we  drove 
about.  In  the  park  there  is  a  mansion,  which  is  magni- 
ficent, named  the  Charlotte  Pavilion.  It  was  the  resi- 
dence of  Dr.  Humboldt,  so  celebrated,  who  died  ten  years 
ago.  It  has  a  grassy  terrace,  a  fountain,  a  basin  of  water, 
some  small  rooms,  full  of  curiosities,  i)reserved  like  those 
of  a  museum.  It  had  a  curator,  who  could  not  speak 
French.  At  the  top  of  the  steps  of  this  building  there 
was  the  figiu-e  of  an  antelope,  which  had  been  cast  in 
metal,  of  a  very  graceful  form. 

From  thence  we  again  returned  to  the  Orangery,  i^er- 
formed  our  devotions,  and  towards  the  middle  of  the 
afternoon  went  to  the  palace  of  Babelbrig  to  dine  by 
invitation  with  the  Emperor.  It  was  a  long  way  off. 
Passing  over  a  long  bridge  across  the  liver  Havel,  which 
separates  the  town  of  Potsdam  from  this  palace,  and 
through  many  a  charming  site  and  beautiful  avenue,  we 
reached  the  gate  of  the  mansion.  The  Empress,  the 
Heir-Apparent,  Prince  Bismarck,  Marshal  Boon,  the 
Prussian  princes,  our  princes,  with  others,  and  the  lady 
piincesses,  were  all  j^resent.     The  building  is  very  fine, 

92  Diary  of  a   Toicr  in  Europe.      [<  hai\  m. 

and  was  erected  by  the  present  Emperor.  It  has  hand- 
some basins  of  water,  good  prospects,  lawns,  flower- 
gardens,  all  very  beautiful.  We  had  dinner,  and  conver- 
satioji  ensued.  After  dinner  we  took  a  walk  on  the  la^vn. 
There  was  a  fountain  that  rose  from  the  middle  of  the 
river  to  a  very  great  height,  and  of  great  volume,  that 
caused  great  pleasm'e  to  see.  The  Empress  was  in  a 
carriage  with  the  Heir- Apparent.  He  alighted,  and  we 
walked  together  for  a  space.  Then  I  mounted  with  the 
Empress,  and  we  went  to  the  residence  of  the  Heir- 
Apparent.  He  and  the  others  followed  on  foot.  There 
we  alighted,  and  I,  with  the  Heir-Apparent,  set  off  to 
visit  the  tomb  of  Frederick  the  Great.  We  now  repassed 
that  bridge  over  the  river,  and  entered  the  town  of  Pots- 
dam, so  reaching  the  door  of  the  mausoleum,  which  is  a 
building  like  a  church.  Flags  taken  from  the  French 
and  others  were  there  seen.  Two  tombs  were  in  the 
mausoleum,  one  of  Frederick,  the  other  of  his  father. 
After  standing  there  a  sjoace,  we  returned,  and  again  went 
to  the  Orangery,  where  we  spent  a  short  time,  and  then 
the  Heir- Apparent  went  to  his  own  mansion,  that  was 
now  illuminated.  Later,  we  followed  him  to  his  mansion, 
which  is  a  charming  place.  All  the  Diplomatic  Corps, 
women,  princes,  and  others  were  there.  The  park  oppo- 
site v/as  illuminated  in  colours.  The  fountains  threw  up 
red  water,  which  was  very  beautiful ;  but  there  were  no 
fireworks.  The  wife  of  the  Heir-Apparent  wore  the 
Order  which  I  had  conferred  on  her,  with  its  riband. 
Later,  the  Empress  took  my  hand  and  led  me  down- 
staii's;  we  sat  a  little,  and  we  walked  about  a  little; 

CHAP.  III.]       Prussia,  Germany,  Belgium.  93 

then  went  to  a  long  room  where  a  hxiffet  was  laid  out, 
i.e.,  where  they  had  spread  many  kinds  of  food  on  a 
table.  The  lady  and  gentlemen  guests  all  sat  down  at 
the  table,  and  eating  of  the  viands  was  achieved.  We 
then  took  leave  of  the  Heir-Aj)parent  and  others,  and 
went  to  the  station. 

In  that  place  one  beautiful  saloon  was  seen,  that  was 
of  the  time  of  Frederick,  the  whole  being  inlaid  with 
mother-of-pearl,  haliotis,  and  similar  shells  in  beautiful 

The  train  started,  and  we  arrived  at  the  city  station, 
which  is  a  noble  work,  with  many  chandeliers,  all  of  iron 
and  glass.  Thence  we  proceeded  home,  driven  in  our 

lOf/t  (Friday,  6t]t  June). — In  the  morning,  after  break- 
fast, went  to  the  Parliament,  i.e.,  to  the  Council-House 
of  Germany,  which  is  in  an  outskirt  of  the  town.  We 
sat  in  a  gallery.  There  were  about  a  hundred  deputies 
present,  the  rest  of  the  chairs  being  unoccupied.  Prince 
Bismarck  was  in  his  place,  to  the  right,  and  below  the 
seat  of  the  President  of  the  Council.  The  name  of  the 
President  of  the  Council  is  Simpson.  The  Under-Secre- 
tary of  War  was  standing  below  Prince  Bismarck,  and  was 
speaking  to  the  deputies,  and  refuting,  on  the  part  of  the 
Government,  the  i)roposal  of  the  deputies  about  the 
maintenance  of  the  Ecole  des  Cadets.  He  delivered  a 
long  speech.  This  ficole  des  Cadets  is  a  college  in 
Potsdam  for  young  nobles  and  the  sons  of  living  and 
deceased  officers.  The  excellent  officers  of  Prussia  issue 
from  this  college.     The  Heir- Apparent  was  himself  edu- 

94  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Eicrope.      [chap.  m. 

cated  there.  One  da}^  the  Heir-Apparent  brought  tliose 
students  in  front  of  our  palace,  where  they  went  through 
their  exercise.  The  students  are  seven  hundred  in 
number.  As  the  expense  of  maintenance  is  heavy,  the 
nation  is  dissatisfied;  but  Prince  Bismarck  wished  to 
augment  it. 

We  soon  rose  from  there  and  went  to  the  residence  of 
Prince  Bismarck  to  return  his  visit.  He  was  at  home, 
and  came  to  meet  us.  His  house  is  small  and  simple. 
His  wife  and  daughter  were  seated  in  a  room.  A  long 
conversation  ensued. 

We  then  left,  and  proceeded  to  the  Museum,  which  is 
opposite  our  palace.  The  Director,  an  aged  person 
named  Lepsinius,  came  (to  receive  us).  On  the  walls  of 
the  staircase  of  the  building  there  are  designs  and  scenes, 
very  beautiful  and  old,  drawn  on  the  surface  of  the 
plaster.  Going  uj)stairs,  we  walked  about.  There  was  a 
crowd.  Plaster  figures,  small  and  large,  all  imitatively 
prepared  after  the  works  of  Greek  and  other  artists,  were 
there  in  great  numbers.  Other  objects  also,  in  porcelain, 
crystal,  ivory,  amber,  wood,  &c.,  were  seen.  We  went 
about  a  while,  and  then  returned  home. 

Before  long  we  set  out  again  to  go  and  pay  a  visit  of 
adieu  to  the  Emperor.  The  Emperor's  wife  was  present. 
This  day,  on  the  bank  of  the  Rhine,  Prince  Aldeberg 
(Adalbert),  cousin  of  the  Emperor,  and  Director  of  all  the 
war-ships  of  Germany,  has  died ;  the  aged  grandmother 
of  the  Emperor  also  is  dead;  and  for  this  reason  a 
concert,  instrumental  and  vocal,  appointed  for  this  even- 
ing, is  put  ofE     Well;   the  Emperor  came  in  also,  sat 

CHAP.  III.]       Prttssia,  Germany,  Belgium.  95 

down,  and  we  conversed.  The  wife  of  the  Emperor 
presented  me  with  a  china  vase  as  a  gift. 

We  then  went  to  the  Aquarium,  walked  ah  out  a  bit, 
and  to-da}^  have  examined  attentively  that  slothful  animal 
(the  sloth ;  choloepus  didactylus ;  bradypus  didactylus). 
On  its  front  paws  it  has  two  long  claws  like  those  of  an 
eagle,  and  on  its  hind  paws  three  such.  Wherever  it 
attaches  itself,  it  is  with  difficulty  that  it  is  sex)arated. 
Went  home. 

Wth  {Saturday,  Itli  June), — ^We  have  to  go  to  the  cities 
of  Cologne  and  Wiesbaden.  Eose  early  in  the  morning. 
There  was  a  violent  wind,  the  weather  being  cloudy  and 
cold.  We  dressed  in  anticipation  of  the  arrival  of  the 
Heir- Apparent.  When  he  came,  we  mounted  a  carriage 
and  drove  to  the  station  in  an  outskirt  of  the  city ;  there 
got  into  the  train,  said  good-bye,  and  started.  Much  as 
we  wished  to  sleep,  it  was  impossible.  As  soon  as  my 
eyes  closed,  we  would  arrive  at  a  station,  talking  and 
discussion  would  ensue  ;  there  was  nothing  for  it  but  we 
must  dress  and  hold  om-selves  in  readiness  until  the 
governor  of  such  a  town,  or  the  commander  of  such  a 
fortress,  should  be  introduced  by  the  Mu'tamadu-'l-Mulk 
and  took  himself  off  again. 

Mirza  Malkam  Khan  has  remained  in  Berlin  to  settle 
with  the  Prussian  Government  a  contract  for  the  purchase 
of  muskets. 

Well ;  the  appearance  of  the  country,  the  grass-lands, 
the  trees,  the  forests  of  fir  and  yews,  the  flowers,  the 
rivers,  the  populousness  of  the  villages  and  towns,  every- 
where, were  just  the  same  as  those  seen  when  we  were 

96  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Etirope,      [chap.  m. 

coming  to  Berlin.  We  passed  the  city  of  Hanover, 
which  is  very  pretty,  and  then  the  cities  and  regions  of 
Westphalia,  which  are  charming  spots.  Here  we  saw  a 
few  momitains  and  high  hills,  and  crossed  numerous 
rivers,  one  very  lai'ge, — and  at  an  hour  to  sunset  we 
arrived  at  the  works  of  M.  Krupp,  who  came  himself  to 
the  railway  (to  meet  us).  He  is  a  tall,  thin  old  man. 
He  has  himself,  in  a  certain  s^iace  of  time,  created  the 
whole  of  these  works.  The  cannon  of  every  government 
does  he  furnish  from  hence.  Guns  of  every  description, 
such  as  large  cannon  for  forts,  cannon  for  ships,  and 
cannon  for  field  use  in  campaigns,  are  all  manufactured 
here.  His  plant  and  workshops,  of  which  steam  is  the 
motive  power,  resemhle  a  mighty  city.  He  employs 
15,000  workmen,  for  the  whole  of  whom  he  has  erected 
houses  and  lodgings,  paying  them  salaries  and  wages. 
After  deducting  his  expenditure,  his  own  yearly  income 
amounts  to  800,000  tumans  (320,000L). 

We  went  to  the  shop  of  the  steam  hammers.  They 
are  singular  hammers,  like  mountains ;  and,  worked  by 
steam,  fulfil  the  office  of  forging  cannons.  They  make 
these  of  any  pattern  they  desire.  When  the  hammer 
strikes  the  gun,  the  earth  floor  of  the  workshop  emits  a 
sound  and  trembles.  It  was  a  marvellous  thing.  We 
went  all  over  the  works,  and  they  turned  out  some  large 
and  some  small  cannon.  We  then  went  to  a  house  which 
he  had  prepared,  and  there  we  dined.  He  gave  us  an 
excellent  dinner.  In  the  conservatory  of  this  house  we 
saw  a  tree,  the  leaves  of  which  were  two  ells  (seven  feet) 
long,  and   half   an  ell   (twenty- one  inches)  wide.     The 

CHAP,  in.]       Prussia,   Go^many,  Belgiitm.  97 

steam-hammers,  in  spite  of  their  great  distance  from  this 
room,  made  the  earth  shake  here  as  though  in  an  earth- 
quake. M.  Krupp  made  us  a  present  of  a  most  mag- 
nificent breech-loading  six-pounder  cannon,  with  all  its 

We  now  went  back  to  the  railway.  It  was  night.  I 
lay  down.  Sleep  overtook  me.  It  was  two  hours'  journey 
to  the  city  of  Cologne.  All  at  once  we  sprang  up  from 
sleep ;  I  heard  the  sound  of  music,  and  of  voices  speak- 
ing. I  knew  that  we  had  reached  that  city,  and  that  the 
authorities  were  waiting  to  be  received  in  audience.  I 
dressed ;  I  stood  up ;  the  authorities  came  up ;  then  I 
alighted  and  inspected  their  troops.  Now  we  mounted  a 
carriage  again  and  entered  the  city.  There  was  a  great 
concourse.  A  beautiful  city  appeared  before  my  sight ; 
it  has  a  large,  lofty,  well-placed  church,  which  they  say 
is  the  first  in  Europe.  I  went  to  an  hotel,  a  cheerful 
building,^  and  there  we  took  up  our  quarters.  After 
awhile  I  again  slept. 

12f/i  (Sunday,  8th  June). — This  afternoon  we  have  to 
go  to  the  city  of  Wiesbaden.  In  the  morning  on  arising 
from  sleep  we  breakfasted,  mounted  a  carriage,  and  drove 
to  the  Botanical  and  Zoological  Gardens,  which  are  near 
the  city.  The  wealthy  of  the  city  have  supplied  the 
funds,  and  maintain  these  two  gardens  for  their  o^vn 
amusement  and  that  of  the  people.  We  passed  by  at 
the  foot  of  the  great  church.  It  is  a  most  imposing 
edifice.  It  is  more  than  four  hundred  years  that  they  have 
built  it  here,  and  they  are  still  busy  working  at  it,  as 
it  is  not  yet  completed,  the  cranes  being  on  the  spot. 


98  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe,      [chap.  m. 

At  one  side  of  it  is  a  very  magnificent  structure,  into 
wliich  we  did  not  go,  but  we  examined  it  all  round.  It 
has  many  conical  domes.  It  has  so  many  openings  and 
apertures,  and  is  so  vast  and  so  high,  that  many  crows 
have  therein  made  their  nests. 

Thence  we  passed  on,  and  saw  a  very  long  iron  bridge 
that  spans  the  river  Ehine.  The  river  flows  through  the 
middle  of  the  town;  but  the  bulli  of  the  populous  part 
of  it  was  on  one  side  of  the  river,  where  our  quarters 
were.  We  arrived  at  the  Botanical  Gardens.  It  has  a 
building,  in  front  of  which  are  beautiful  beds  of  flowers, 
basins  with  fountains,  and  lawns.  They  had  laid  down 
an  india-rubber  tube,  which  incessantly  revolved  in  the 
water,  and  from  its  orifice  water  flowed  to  all  parts  of  the 
lawn.  Some  had  two  tubes;  they  revolved  like  the 
Catherine-wheels  of  fireworks,  and  so  scattered  the  water. 
Well ;  we  entered  the  room  and  the  hall  of  the  plants, 
where  we  saw  some  flowers,  some  date-palms,  and  others ; 
we  passed  on  into  a  small  hot-house  to  which  they  had 
given  the  temperature  of  India,  and  in  which  they  had 
reared  African,  American,  and  Indian  plants.  There 
was  a  plantain-tree,  which  has  large  leaves.  One  tree 
was  seen,  the  leaves  of  which  were  narrow,  but  were  five 
ells  (seventeen  feet  six  inches)  long. 

Coming  out  from  thence,  we  entered  a  fish-house 
(aquarium),  which  was  small.  As  at  Berlin,  the  fishes 
were  behind  sheets  of  plate-glass.  We  surveyed  them 
and  came  out  again.  We  sat  down  awhile.  From  the 
other  side  of  the  glazed  windows  the  people  looked  on  in 
great  numbers.     The  weather  was  very  cold,  with  rain 

CHAP.  III.]       Prtissia,   Germany,  Belgium.  99 

falling  at  intervals.      Red  roses  were  newly  come  into 

We  now  went  to  the  Zoological  Gardens,  wliicli  are 
very  beautiful  and  grand.  Such  animals  as  we  had  seen 
at  Berlin,  such  as  maned-lions,  black  leopards,  &c.,  we 
found  here  also,  though  in  somewhat  less  numbers.  The 
small,  beautiful,  many-coloured  birds  were  few ;  but 
there  were  many  strange  and  wonderful  large  birds,  of 
charming  plumage,  that  I  did  not  see  at  Berlin.  A 
large  crowned  pigeon  (gaura  coronata)  from  the  Molucca 
Islands,  which  is  a  splendid  bird ;  vaiious  kinds  of 
tui'keys,  crested,  with  fine  plumage,  but  strange-looking, 
there  were  in  numbers ;  the  condor  was  there ;  also 
two  ostriches.  The  feet  of  the  ostriches  had  two  toes, 
of  an  unusual  form.  Large  black  bears,  white  polar 
bears  like  snow,  diminutive  horses,  one  white  male 
camel  in  heat,  were  there.  It  is  very  strange  that  a 
camel  should  be  in  heat  during  the  summer  season. 
There  was  a  humped  ox  from  India  (zebu,  bos  indicus) ; 
the  horns  and  every  other  particular  of  which  are  similar 
to  those  of  ordinary  oxen,  but  which  is  of  the  size  of 
a  sheep.  A  kind  of  male  argali — bearded  argali  (aoudad, 
ammotragus  tragelaphus)  was  seen,  brought  from  Morocco, 
the  head,  the  colour  of  body,  and  the  horns  of  which 
were  like  the  vicious  rams  of  Persia,  but  the  hair  on  the 
breast  of  which  was  yellow  and  very  long,  and  from  the 
knees  to  the  soles  of  the  feet  of  which  hung  a  thick 
fringe  of  hair.  There  were  so  man}^  kinds  of  birds  and 
quadrupeds  that  one  became  bewildered.  As  a  pen  for 
the  ai-galis  and  antelopes,  a  kind  of  artificial  mountain 


loo  Diary  of  a   Tour  i7i  Europe,      [chap,  m: 

was  formed,  with  fountains  of  running  water,  that  had 
caused  grass  and  flowers  to  spring  up  on  the  stone  pave- 
ment,— all  most  surprising. 

We  then  remounted  and  drove  over  the  bridge.  It 
had  two  roadways,  one  for  ordinar}^  horse  vehicles,  the 
other  for  railway  trains,  between  which  an  iron  network 
acted  as  a  partition.  The  bridge  must  be  a  thousand 
feet  in  length.  It  is  all  of  iron.  The  river  Rhine  is  a 
mighty  stream,  very  wide,  clear,  and  pleasing.  Large 
steamers  ply  thereon.  Merely  for  a  drive,  we  went  to 
the  fiirther  side  of  the  city,  and  again  returned  to  Cologne 
over  the  bridge,  and  by  the  foot  of  the  dome  and  of  the 
great  church.  There  were  beautiful  shops,  magnificent 
houses  of  wealthy  men. 

Now  we  went  to  the  station  and  took  our  seat  in  the 
train.  The  Hakimu-'l-Mamalik  and  Mr,  Thomson  both' 
started  to-day  for  London.  Every  place  in  the  country 
was  beautiful,  populous,  full  of  cultivation,  trees,  woods, 
and  forests ;  through  such  did  we  pass  till  we  reached 
the  city  of  Bonn.  Here  the  train  stopped,  and  we 
alighted.  A  regiment  of  hussar  cavahy,  special  to  the 
Emperor,  was  di'awn  out  on  foot,  the  colonel  of  which  is 
the  Prmce  of  Reuss,  brother  of  the  German  Ambassador 
at  (St.)  Peter(sburg),  whom  we  had  seen  there.  He  was. 
received  in  audience.  There  was  also  an  old  marshal  of 
distinction,  retired  from  service,  and  residing  here,  whose 
namcAvas  Hervard  Bitenfeld.  We  next  reached  Coblentz. 
The  train  stopped ;  the  Governor  of  the  place,  with 
others,  came  to  an  audience.  The  guns  of  the  town 
fired  a  salute.     It  is    a  large  place.     We   crossed   the 

CHAP.  III.]       Prussia,   Germany,  Belgmm.  loi 

Rhine  by  a  bridge,  the  river  here  being  narrow,  with  hills 
on  either  side.  The  bank  of  the  river  is  all  villages, 
towns,  cultivations  of  vines,  cherry-trees,  and  the  like. 
The  cherries  were  ripe  and  the  trees  laden  with  fruit. 
Each  vine  was  bound  to  a  stout  stake.  The  whole  hill- 
side and  the  i^lain  is  one  continuous  vineyard,  the  famous 
Ehein-wein  being  produced  from  these  very  vines.  On 
either  side  of  the  river  is  there  a  railway,  and  continually 
do  the  ti'ains  rmi.  There  are  also  roads  for  carnages, 
waggons,  and  pedestrians,  well  made  and  kept.  The 
whole  region  is  a  garden.  All  the  mountains  and  plains 
are  grapevines,  fruit-trees,  flower-gardens,  and  avenues ; 
with  towns  and  cities  at  frequent  intervals.  One  wonders, 
and  is  never  tired  with  admiring.  Every  now  and  then  a 
beautiful  solitary  pavilion,  with  large  and  small  summer- 
houses,  in  the  best  taste  and  of  the  most  graceful  forms, 
are  seen  erected  on  the  river's  side,  or  up  on  a  hill  over- 
looking the  stream,  like  a  paradise.  Some  ruins  of  old 
castles  were  also  noticed  on  the  mountains  and  on  the 
river  bank.  The  going  and  coming  of  the  trains,  the 
buildings,  the  verdure  and  flowers,  whether  natural  or 
artificial,  put  one  beside  one's  self.  For  several  leagues 
our  road  was  (through  a  country)  similar  to  that  witnessed 
on  our  first  visit  to  the  land  of  Gilan  and  the  river 
Safid-rud.  Sometimes  our  trains  passed  over  the  tops 
of  the  roofs  of  houses  in  streets  of  villages.  In  fine,  it 
was  indescribable.  After  awhile  the  mountains  and 
valleys  terminated,  and  the  river  flowed  on  our  right. 
By  degrees  we  left  the  river  at  a  distance,  and  we  turned 
ill  the  dh'ection  of  Wiesbaden,  where  at  length  we  arrived. 

I02  Diaiy  of  a   Toti?"  in  Europe.      [chap.  m. 

There  was  a  crowd  of  all  denominations.  As  this  city 
possesses  hot  mineral  springs,  strangers  flock  to  it  from 
all  quarters.  We  momited  a  carriage  with  the  Grand- 
Yazir  and  the  General  (in  Waiting),  and  drove  to  our 
quarters,  a  palace  belonging  to  the  Government.  Our 
own  ai^artments  are  in  the  middle  story,  the  others  being 
lodged  higher  up.  The  windows  of  our  room  look  out 
on  a  street  and  a  square  where  there  is  a  church  of  great 
height;  the  sjnre  thereof,  being  the  spire  of  the  clock 
(tower),  rises  to  an  extremely  acute  point.  At  the  four 
sides  of  the  chui'ch,  there  are  other  four  constructions 
with  sharp-pointed  sj^u-es. 

In  the  evening  a  band  2)layed,  a  large  crowd  collecting. 
In  niches  and  apertures  in  the  front  of  the  church,  elec- 
tric lights  and  Bengal  Hghts  were  exhibited.  They  had 
improvised,  by  means  of  a  pumping-engine,  a  very  lofty 
jet-d'eau  in  front  of  the  church,  with  a  great  body  of 
water;  and  this  was  made  to  assume  various  colom^s, 
according  to  the  nature  of  the  light  thrown  upon  it, 
which  was  very  charming  to  behold. 

To-day  we  saw  Nazar  Aqa,  our  Minister  Resident  at 
Paris,  and  also  Mirza  Ahmad,  son  of  Mirza  Muhammad 
Ra'is,  who  had  both  come  here  from  Paris. 

IWi  {Monday,  9th  June). — We  rose  in  the  morning, 
and  having  taken  breakfast,  mounted  our  carriage  and 
drove  out  to  the  town  of  Schierstein,  near  the  river 
Rhine,  where  there  is  a  manufactory  of  champagne,  a 
variety  of  wine.  Quitting  the  city  (of  Wiesbaden),  we 
followed  a  very  delightful  avenue,  for  the  space  of  about 
an  hour.     This  avenue  is  arranged  as  a  6arriage- drive ^ 

CHAP.  III.]       Pimssia,   Germany^  BelgiiLin.  103 

and  is  exceedingly  beautiful.  The  weather  was  cloudy 
and  cold.  We  passed  through  a  village  and  a  town  where 
there  was  an  assemblage  of  people.  Quitting  this,  we  drove 
along  the  river-bank  at  about  the  distance  of  five  hun- 
dred feet  from  the  water.  Passing  by  some  pretty  sites, 
a  charming  garden  attracted  my  attention.  It  had  a  low 
wall,  and  an  iron  gate  that  was  closed.  We  there  got 
out  of  our  carriage,  and  on  knocking  (or  ringing ;  lit,^ 
making  a  noise),  the  gardener  came  and  opened  the  gate. 
There  were  several  Prussian  officials  with  us,  who  entered 
the  garden  likewise.  It  was  a  sweetly-pretty  place  with 
nice  walks  and  delicious  spots,  lawns,  red  roses,  &c. 
The  Ehine  in  prospect,  with  its  surroundings,  resembled 
a  paradise.  The  mansion  was  magnificent  and  tastefully 
built ;  its  little  hot-house,  very  pleasing ;  its  trellises  in 
decussated  work,  for  the  support  of  vines,  were  con- 
structed in  the  best  style.  In  it  there  was  a  wooden 
hive  for  the  honey-bees,  which  was  quite  a  novelt}^ 
There  were  basins  with  fountains,  the  source  of  these 
latter  being  in  a  high  turret  built  of  stone,  to  represent 
a  natural  hill,  from  whence  the  water  was  brought  to  th6 
fountains,  through  pipes,  &c.  There  were  edible  cherries 
of  very  fine  sorts.  The  doors  of  the  rooms  were  locked, 
but  the  interiors  of  those  on  the  ground-floor  were 
visible  through  the  plate-glass  windows,  each  being 
furnished  with  chairs,  tables,  looking-glasses,  carpets, 
and  various  numerous  articles  of  embellishment.  This 
house  was  the  propert}^  of  a  man  of  consideration,  named 
Blundberg,  but  he  was  himself  away  at  (St.)  Peter (sburg), 
and  his  wife  in  AViesbaden ;  they  were  consequentl}"  not 

104  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe,      [chap.  m. 

presented.  It  is  a  most  charming  summer  residence, 
and  he  bought  it  for  thirty-five  thousand  tumans 
(14,000L).  There  was  also  in  a  cage  within  this  garden 
a  handsome  monkey,  the  tip  of  the  nose  of  which 
was  of  a  light  blue  colour.  There  were  also  several 
elderly  damsels,  who  brought  us  tea,  bread,  sweetmeats, 
and  the  like.  We  walked  about  here  a  considerable 
time,  and  I  then  mounted  my  horse  "  Blaze,"  the  others 
got  into  the  carriage,  and  we  started  for  the  town  of 
Biebrich  (Biberich),  which  is  of  some  importance. 

On  the  bank  of  the  Rhine  we  noticed  a  large  park  and 
mansion  belonging  to  the  Duke  of  Nassau,  who  was,  a 
few  years  ago,  the  independent  sovereign  of  this  region. 
He  is  now  in  Vienna.  His  brother.  Prince  Nicholas, 
was  riding  in  the  park  with  his  wife  and  her  brother. 
The  prince  wore  spectacles  and  a  long  yellow  beard ;  his 
wife  was  from  Eussia,  and  wore  a  black  riding  habit 
as  she  rode.  We  conversed  together  a  while.  I  then 
galloped  my  horse  about  a  bit  and  again  mounted 
my  carriage,  when  the  prince,  with  his  wife  and  her 
brother  accompanied  us  on  horseback  for  the  space 
of  half  an  hour.  They  then  left  us,  and  we  entered 

This  town  is  populous  and  very  flourishing,  has  good 
shops,  many  houses,  and  considerable  traffic.  Passing 
through  it,  we  fell  into  an  excellent  avenue,  and  drove 
towards  Wiesbaden.  This  avenue  had  three  roadways— 
the  middle  one  for  carriages,  very  wide ;  on  one  side  was 
a  ride  for  horsemen,  and  on  the  other  a  path  for 

<jiTAP.  III.]       Prussia,  Germany,  BelgitC7n.  105 

When,  on  quitting  the  town  and  garden  first  mentioned 
ahove,  we  turned  to  proceed  to  Biebrich,  we  observed  at 
a  distance,  as  we  went  along,  the  bridge  and  town  of 
Biebrich  coming  into  view.  It  is  a  i)lace  of  some  im- 
portance, and  has  regular  fortifications. 

We  reached  home  in  the  middle  of  the  afternoon.  In 
the  evening  there  was  an  illumination,  with  performances 
of  legerdemain  in  a  garden  within  the  city ;  but  as  it  was 
not  a  befitting  place,  we  did  not  go  to  see  it.  The 
prince,  Wajihu-'l-'lah  Mirza  went,  and  was  loud  in  his 
praises  of  the  conjurer.  The  Grand- Vazir,  the  princes, 
and  the  rest  of  our  suite  have  all  visited  the  place.  We 
did  not  go  out  for  a  promenade  this  evening,  but  retired 
to  rest. 

\A.t]i  {Tuesday,  10th  June), — Eose  in  the  morning  and 
breakfasted.  Mounted  a  carriage,  leaving  the  Grand- 
Vazir  and  others  behind  at  Wiesbaden,  and  drove  to  the 
station.  Got  into  a  train  and  started  for  Frankfort-on- 
the-Main,  taking  with  me  all  our  princes,  &c.,  excepting 
the  I'tizadu-'s-Saltana,  the  Nusratu-'d-Dawla,  and  the 
Il-Khani.  The  distance  to  Frankfort  is  about  the  same 
as  that  from  Tehran  to  (the  village  of)  Karj.  We  did  it 
in  an  hour  or  less.  Every  part  was  populous  and  culti- 
vated. We  went  by  the  side  of  the  city  of  Mayence,  of 
which  the  chief  part  is  on  the  other  side  of  the  Rhine. 

We  reached  the  station  (at  Frankfort),  ahghted, 
mounted  a  carriage  amidst  the  usual  military  honours, 
and  drove  through  the  streets,  where  crowds  were  col- 
lected. The  cities  of  Firangistan  (Europe  in  general) 
all  resemble  one  another.     When  one  has  been  seen,  the 

io6  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Eicrope.      [chap.  m. 

arrangement,   condition,   and   scale   of  the   others  is  in 
one's  2:)ossession. 

We  went  a  little  way  outside  the  town  and  arrived  at  a 
suburban  district,  where  we  remarked  better  and  more 
beautiful  detached  mansions  than  those  within  the  city. 
The  whole  environs  of  the  town  are  full  of  parks, 
avenues,  and  flower-gardens.  AVe  came  to  a  garden 
known  by  the  name  of  "  The  Palms."  It  is  now  three 
3^ears  that  this  garden  has  been  established  with  funds 
contributed  b}^  the  wealthy  inhabitants  for  the  pleasure 
and  pastime  of  the  public.  There  was  a  large  concourse 
of  men  and  women  assembled.  Troops  of  the  line  were 
drawn  up,  their  bands  playing.  We  alighted.  It  was  a 
garden  exquisitely  laid  out  in  flower-beds  with  many  kinds 
of  flowers.  There  was  a  basin  of  water  in  the  midst,  a 
fountain  from  which  spouted  to  the  height  of  five  ells 
(seventeen  feet  six  mches).  The  Director  of  the  garden 
came  forward  and  made  a  speech.  We  i)assed  on  among 
the  women  and  men,  went  up  some  steps  into  a  building 
covered  over  and  laid  out  in  beds  of  flowers.  Further 
on  we  entered  a  covered  park,  which  is  the  i)alm-house. 
The  roof  is  arched  and  glazed,  so  as  to  be  protected 
from  frost  in  winter.  There  were  some  tall  and  hand- 
some palm-trees,  but  they  never  yield  dates.  There 
were  also  various  American  plants,  a  fountain,  and 
further  on  a  cascade,  from  which  the  water  fell  over 
rocks,  as  in  a  natural  mountain.  There  were  a  number 
of  private  women  and  men,  with  great  nmnbers  of  officers. 
We  went  to  the  upper  story  of  the  Conservatory.  This 
building  has  been  constructed  solely  for  the  purposes  of 

CHAP.  Til.]       Prussia,   Germany,  Belgium.  107 

instrumental  music,  eating,  and  drinking  wine.  The- 
band  pla3^ed.  There  was  a  nice  view  over  the  city  and 
the  garden.  We  sat  there  awhile,  descended,  mounted 
our  carriage,  and  drove  to  the  Zoological  Gardens ► 
Although  this  establishment  was  not  equal  to  that  at 
Cologne,  it  was  not  bad.  It  possessed  many  annuals  ; — 
wliite  and  black  bears,  some  argalis,  a  ram  and  ewe  of  a 
certain  kind  (mouflons),  from  the  island  of  Sicily  or 
Sardinia  in  Italy,  like  those  of  the  regions  of  Persia,  but 
somewhat  blacker ;  also  parrots  of  various  plumage,  in 
cages  hanging  from  trees.  There  was  one  kind  of  very 
handsome  parrot,  small ;  a  large  maned-lion,  a  lioness,  a 
panther  and  two  tigers.  There  was  a  big  elephant,  to 
which  they  brought  a  large  musical  box  (an  organ),  the 
handle  for  playing  which  the  elephant  turned  round 
rapidly  with  his  trunk,  so  playing  it,  while  he  himself 
danced  to  the  tune.  The  keeper  then  brought  to  him  a 
different  instrument,  that  children  and  others  play  with 
their  mouths  ;  the  elephant  took  it  unhesitatingly  in  his 
trunk,  and  began  to  play  it  and  to  dance ; — which  was 
very  singular. 

We  now  returned  by  the  train  to  Wiesbaden.  After  a 
short  rest  they  brought  our  carriage,  and  I  went  out  for 
a  drive.  Leaving  the  city  behind  us,  we  got  into  avenues 
and  gardens,  where  the  notables  and  others  have  beau- 
tiful detached  mansions  with  nicely  laid-out  beds  of 
choice  flowers.  Flocks  of  women  and  men  were  taking 
the  air  in  these  walks,  where  we  drove  about  for  a  time,  and 
then  went  further  up  to  an  eminence  with  many  trees  and 
knolls,  that  overlooks  the  city.     Still,  every  spot  was  full 

io8  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Europe.      [chap.  m. 

of  avenues  and  carriage  roads.  The  tomb  of  a  niece  of 
the  Russian  Emperor  Nicholas,  wife  of  the  Duke  of 
Nassau,  was  there,  erected  on  a  mountain,  she  having 
died  when  only  nineteen  years  of  age.  She  was  buried 
here,  in  this  country,  and  the  Russian  Government  has 
built  this  tomb  of  stone  and  marble  in  a  most  beautiful 
manner.  It  has  more  than  one  gilt  dome.  Her  own 
■statue,  recumbent  as  in  the  throes  of  death,  beautifully 
carved  in  marble,  is  ]^laced  over  her  grave.  She  was  a 
daughter  of  (the  Grand-Duke)  Michael,  brother  of 
Nicholas,  and  her  husband  was  the  former  sovereign  of 
this  country,  who  is  still  alive,  and  resides  in  Vienna. 

This  country  is  called  Nassau,  and  Wiesbaden  is  its 
capital.  It  is  now  possessed  by  the  Prussians.  The 
city  of  Frankfort,  also,  to  which  we  went  to-day,  formerly 
was  part  of  it;  but,  after  the  war  with  Austria,  it  was 
-conquered  by  Prussia,  and  a  heavy  fine  was  imposed 
upon  it. 

We  now  returned  home,  dined  and  again  mounting 
om*  caiTiage,  we  drove  to  a  very  fine  building  (the  Kur- 
Saal),  in  front  of  which  was  a  square  with  a  garden  and 
trees.  There  was  a  fountain  playing  in  the  middle, 
and  aU  around  were  shops.  They  had  prepared  a  dis- 
play of  fireworks  here,  and  in  the  upper  story  of  the 
building  they  had  arranged  chairs.  Here  we  sat  down, 
with  the  Grand-Vazir,  the  princes,  and  the  rest.  There 
was  also  a  large  concourse  of  women  and  men  in  the 
balcony  and  in  the  square.  The  fireworks  were  very 

This  over,  we  walked  round  the  rooms  and  halls  of 

€HAP.  III.]       Pi^ussia,   Germany,  Belgium.  109 

the  building,  which  are  very  sumptuous,  with  man}^  chan- 
deliers and  other  furniture,  being  now  the  propert}^  of 
the  State.  In  some  of  the  rooms  they  still  play  at 
chess ;  in  others  there  are  large  tables,  and  the  news- 
papers of  the  whole  world  are  brought  there  for  peoi)le 
to  read,  and  thence  to  acquire  information.  From  thence 
we  went  out  into  the  garden,  and  sat  down  by  the  brink 
of  the  basin.  A  daughter  of  Malkam  (Sir  John  Malcolm), 
the  English  Minister  Plenipotentiary  to  the  Presence  of 
the  late  Khaqan  (Fath-'Ali  Shah,  great-grandfather  to 
the  author),  of  pious  memory,  was  seen  here, — a  fat  old 
woman  with  a  very  pretty  daughter,  both  of  them  being 
presented  to  us.  We  conversed ;  they  are  now  residing^ 
in  Prussia.  The  wife  and  daughter  of  General  Boien 
were  also  presented.     We  then  returned  home. 

Mirza  Malkam  Khan,  who  had  remained  behind  in 
Berlin  for  the  purchase  of  muskets,  rejoined  us  this- 
evening.  Dr.  Tholozan  will  go  to-morrow  to  see  M, 
Krupp  about  the  purchase  of  cannon. 

Of  mornings  the  wives  of  villagers  bring  in  on  carts 
fruit,  vegetables,  and  the  like,  to  sell ;  and  form  a 
market  for  these  commodities  opposite  our  quarters- 
around  the  church.  After  a  time,  when  all  are  sold  off,, 
tliey  go  away. 

Saddle-donkeys  are  much  in  use ;  especially  the  womeix 
hire  them  and  ride  on  them. 

l^tli  {Wednesday^  11th  June). — God  willing,  we  have 
to  go  to  Baden-Baden,  and  to  be  the  guest  for  one  night 
of  the  (Grand-)  Duke,  whose  wife  is  the  daughter  of  the 
Emperor   of  Germany.     He  is   free   and   independent; 

1 1  o  Diary  of  a   Tour  hi  Europe,      [chap.  m. 

-coin  is  struck  and  prayer  is  read  in  his  name,  which  is 
Frederick  ;  that  of  his  wife  being  Louise. 

In  the  morning,  therefore,  we  rose,  breakfasted  at 
home,  and  then  proceeded  by  train,  the  Grand-Vazir, 
the  princes,  and  all  the  rest  of  my  suite  accompanying 
me,  excepting  the  Il-Khani,  who,  with  a  few  others,  re- 
mained behind  at  Wiesbaden. 

We  passed  the  city  of  Mayence,  which  is  strongly 
fortified.  This  very  general  who  is  in  attendance  on  us 
is  the  Governor  of  the  place,  in  this  sense,  that  he 
-commands  the  forts  and  the  gamson,  whereas  the 
Administrator  of  the  Finances  and  such  like  is  ap- 
pointed by  the  Duke  of  Darmstadt.  The  town  is  the 
property  of  the  Duke,  and  the  Prussians  have  forced  the 
garrison  upon  him. 

Passing  by  Mayence  to  Frankfort,  and  from  thence  to 
the  city  of  Darmstadt,  we  here  fell  upon  a  curious  coin- 
cidence. At  the  very  moment  of  our  arrival,  we  saw  a 
train  come  in  and  go  past  us,  when  it  stopped.  We 
were  informed  that  it  was  the  Emperor  of  Russia  on  his 
way  from  Vienna  to  go  to  the  hot-baths  at  Ems.  We 
sent  the  Grand- Vazir  to  make  enquiries  after  His  Ma- 
jesty's health;  upon  which,  the  Emperor  himself,  his 
Heir-Apparent,  his  Heir-Apparent's  wife,  Alderberg, 
and  others,  came  (to  see  us).  They  were  all  dressed  in 
plain  clothes,  not  in  uniforms.  We  alighted,  went  (to 
meet  them),  and  shook  hands.  We  had  a  very  affec- 
tionate interview.  Afterwards,  the  brother  of  the  Em- 
press of  Russia, — a  tall  man,  and  independent  ruler  of 
this  country,  over  wliich  Prussia  exercises  no  rule,  and 

CHAP,  in.]       Prussia,  Germany,  Belgmm.  iii 

also  his  wife,  were  presented ;  as  also  a  daughter  of  the 
Sovereign  of  England,  wife  of  the  son,  or  grandson,  of 
this  ruler,  whose  child  lately  fell  from  a  window  and  died 
in  consequence,  for  whom  she  was  still  in  mourning, — the 
full  details  of  which  have  been  previously  given.* 

After  taking  leave,  we  again  joined  the  train  and 
arrived  at  Heidelberg,  the  first  place  within  the  domi- 
nions of  the  Grand-Duke  of  Baden.  Here  the  train 
stopped,  and  a  few  individuals — the  Governor  and  some 
Professors  of  the  Colleges  of  Baden — were  introduced. 
One  of  the  Professors  made  a  speech  in  Persian.  Then 
we  proceeded  to  the  city  of  Carlsruhe,  the  capital  of  the 
Grand-Duke  of  Baden.  He  himself,  with  the  whole  of 
the  grandees  of  his  State,  Ministers,  Commanders,  and 
others,  was  at  the  station  (to  meet  me).  I  alighted; 
military  honours  were  observed,  there  being  a  band,  and 
a  company  of  the  (Grand-)  Duke's  troops  drawn  up,  which 
we  inspected.  The  nature  of  the  uniform,  the  musket, 
the  cap,  and  everything  else,  of  these  troops  of  Baden, 
were  similar  to  those  of  the  Prussians ;  only  their  caps 
bore  a  distinguishing  mark  for  Baden.  In  the  French 
war  the  Baden  contingent  showed  great  firmness  ;  twenty 
thousand  men  having  been  furnished.  Now,  in  time  of 
peace,  they  are  but  ten  to  fifteen  thousand  (under  arms). 

Carlsruhe,  the  capital  of  Baden,  is  a  beautiful  city  and 
prosperous.  Its  population  is  thirty-seven  thousand.  Its 
streets  are  long  and  straight.  All  the  produce  of  this 
region  is  independent  of  irrigation. 

*  No  such  details  are  in  the  printed  Avork.  They  were  probably  struck 
out,  without  attention  to  this  reference  to  them.  — I.  W   R, 

112  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Bicrope.      [ohap.  m. 

I  and  the  (Grand-)  Duke  mounted  together  in  a  car- 
riage and  drove  off,  being  followed  by  the  others.  The 
weather  is  alwa3^s  cloudy.  Women  and  men  in  great 
numbers  stood  on  both  sides  of  the  horseway  in  the 
streets,  very  respectful  and  quiet.  The  (Grand-)  Duke 
himself  is  a  ver}^  handsome,  noble,  and  courteous  man. 
He  has  a  yellow  beard,  very  long  and  thick;  his  face  is 
fair  and  rosy ;  his  eyes  are  large,  his  body  robust.  We 
talked  together  for  a  while  in  French,  until  we  arrived  in 
a  square  fronting  the  ancient,  ancestral  palace  of  the 
(Grand-)  Duke.  The  square  was  very  pretty,  with  flower- 
gardens  and  fountains.  Some  regular  cavalry  marched 
before  us.  We  alighted  in  front  of  the  palace  ;  the  wife 
of  the  (Grand-)  Duke  came  forward,  to  whom  we  gave 
our  hand.  The  wife  of  the  (Grand-)  Duke's  brother, 
who  is  a  Russian  lady  princess  of  distinction,  by  name 
Marie,  and  niece  or  cousin  of  the  Emperor  of  Russia, 
was  also  present.  She  wore  magnificent  jewels  on  lier 
head.  We  shook  hands  with  her  also ;  and  then  went 
upstairs.  It  is  a  beautiful  palace,  full  of  ornaments  and 
furniture,  &c.  The  (Grand-)  Duke  led  us  away  to  a 
private  chamber  that  was  specially  assigned  to  us.  We 
rested  awhile  and  changed  our  costume,  going  thence 
to  the  dining-room,  where  all  were  assembled.  The 
(Grand-)  Duke  was  seated  on  our  right,  and  his  wife  on 
our  left.  We  had  an  excellent  dinner ;  after  which  we 
walked  about  a  bit,  and  then  went  down  to  the  lower 
garden  of  the  palace,  w^hich  contained  some  beautiful 
flowers.  All  were  there  with  us  ;  we  again  walked  about 
a  little,  and  then,  mounting  a  carriage  with  the  (Grand-) 

ciiAP.  III.]       Prussia^  Germany^  Belgttmz.  1 13 

Duke,  we  drove  along  the  road  by  wliicli  we  had  come, 
went  to  the  station,  got  into  a  train,  and  started  for 
the  city  of  Baden-Baden.  The  (Grand-)  Duke  returned 
home,  to  come  on  to-morrow. 

As  we  passed  by  Darmstadt,  everywhere  to  our  left  the 
mountains  and  forests  were  near  at  hand ;  while  to  our 
right  was  a  level  country.  But  at  first  the  mountains  to 
our  left  were  like  hills  and  had  not  much  forest.  As  we 
went  further  and  got  near  to  Baden  (-Baden),  the  forests 
were  denser  and  the  hills  somewhat  higher.  The  whole , 
surface  of  the  plains  and  mountains  here  was  green  with 
grass,  and  the  climate  ver}^  cool,  like  a  summer  mountain- 
station.  We  arrived  at  the  town  of  Baden-Baden  after 
sunset.  It  is  a  town  in  a  valle}-,  having  mountains  all 
round,  with  meadows,  woods,  and  green  crops,  exactly 
like  the  mountains  of  Kalardasht  in  Mazandaran.  The 
weather  was  cloud}^  and  misty,  very  cold,  and  every  now 
and  then  heavy  rain  fell;  which  is  very  similar  to  the 
climate  of  Ashraf  and  Safi-abad  in  Mazandaran.  Wealthy 
people  from  Firangistiin  have  here  built  detached  resi- 
dences of  great  magnificence  and  beauty ;  for,  during  the 
summer  season,  the  greater  portion  of  the  i)leasure- 
seekers  congregate  here.  It  has  a  climate  like  that  of 
Paradise  ;  a  river,  like  that  of  Shahristanak,  that  issues 
from  a  valley  and  flows  through  the  town.  In  verit}^  it 
is  not  a  town  with  the  contemplation  of  which  one  can 
tire.  For  lovers,  pleasure-hunters,  S3^barites,  it  is  a 
capital  nook.  Pretty  women  and  graceful  ladies  conti- 
nually^ promenade  about  its  avenues,  lawns,  and  hills,  on 
foot,  on  horseback,  and  in  carriages.     In  truth,  it  is  a 

114  Diary  of  a   Toui^  in  Europe,      [chap.  m.. 

fairy  abode.  It  has  a  fine  church  for  those  of  the 
Roman  faith,  and  there  are  those  who  are  Protestants. 
The  whole  town  is  lighted  with  gas.  There  are  mineral 
hot-baths  and  others.  To  the  very  toi:)s  of  the  moun- 
tains there  are  winding,  tortuous  carriage -roads  ever}-- 
where,  as  well  as  avenues  by  which  carriages  travel  in 
every  direction.  Prince  Menschikoff,  who  was  in  attend- 
ance upon  us  in  Russia,  has  here  a  beautiful  seat,  a  wife, 
and  all  the  appliances  of  life.  He  was  here  himself.  He- 
came,  and  we  conversed.  The  wife  of  the  Prince,  too, 
was  presented.  In  short,  our  quarters  were  in  a  very 
ch  aiming  hotel. 

We  alighted  and  went  u^^stairs.  Crowds  of  women 
and  men,  sj^ectators,  looked  on.  In  the  evening,  after- 
dinner,  we  went  downstairs  for  a  stroll.  A  band  was 
plajdng.  Light  rain  fell  from  time  to  time.  In  the^ 
neighbourhood  there  were  some  handsome  shops  and  a 
very  prett}'  square,  all  grass  and  flowering  shrubs.  \Ve> 
entered  the  shops  and  bought  some  pretty  things.  Ever}-- 
where  women  and  men,  spectators,  collected  in  numbers.. 
Our  purchases  took  up  much  time.  We  returned  home  ; 
fireworks  were  exhibited ;  we  went  upstairs ;  we  sat 
awhile,  and  then  retired  to  rest. 

16f/t  {Tlmrsday,  IWiJiine). — In  the  morning  we  arose 
and  dressed.  Prince  Gortchakof,  the  Russian  Premier,, 
had  also  arrived  here  yesterday  for  travel  and  pleasure. 
He  came  to  an  audience,  at  which  the  Grand- Vazir  w^as" 
also  present.  We  sat  and  had  a  long  conversation.  He 
left,  and  I  went  to  a  bath.  It  was  a  beautiful  bath  ;  with 
a  stove,  &c.,  had  they  made  it  warm.     It  had  a  small- 

CHAP.  III.]      Prussia,  Germany,  Belgmm,  1 1 5 

basin  of  marble.  We  went  into  the  water ;  came  out ; 
dressed ;  and  went  home.  After  a  short  intei*val  had 
elapsed  the  (Grand-)  Duke  arrived.  Mounting  an  open 
carriage  together,  we  went  for  a  drive.  The  General 
likewise  was  with  us.  The  weather  was  cloudy  and  very 
cold ;  rain  also  fell  occasionally.  I  had  come  out  of  the 
bath  in  a  state  of  perspiration,  and  had  not  put  on  an 
overcoat.  As  we  drove  about  I  was  very  cold.  AVe  went 
about,  uj)  hill  and  down  dale,  passing  through  charming 
sites,  until  we  arrived  at  the  summit  of  an  eminence 
where  there  was  a  church.  Here  we  alighted  and  entered 
the  church.  It  was  an  edifice  erected  by  the  former 
Prince  of  Roumania,  i.e.,  of  Wallachia  and  Moldavia,  in 
memory  of  a  young  son  of  his  who  had  died.  The  Prince 
and  his  wife  now  live  in  this  town.  They  have  had  a 
beautiful  marble  statue  of  their  son  executed,  whose  tomb 
is  in  one  comer  of  the  church,  and  a  marble  group  is 
over  his  tomb.  Opposite  to  that  is  another  tomb  which 
they  have  ])repared  for  themselves,  that  they  may  be 
buried  there  after  their  deaths.  Statues  in  marble  of  the 
prince  and  of  his  wife  are  placed  upon  this  tomb,  that  of 
the  prince  pointing  with  its  hand  to  the  tomb  of  the  son. 
The  church  is  built  in  coloured  marbles,  and  is  a  beau- 
tiful edifice.  Its  cupola  appears  to  be  gilt  outside,  like 
that  of  the  tomb  of  the  daughter  of  Michael,  the  brother 
of  Nicholas,  Emperor  of  Russia,  that  we  had  seen  at 

Coming  out  from  thence,  we  again  mounted  the  car- 
riage with  the  (Grand-)  Duke  and  the  General,  went  over 
ascents  and  descents,  through  many  a  delightful  vista, 


1 1 6  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Etcrope.      [chap.  m. 

but  tlie  rain  came  on  heavil}-.  "We  returned  to  town, 
passing  in  front  of  the  residence  of  Prince  Menschikoff, 
through  a  handsome  avenue ;  saw  a  beautiful  fountain  on 
the  bank  of  the  stream,  around  which  the,y  had  arranged 
stones  after  the  fashion  of  a  single  natural  rock,  and 
from  the  fountain  the  appearance  of  a  cascade  was  pro- 
duced, which  flowed  down  into  a  basin.  The  (Grand-) 
Duke  pointed  out  to  me  the  house  which  the  English 
Sovereign,  Napoleon  of  France,  the  Emperor  of  Eussia, 
and  others,  have  occupied  on  tlie  occasions  of  their  visits 
to  these  parts.  As  we  drove  along  in  the  rain,  I  and  the 
(Grand-)  Duke  were  seated  alone  in  a  close  carriage,  and 
so  we  reached  home. 

After  remaining  a  short  space,  we  again  mounted  with 
the  (Grand-)  Duke,  and  drove  to  his  own  j)alatial  castle, 
a  very  ancient  structure,  built  on  an  eminence,  the  work 
of  his  ancestors,  and  possessing  a  most  extensive  look- 
out over  the  town  and  its  environs,  the  forests,  and  the 
hills.  We  arrived  at  the  gate  of  the  castle.  A  crowd  of 
women  were  there.  We  alighted  and  went  upstairs.  On 
the  first  floor  a  breakfast  was  laid  out.  There  were 
beautiful  rooms,  grand  and  sumptuous,  with  chandeliers 
and  other  furniture,  pictures  and  fine  portraits ;  more 
especially  those  of  the  ancestors  and  of  the  parents  of  the 
(Grand-)  Duke,  hung  up  on  the  walls.  After  a  while  we 
went  to  the  table,  the  Grand-Vazir,  the  princes,  and 
others,  being  present.  The  air,  tempered  b}^  the  rain,  w^as 
very  cool  and  pleasant. 

After  breakfast,  we  enjoyed  for  a  while  the  prospect 
afforded  from  tlio  windows  of  the  palace  over  the  country, 

CHAP.  III.]      Prussia,  Germany,  Belgmm.  117 

the  hills,  and  the  town.  The  effect  was  splendid.  The 
mountams  and  former  frontier  places  of  France,  sites 
which,  before  the  war,  had  been  included  in  the  French 
territory,  were  there  in  sight ;  but  now  that  the  provinces 
of  Alsace  and  Lorraine  have  been  taken  from  France  by 
the  Prussians,  the  French  frontier  is  removed  to  a  dis- 
tance from  hence. 

When  w^e  had  viewed  this  landscape  for  a  little  time, 
the  (Grand-)  Duke  led  us  to  the  upper  story  of  the 
palace,  and  showed  us  the  pictures,  painted  of  old  and 
hung  on  the  Avails,  of  the  various  birds  and  beasts  hunted 
in  this  country.  In  particular,  there  was  one  bird,  called 
*'  coq  de  bois  "  (cock  of  the  woods,  mountain  cock,  caper- 
cailzie, capercaillie,  auerhahn,  tetrao  urogallus),  i.e.,  the 
jungle-cock,  which  is  found  in  these  woods.  Its  head  and 
shape  are  like  those  of  the  pheasant ;  but  it  is  larger,  and 
its  tail  is  not  long  like  that  of  the  i)heasant,  but  resembles 
that  of  the  "umbrella-bird."  It  is  a  beautiful  animal, 
and  none  of  the  kind  are  found  in  Persia.  These  woods 
give  shelter  to  the  red  deer,  the  "  shuka,"  the  wild  boar, 
and  have  in  them  large  numbers  of  this  kind  of  bird, 
and  of  others  also. 

We  now  came  dow^n  stairs,  got  into  a  carriage,  and 
drove  to  the  station,  where  w^e  had  to  wait  a  little.  Prince 
Gortchakoif,  the  Russian  Minister,  Prince  Menschikoff, 
and  a  numerous  company,  were  there.  At  length  we 
took  our  seats  in  the  train,  the  (Grand-)  Duke  and  the 
Grand  Vazir  being  in  front  of  me  ;  and  so  we  started. 

Between  Baden-Baden  and  Carlsruhe  there  is  a  cele- 
brated tow^n   and   fortress   named   Bastadt,  one   of  the 

1 1 8  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe.      [chap.  m. 

strongest  and  most  famous  in  all  Europe.  We  saw  it  at 
a  distance.  In  the  (Grand-)  Duke's  castle  there  was  a 
very  large  looking-glass,  five  ells  (17  feet  6  inches)  in 
height,  by  more  than  two  ells  (7  feet)  in  width.  I  was 
informed  that  it  was  manufactured  at  the  plate-glass 
works  of  Mannheim,  in  the  territory  of  this  very  state  of 

When  we  reached  Carlsruhe,  the  (Grand-)  Duke's 
capital,  we  took  leave  of  each  other,  and  he  left.  We 
continued  travelling  by  the  line  over  which  we  had  passed 
in  coming,  and  arrived  at  Wiesbaden  by  nightfall.  The 
distance  between  Baden-Baden  and  Wiesbaden  is  about 
thirty-five  leagues,  and  this  is  got  over  by  rail  in  five  hours. 

The  (Grand-)  Duke  has  tln-ee  sons  bj^  the  daughter  of 
the  Emperor  of  Germany,  his  eldest  son,  seventeen 
years  of  age,  being  his  designated  successor  to  the 
Grand-Duchy.  To  judge  by  his  looks,  the  (Grand-) 
Duke  himself  is  about  forty. 

VltU  (Friday J  IStJt  June). — To-day  we  have  to  go  to 
the  town  of  Spa,  the  first  place  in  the  territory  of  the 
kingdom  of  Belgium.  Rising  earl}^  and  having  dressed, 
we  mounted  a  carriage  with  the  Grand-Vazir  and  the 
General  in  attendance  upon  us,  and,  by  the  road  that 
leads  to  Biebrich,  w^e  travelled  and  arrived  at  the  wharf. 
Troops  were  drawn  out,  whom  we  inspected,  and  then 
went  on  board  a  steamboat.  The  deck  was  furnished 
with  chairs,  and  decorated  with  shrubs  and  flowers  in 
vases.  We  took  a  seat.  The  weather  was  very  cold. 
My  suite  and  luggage  were  all  put  on  board  this  vessel. 
Her  cabins  were  on  two  decks,  verj^  long,  and  very  hand- 

•CHAP.  III.]      Prussia,  Germany,  Belgiicm.  119 

some.  The  upper  cabin  was  a  dining-room,  where  the 
princes  and  our  other  attendants  took  their  breakfast. 
The  lower  one  had  been  designated  for  our  use ;  but  we 
were  on  deck  most  of  the  time,  going  below  now  and  then 
vonly.  When  we  embarked,  the  Aminu-'s- Sultan  and 
Gulam-Husayn  Khan  had  lagged  behind,  not  having 
kept  up  with  us,  (and  did  not  make  their  appearance) 
iintil  we  had  cast  off  and  got  under  way.  Then  they 
arrived  at  the  wharf  and  made  all  kinds  of  signals,  took 
off  and  waved  their  caps,  but  no  one  paid  attention. 
Ultimately  a  person  was  sent  with  instructions  to  bring 
Ihem  by  rail  to  the  city  of  Cologne ;  and  we  went  on. 

The  river  Rhine  is  like  a  paradise.  On  both  sides  of 
it,  everywhere,  there  were  castles,  pavilions,  populousness, 
cultivation,  railroads ;  and  trains  incessantly  ply  back- 
wards and  forwards.  Numerous  steam- ships,  like  the 
one  in  which  we  were  sitting,  navigated  it  upwards  and 
downwards,  carrying  passengers  and  travellers,  goods 
and  merchandize.  The  depth  of  the  river  is  as  much  as 
ten  ells  (35  feet).  Each  of  its  banks  is  hilly,  with  ridges 
and  peaks ;  but  there  are  no  high  mountains.  The 
whole  of  the  hills  are  covered  with  woods  and  vineyards, 
and  one  is  never  satiated  with  gazing  on  them.  At  each 
moment  some  new  feature,  some  new  castle  or  palace  of  a 
different  style  of  architecture,  comes  in  sight,  which  have 
been  built  by  men  of  wealth  as  summer-residences,  w^here 
they  take  their  pleasure  and  enjoy  life.  Truly,  for  the 
purposes  of  a  promenade,  no  place  could  be  better  than 
these  regions.  Some  of  these  structures  are  perched  on. 
the  very  tops  of  eminences,  on  rocks,  or  in  forests ;  and 

I20  Diary  of  a   Toicr  in  Europe,      [chap.  m. 

in  front  of  them  are  orchards,  flower-gardens,  and  the 
Hke,  which  surpass  all  powers  of  description.  We  saw 
many  towns,  villages,  and  manufactories  carrying  on  their 
respective  operations. 

And  thus  we  arrived  at  Cohlentz,  where  our  vessel 
passed  under  an  enormous  bridge  of  iron,  of  three  arches, 
over  which  a  railway  crosses.  On  both  sides  the  river  is 
a  very  strong  fortress ;  but  the  greater  proportion  of  the 
inhabitants  of  the  place  live  on  the  left-hand  side.  From 
the  fortress  on  our  right  hand,  which  stands  on  rocks  and 
hills,  and  wdiicli  is  entirely  constructed  of  stone,  a  salute 
was  fired.  It  was  in  this  city  that  the  Ottoman  Sultan, 
during  his  tour  in  Europe,  met  the  Emperor  of  Germany, 
and  w^as  a  guest  for  three  nights.  All  round  the  city  of 
Cohlentz  there  are  very  strong  forts. 

We  left  it  behind,  and  reached  Bonn,  where  our  ship 
was  taken  alongside  a  wharf,  and  our  suite  and  luggage 
were  landed.  They  went  to  the  station,  and  at  length 
we  followed.  There  were  crowds  of  men  and  women* 
We  reached  the  station.  Our  train  had  been  changed. 
We  took  our  seat  in  a  car,  started,  and  arrived  at  Cologne* 
Here  we  turned  our  faces  in  the  direction  of  Belgium, 
and  again  were  on  our  way,  the  whole  countrj^  being 
verdant,  with  meadows,  and  populous.  We  went  through 
a  "hole  in  a  mountain"  of  about  five  hundred  ells  (583 
yards)  in  length.  Hereabouts  the  greater  i^art  of  the 
region  on  both  sides  of  our  road  was  hilly,  and  the  rail- 
way is  in  a  narrow  gull}^  (a  cutting).  This  is  why  to-da}- 
the  greater  part  of  our  road  was  beneath  mountains,  and 
before  reaching  Spa  we  traversed  fifteen  "  holes,"  six  of 

ruAr.  III.]      Prussia^  Germany,  Belgmm.  121 

which  were  long,  yarying  from  two  to  three  and  four 
hundred  ells  (233  to  350  and  470  Awards),  the  rest  hemg 
from  fifty  to  seventy  or  eighty  ells  long  (60  to  100  yards), 
not  more. 

We  passed  hy  Duren,  a  Prussian  town,  and  arrived  at 
Aix-la-Chapelle,  a  city  helonging  to  Germany.  Here 
troops  were  drawn  out.  AVe  alighted,  inspected  them, 
and  again  returned  to  the  train.  After  proceeding  a 
short  space  of  time  we  reached  a  station  near  to  the 
Belgian  frontier.  The  train  stopped.  General  Boien, 
in  waiting  on  us,  came  into  our  presence  and  took  leave, 
returning  with  all  those  of  his  suite.  The  interpreter 
Grebel,  and  one  Kussian  officer,  who  had  accompanied  us 
until  now,  received  their  conge  at  this  station  also,  and 
left  us. 

We  then  went  on,  and  shortly  reached  a  small  stream 
with  a  little  bridge  over  it,  which  forms  the  frontier 
betw^een  Belgium  and  German}-.  But  what  a  difference 
has  the  All-Wise  and  Almighty  Creator  placed  between 
the  two  nations  and  the  two  countries !  Man's  mind  is 
lost  in  amazement  thereat.  In  one  moment  a  total 
change  came  over  the  people,  the  language,  the  religion, 
the  appearance  of  the  land  and  water,  mountains,  and 
plains ; — all  were  different,  nothing  here  resembling  what 
is  in  German}'.  The  mountains  are  rather  more  lofty 
and  more  wooded,  the  air  is  colder,  the  tongue  of  all  is 
French,  the  people  more  tranquil,  the  arrangement  and 
uniform  of  the  troops  and  citizens  utterly  different.  The 
whole  population  of  Belgium  speak  French,  but  have  a 
special  dialect   of  their   own;   they   are   chiefly   of  the 

122  Diary  of  a  Toitr  in  Etcrope,      [chap.  m. 

Romish  faith.  This  nation  lias  more  libertj-  than  is 
€njo3^ed  in  Germany.  Their  sovereign  is  King  Leopold 
II.,  and  their  capital  is  named  Brussels.  From  Wies- 
baden to  Spa,  by  boat  and  by  rail,  we  travelled  in  a  little 
more  than  eight  hours. 

Proceeding  now  over  hills  and  dales,  through  forests 
and  other  scenes,  w^e  arrived  at  Spa.  True,  we  were  not 
yet  officially  arrived  (in  Belgium) ;  but  still,  the  Governor 
and  notables  of  the  town,  with  some  regular  cavalry,  and 
a  large  concourse  of  spectators  and  others,  had  come  to 
meet  us  in  the  station  and  streets.  We  alighted  from  the 
train;  the  Governor  made  a  speech,  to  which  we  pro- 
nounced a  reply.  They  are  nice  people.  The  Governor's 
name  was  Henri  Peltzer.  AVe  mounted  a  carriage  and 
drove  into  the  town,  which  is  small,  but  pretty,  and  is 
situated  in  a  valle}'  and  on  the  hills,  its  environs  being 
hilly  and  full  of  trees.  Everywhere  we  saw  crowds,  until 
we  reached  the  Orange  Hotel,  which  became  our  quarters, 
we  ourselves  having  our  apartments  on  the  ground-floor, 
while  our  princes  and  officers  were  upstairs  or  down- 

After  dining,  we  sallied  forth  with  the  Grand-Yazir, 
and  others,  going  about  the  streets  for  a  walk.  Immense 
crowds  of  men  and  women  now  collected  around  us,  hem- 
ming us  in,  and  following  us  about  wherever  we  went. 
They  had  illuminated  the  streets.  The  name  of  the 
street  is  "  Seven-o'clock,"  and  a  fine  street  it  is.  AVe 
entered  the  shops  and  bought  some  articles,  such  as 
desks,  dressing-cases,  pictures,  and  the  like.  The}^  had 
very  nice  wares.     The  fronts  of  the  shops  are  of  single 

CHAP.  III.]      Prtcssia,  Germany,  Belgium,  123 

sheets  of  ciystal  (plate-glass),  so  that  all  the  goods  are 
visible  behind  these.  We  continued  our  stroll  to  the  end 
of  the  street,  where  there  was  a  basin  of  water  with  a 
fountain.  This  was  lighted  up  with  the  electric  light, 
and  by  means  of  coloured  glasses  they  caused  the  water 
to  assume  various  hues.  They  had  also  constructed  a 
sort  of  two-storied  pavilion,  and  illuminated  it.  There  a 
band  stood  and  played,  singing  songs  and  catches  also, 
very  charmingly. 

We  now  retreated  by  degrees  to  our  hotel.  The 
Aminu-'s- Sultana  and  Gulam  Husayn  Khan  rejoined  us. 
They,  too,  had  embarked  in  a  steamer  after  our  depar- 
ture, had  arrived  in  Cologne,  and  thence  came  on  by 
train.  At  Biebrich,  where  we  left  them,  a  person  of 
Austrian  nationality  from  the  States  of  Hanover  had 
turned  uj),  who  spoke  Persian,  and  who  rendered  them 
his  assistance. 

In  German}"  the  women  are  very  much  occupied  in 
business  and  at  work;  especially  at  agriculture  and  in 
gardening  do  they  labour  much  more  than  their  husbands. 
The  ears  of  the  carriage-horses,  and  others,  are  covered 
over  with  red  and  other  coloured  cloths,  as  a  protection 
against  the  flies.  In  Berlin,  and  in  other  towns,  the 
little  boys  fasten  soldiers'  knapsacks  on  to  their  own 
backs,  run  about  the  streets,  and  phi}"  on  fifes.  How 
excellent  is  it  that  they,  from  infancy  upwards,  thus  leam 
to  be  soldiers.  They  pave  their  streets  with  stone  most 
artistically'.  The}'  cut  the  stones  into  small  squares,  and 
do  the  work  with  these,  joinmg  them  together  very 
closely.     The  bricks  of  Firangistan  are  not  like  those  of 

1 24  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Europe,      [chap.  m. 

Persia,  large  and  square,  but  are  of  the  shape  of  the  cut 
bricks  of  Tehran. 

Spa  is  a  small  town,  with  onl}^  one  good  street ;  the 
rest  are  all  of  an  inferior  class. 

18^/i  {Saturday J  14:th  Jiine). — We  awoke  in  the  morning 
at  Spa.  We  took  breakfast,  and  then  mounted  a  carriage 
for  a  drive  about.  The  Governor  also  was  seated  in  a 
carriage,  and  preceded  us,  showing  the  Avay.  From  the 
street  we  drove  up-hill  to  a  bath  which  we  were  informed 
was  the  establishment  where  Peter  the  Great,  when  un- 
well, was  treated  with  the  mineral  waters.  We  mounted 
the  ascent  a  little  further,  and  the  town  terminated. 
Carriage -roads  and  avenues  now  commenced.  Ibrahim 
Khan,  with  another  groom,  had  brought  out  our  horses 
after  us.  We  pushed  on  until  we  arrived  at  a  place  where 
there  was  an  hotel,  with  two  basins  of  mineral  water ;  i.e., 
these  were  springs  flowing  out  of  the  earth,  with  steps  to 
go  down  to  them.  At  the  bottom  of  the  steps  there  stood 
a  woman,  who  had  some  tumblers,  in  which  she  gave  of 
the  water  to  the  people.  Invalids  who  suffer  from  weak 
stomachs,  or  who  are  thin  and  meagre,  and  especially 
women,  come  here  before  breakfasting,  drink  of  the 
water,  sit  down  on  chairs,  call  for  food  from  the  cook  of 
the  hotel,  and  eat.  Strangers,  and  particularly  the 
English,  travel  to  this  place.  I  drank  a  little  of  the 
water,  which  tasted  very  nasty.  On  the  outside  of  the 
basin  there  was  a  large  foot-print  on  the  surface  of 
a  stone ;  of  which  the  Governor  said :  "  This  is  the 
vestige  of  the  footstep  of  St.  Mark ; "  which  saint  is 
one  of  the  holy  men  of  the  Franks.     "  Whatever  woman> 

[II.]      Prussia ,   Germany ^  Belgium.  125 

when  cliildless,  comes  here  and  places  her  foot  in  this 
vestige,  conceives  (and  bears  children)."  This  is  a  very 
surprising  thing.     In  Persia  such  beliefs  are  rife. 

We  drove  off  from  thence  and  entered  a  different 
avenue  to  reach  another  hotel  with  another  mineral 
spring.  Several  Frank  men  and  women  followed  after  us 
in  another  carriage.  I  mounted  mj^  horse  "  Blaze,"  and 
took  a  canter  in  the  woods  and  along  the  avenue  ;  and  so 
we  reached  the  hotel,  and  the  other  mineral  spring,  which 
was  worse-tasted  than  the  first.  At  a  distance  I  espied 
two  Frankish  individuals,  urged  my  horse,  and  came  up 
in  front  of  them.  I  conversed  with  them  a  bit  in  French. 
He  was  an  English  nobleman,  who  had  generally  resided 
in  India  at  Allahabad,  and  was  recently  returned  to 
Europe.  His  wife  was  reading  a  story-book.  I  took  the 
book  and  looked  at  it  a  little.  I  then  rode  off  b}^  a 
narrow  path,  by  the  side  of  which  a  rivulet  ran,  with 
about  water  enough  to  turn  one  mill-stone.  They  took 
the  carriages  round  by  another  road.  Rain  came  on. 
We  then  made  off  for  another  hotel,  sat  there,  and  again 
went  on. 

Arrived  at  home,  I  became  quite  unwell, — all  through 
that  bath  at  Baden-Baden,  from  whence  I  had  issued  in 
a  state  of  perspiration,  had  gone  on  a  drive  with  the 
(Grand-)  Duke,  and  had  taken  cold,  which  now  showed 
itself.  I  shivered  a  whole  hour ;  a  headache  seized  me  ; 
Dickson  came.  Tholozan,  likewise,  who  had  gone  to 
see  M.  Krupp,  returned  in  the  night.  We  went  to  bed ; 
slept  through  the  night;  and,  thank  God,  my  health 

126  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Etirope.      [chap.  m. 

19f/i  (Sunday,  15th  June), — On  rising  in  the  morning, 
I  was  all  right  again.  The  weather  is  cloudy,  and  rain 
is  falling.  The  sim  is  never  seen  in  these  parts.  To- 
day is  a  festival  of  the  Franks.  A  hody  of  damsels  and 
women,  after  passing  along  the  street  that  faces  our  hotel, 
went  into  the  church.  They  had  stuck  up  lamps  in  all 
the  streets;  also,  hringing  out  many  shrubs  grown  in 
vases,  and  strewing  the  streets  with  fresh-cut  grass,  they 
escorted  the  chief  priest  with  many  honours  to  the  church. 
About  two  hundred  pretty  maidens,  all  engagingly  dressed 
in  white,  with  white  head-dresses,  and  carrying  each  a 
nosegay  of  flow^ers, — followed  by  another  company  of 
younger  girls  to  the  number  of  two  to  three  hundred,  each 
holding  in  her  hand  a  stick  with  a  nosegay  attached  to  it, 
and  by  a  third  company  of  charming  little  children,  girls 
and  boys,  nicely  dressed,  and  each  carrying  a  stick  Avith  a 
taper  bound  to  it,  or  a  gold-embroidered  velvet  banner, 
— carried  the  portrait  of  Her  Holiness  Miryam  (the  Virgin 
Mary),  on  whom  be  peace  ;  and  sang  with  a  sweet  melody, 
repeating  litanies.  Behind  these  was  an  ornamented 
wooden  frame,  with  the  figures  of  Jesus  and  Mary  on  it, 
upon  both  of  w^hom  be  peace,  and  with  the  space  below  it 
unoccupied.  Meanwhile,  the  priest  walked  out  on  foot, 
and  four  individuals  took  up  this  frame  and  supported  it 
over  the  priest  like  an  umbrella. 

In  the  evening  we  w^nt  to  the  theatre  on  foot,  which 
was  very  near  to  our  hotel.  Man}"  women  and  men  were 
congregated.  The  theatre  is  very  small — less  even  than 
the  one  at  Hajji-Tarkhan,  but  very  pretty,  with  three  tiers 
of  seats,  and  with  a  handsome  chandelier  lighted  with 

THAI'.  III.]      Prussia,  Germany,  Belgmm.  127 

gas.  Tlie  curtain  rose.  A  number  of  men  and  women 
conversed  in  French,  representing  love,  love-making,  and 
the  like.  Afterwards  an  astonishing  conjuror  came  for- 
ward,— a  young  man  of  short  stature,  who  had  a  very 
graceful  wife.  His  name  was  Kaznow.  In  French 
jugglery  is  called  "  prestidigitation."  He  performed 
some  astonishing  tricks,  so  that  one  became  dumb- 

For  example.  He  took  the  people's  watches  out  of 
their  fobs,  and  without  interfering  in  any  way  with  their 
regulation — without  even  laying  them  xlown — he  showed 
that  all  of  them  pointed,  for  instance,  to  three  hours  after 
sunset.  He  then  opened  them  and  showed  them,  when 
one  watch  pointed  to  four,  another  to  eight,  a  third  to 
two,  and  so  on. 

He  Oldened  a  large  i:)adlock.  He  then  locked  it,  and 
gave  it  to  the  Mu'tamadu-l-Mulli,  who  was  sitting  in  a 
box  near  to  him.  The  Mu'tamad  again  locked  it  himself, 
and  essayed  to  force  it  open,  but  could  not.  He  then 
passed  the  lock  on  to  a  stick,  and  gave  the  two  ends  of 
the  stick  to  two  persons  to  hold.  He  next  asked  of  the 
Mu'tamad  :  "  How  many  do  you  wish  that  I  shall  count, 
and  that  the  lock  shall  come  open  as  I  name  that 
number?"  The  Mu'tamad  said:  "Twelve."  The 
juggler  counted  this  number  out,  one  by  one;  and  when, 
on  his  i)ronouncing  the  word  ''  open,"  in  the  place  of 
**  twelve,"  the  lock  opened. 

He  performed  also  some  surprising  feats  of  hocus- 
pocus.  The  Mu'tamad  wrote  down  something  on  a  piece 
of  paper,  which  the  conjuror  burnt  in  the  presence  of  all. 

1 28  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Europe.      [chap.  m. 

He  tlien  went  and  fetched  a  packet  that  was  carefully 
sealed  with  wax,  which  he  gave  into  the  hands  of  the 
Mu*tamad.  He  broke  open  the  packet,  and  found  therein 
a  second  packet  similarly  sealed  up,  and  so  on  until 
twent}'  sealed  packets  had  been  broken  open.  Enclosed 
within  the  last  was  the  paper  with  the  writing  upon  it 
which  the  ^lu'tamad  had  written. 

He  placed  four  large  coins  one  by  one  in  a  small  box, 
and  consigned  this  into  the  hands  of  one  of  the  company. 
He  then  placed  a  table  at  some  distance,  on  which  stood 
a  china  vase.  He  now  ordered  the  coins  to  come  into 
the  vase  ;  and  one  b}'  one,  as  they  passed  from  the  box 
and  fell  into  the  vase,  we  heard  them  chink.  When  the 
box  was  empty,  he  went  and  fetched  the  vase  from  its 
place,  and  the  whole  of  the  coins  were  found  in  it. 
Before  placing  the  vase  on  the  table,  he  had  shown  to  the 
company  that  it  had  nothing  in  it.  He  performed  also 
many  other  tricks,  which  I  cannot  here  narrate. 

He  now  brought  forward  his  wife  and  seated  her  on  a 
chair.  She  was  a  very  prett}"  woman,  and  elegantly 
attired.  He  put  her  to  sleep  by  sundrj^  rubbings  with 
his  hands.  When  she  was  asleep,  his  wife  gave  informa- 
tion of  absent  things ;  as  for  instance,  the  Mu'tamad  wrote 
down  :  "  This  is  a  fine  evening."  The  conjuror  asked  his 
wife  what  had  been  written,  and  she,  in  the  most  charming 
manner,  repeated  the  ver}^  words. 

20f/i  {Morula ij,  16th  June). — To-da}^  God  willing,  we 
are  to  proceed  in  health  and  safety  to  Brussels,  the  capital 
of  Belgium. 

I  saw  Khanikof,  the  Bussian,  at  Spa,  where  he  had  an 

CHAP.  III.]      Pritssia,  Germany,  Belgium,  129 

audience.  Twelve  years  ago  I  had  seen  him  in  our  camp 
at  Sultaniyya  (a  town  or  village  about  half  way  between 
Tabriz  and  Tehran).  He  is  now  younger-looking  and 
stouter.  He  is  a  member  of  the  Academy  of  Sciences  of 
Russia,  but  is  staying  at  Paris. 

To-day,  thanks  be  to  God,  I  feel  quite  well.  We 
mounted  a  carriage  with  the  Grand-Yazir,  and  drove  to 
the  station.  They  had  brought  there  for  us  the  railway- 
carriages  of  the  King,  which  were  extremely  handsome. 
We  took  our  seat  amid  a  great  concourse  of  people.  We 
also  perceived  the  wife  of  last  night's  juggler.  The 
Grand-Vazir  and  Dr.  Tholozan  occupied  seats  in  our 
carriage.  We  started.  The  Belgian  train  is  very  com- 
fortable and  pleasant,  not  jolting  much,  and  travelling 
very  swiftly.  In  a  short  time  we  reached  Liege,  where 
there  are  extensive  manufactories  of  fire-arms  and  railway 
rolling-stock.  The  whole  road,  so  far,  was  hill  and  dale 
and  forest.  We  passed  through  three  or  four  "  holes," 
one  of  them  being  about  three  hundred  ells  long  (350 
yards) ;  but  from  Liege  onwards  the  country  is  flat. 

At  Liege  we  stopped ;  a  most  extraordinary  crowd  had 
assembled.  The  Governor  and  notables  of  the  town  had 
come.  We  alighted  from  the  train.  Troops  were  drawn 
up  clothed  in  broadcloth,  with  a  band  playing.  The 
throng  was  to  such  an  extent  that  there  was  no  passing. 
After  we  had  walked  down  (the  line  of  troops),  they 
forced  the  crowd  back,  we  remounted  our  carriage,  and 
again  got  in  motion. 

The  town  of  Liege  is  very  large  and  handsome.  The 
whole  place  is  up-hill  and  down-dale,  upon  hills  and  in 

130  Diary  of  a  Tour  m  Ettrope.     [chap.  m. 

valleys.  It  has  very  handsome  parks  and  flower-gardens. 
The  whole  of  the  carriage-roads  in  Belgium  are  paved 
with  stones.  The  whole  country  is  green  and  smiling, 
under  cultivation,  and  populous.  In  these  roads,  as  far 
as  Liege,  there  was  a  profusion  of  a  kind  of  yellow  flower, 
extremely  beautiful,  and  resembling  the  flower  of  the 
bean  (the  laburnum  being  probably  meant). 

At  length,  after  four  hours,  or  perhaps  three  hours, 
after  leaving  Liege  we  arrived  at  Brussels,  the  capital  of 
Belgium.  At  the  station  His  Most  Exalted  Majesty 
King  Leopold  II.,  together  with  his  brother,  the  Count 
of  Flanders,  the  whole  of  the  military  officers,  the  civil 
functionaries,  and  others  were  present.  The  mutual 
gratulations  of  etiquette  were  gone  through.  The  King 
presented  those  of  his  suite  ;  we  also  presented  those  of 
ours.  Taking  our  seats  in  an  open  carriage,  we  drove 
off,  I  and  the  King  conversing  together.  On  both  sides 
of  our  road  a  large  concourse  of  people  stood,  and 
incessantly  did  I  and  the  King  salute  them.  In  return 
they  shouted  hm-rahs,  and  ran  along  with  us.  We  came 
to  a  royal  palace  situated  in  the  centre  of  the  city.  We 
went  upstairs,  where,  on  the  first  floor,  the  King,  having 
shown  us  our  apartments,  retired  to  his  own  residence  in 
the  back  apartments  of  this  same  palace.  I  sent  the 
Order  of  my  own  Portrait  to  His  Majesty,  and  shortly 
followed  myself  to  return  his  visit.  The  King's  wife  came 
forward  to  meet  me,  and  we  sat  down ;  after  a  space  I 
returned  to  my  apartments. 

The  King  is  a  man  thirty-eight  years  of  age,  tall, 
somewhat  thin,  and  with  a  long  yellow  beard.     During 

CHAP.  III.]      Pi^ussiay  Germany,  Belgium.  131 

the  period  when  he  was  Heir- Apparent  he  travelled  to 
India,  to  Constantinople,  to  Egypt,  and  to  the  Syrias. 
He  is  the  grandson  of  Louis  Philippe,  the  former  King  of 
the  French,  whose  daughter  was  the  King's  mother ;  and 
he  is  cousin  to  the  actual  Sovereign  of  England,  son  of 
her  maternal  uncle.  He  has  three  daughters,  but  has  no 
son  ;  and  his  brother,  the  Count  of  Flanders,  is  his  Heir- 
Presumptive,  who  is  somewhat  younger  in  years  than  the 
King.  The  wife  of  the  King's  brother  is  a  lady-princess 
of  Prussia,  while  the  King's  wife  is  an  Austrian  lady- 
princess,  being  a  Hungarian  by  birth. 

The  Kingdom  of  Belgium  is  very  free,  the  ordering  of 
all  matters  being  in  the  hands  of  the  Parliament,  where 
the   Deputies  meet  together  and   give  judgment.     The 
Parliament  House  is  a  sumptuous  edifice,  and  is  hi  the 
city.     It  was  in  active  session  (when  we  arrived),  the 
members  being  assembled.     The  editors  of  the  public 
papers  in  this   country  are  extremely  free.      Whatever 
they  may  write,  they  are  in  fear  of  no  one.     The  popula- 
tion of  Brussels  is  of  about  a  hundred  and  seventy-two 
thousand  souls;  that  of  all  Belgium,  ten  ri'ores  and  a 
fraction  (five  millions  odd).     Its  income  is  about  thirty- 
seven  crores  ;  its  army  in  time  of  war,  one  hundred  thou- 
sand.    Formerly,  the  whole  of  this  country  was  subject 
to  Holland,    but  forty-two  years  ago,  the  kingdoms  of 
England  and  France,  with  others,  combined  and  separated 
it  from  th^t  State,  giving  it  to  Leopold  I.,  the  maternal 
uncle  of  the  Sovereign  of  England,  and  making  him  King. 
Laransun   Sahib  (General  Sir  Henry  C.  Kawlinson, 
K.C.B.),  Kambal  Sahib  (Colonel  Sir  Arnold  B.  KembaU, 

K  2 

132  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Etirope.     [chap.  m. 

K.C.S.I.),  Tamsun  Sahib  (Koiiald  F.  Thomson,  Esq., 
Secretary  of  Legation,  Tehran),  and  a  few  other  English- 
men, who  had  come  to  be  in  attendance  upon  us,  were 
here  received  in  audience  and  were  conversed  with. 
Twelve  years  ago  Laransun  was  Minister  (Plenipoten- 
tiary) at  Tehran ;  now  he  is  somewhat  aged. 

After  breakfast  we  indulged  in  a  little  quiet.  They 
have  made  a  small  garden  in  this  palace,  with  plants 
grown  in  vases,  and  have  covered  it  in  overhead  with 
glass.  It  had  chandeliers  with  gas,  a  basin  and  fountain, 
small  but  very  pretty,  from  which  the  water  flowed  like  a 
bubble.  The  flowers  were  of  various  sorts  and  kinds.  I 
walked  about  there. 

Before  the  palace  is  a  square,  around  which  are  very 
beautiful  gardens  for  the  public  to  walk  in  ;  but  I  did 
not  go  there.  There  is  also  a  private  garden  belonging 
to  the  palace.  The  city  of  Brussels  is  extremely  hand- 
some ;  its  streets  are  straight  and  wide,  but  the  town  is 
up-hill  and  down-dale,  the  streets  and  houses  being  now 
low  down,  now  high  up ;  and  there  are  hills  and  valleys 
in  it.  It  possesses  a  very  ancient  and  grand  church, 
which  does  not  fall  short  of  that  at  Cologne. 

In  the  evening  we  took  a  seat  in  a  carriage  with  the 
King  and  the  King's  wife,  and  went  to  the  state  theatre. 
It  was  a  long  way  off,  and  the  people  had  formed  a  pro- 
digious throng.  We  arrived  at  the  theatre,  and  went  up- 
stairs, being  there  seated  in  a  special  box  with  the 
Grand-Vazir  and  the  wife  of  the  King's  brother.  Our 
princes  and  attendants,  in  state  costumes,  were  in  other 
boxes,  with  the  whole  of  the  Diplomatic  Corps.     There 

CHAP.  III.]      Prussia,  G,ermany,  Belgium.  133 

were  about  three  thousand  men  and  women  present. 
The  theatre  is  large  and  has  six  tiers  of  seats,  the  whole 
being  lighted  with  gas.  It  is  not  inferior  to  the  large 
theatre  at  (St.)  Peter(sburg).  The  play  was  an  opera ; 
i.e.,  they  sang  pieces,  and  an  orchestra  played  beautifully. 
They  sang  very  melodiously.  After  much  singing  and 
dancing,  they  gave  a  ballet.  Women  danced.  It  lasted 
very  long.  At  length,  the  curtain  having  faUen,  I  arose. 
The  King  and  his  wife  again  rode  with  me  in  the  carriage, 
and  we  went  home.  We  said  adieu,  and  they  went  away. 
I  went  to  bed.  The  greater  part  of  our  attendants  are 
quartered  in  an  hotel.  This  palace,  in  which  I  have  my 
apartments,  is  a  very  handsome  palace,  ornamented  with 
beautiful  pictures  and  portraits ;  though  it  is  small,  but 
well  designed.  It  has  many  handsome  and  large  chan- 
deliers, its  furniture  is  rich,  and  it  is  well  supplied  with 
tables,  chaii's,  and  the  like,  aU  good.  The  street  lamps 
are  lighted  with  gas  and  are  numerous. 

21s^  {Tuesday,  11th  June). — Eemained  in  this  city. 
In  the  morning  after  breakfast  the  Diplomatic  Corps  were 
received  in  audience.  There  is  a  Representative  here 
from  every  State.  The  Belgian  Ministry  came  also,  and 
were  followed,  after  their  departure,  by  the  King,  with 
whom  we  mounted  a  carriage  and  went  out  for  a  drive. 
We  passed  along  the  streets  and  came  to  an  open  space 
where  a  statue  of  the  father  of  this  present  Sovereign  has 
been  placed  on  a  high  column.  Here  we  had  a  beautiful 
view  over  the  city  and  its  environs.  We  here  came  in 
sight  of  the  princes  of  our  suite,  who  were  taking  a  walk 
on  foot.     I  told  them  to  accompany  us.     We  now  drove 

T  34  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  EiLrope.     [chap.  m. 

to  the  large  church,  alighted,  and  entered  the  fane,  which 
is  a  magnificent  building,  erected  five  hundred  years  ago. 
A  priest  came  and  led  us  to  the  different  parts  of  the 
edifice,  which  we  thus  inspected.  The  tomb  of  George,  a 
former  King  of  England,  and  also  the  tomb  of  an  ancient 
sovereign  of  Belgium,  are  in  this  church.  Builders  and 
labourers  were  busy  at  repairs.  It  is  a  grand  and  lofty 
structure.  It  has  some  curious  pulpits  and  altars  of 
carved  wood,  very  beautiful. 

After  a  good  survey,  we  left  this  place  and  then  saw  a 
tower,  in  appearance  like  a  palace,  anciently  erected  within 
the  city,  and  so  preserved  ever  since, — now  used  as  a 
museum.  There  are  in  it  the  arms  and  implements  of 
(all)  nations, — even  many  of  the  daggers,  straight  and 
curved,  and  of  the  knives  of  Persia, — all  arranged  with 
great  taste.  Skins  of  celebrated  horses  of  antiquity, 
ridden  by  such  a  hero,  or  by  such  a  king,  are  made  up 
into  the  very  likenesses  of  the  horses  themselves,  and 
stand  there.  Helmets,  armour,  horse-armour,  weapons, 
complete  and  from  head  to  foot,  as  worn  of  old  by  the 
champions  of  the  Franks  and  others,  are  there  (exhibited) . 

Leaving  this  at  the  conclusion  of  a  general  survey,  we 
descended  and  drove  out  to  the  Chateau  of  Laken,  the 
summer  residence  of  the  King  and  Queen.  We  passed 
along  one  long  and  very  beautiful  avenue,  with  a  canal  on 
our  left  hand,  excavated  by  human  labour,  and  by  which 
ships  ply  to  and  from  the  port  of  Antwerp,  which  is  one 
of  the  important  fortresses  of  Firangistan,  and  belonging 
to  the  kingdom  of  Belgium.  There  is  no  river  here  that 
flows  through  the   middle  of  the   city ;    so   they   have 

CHAP.  III.]      Prussia,   Germany,  Belgium,  135 

brought  from  a  distance  with  great  labour  potable  water 
into  the  cit}^,  and  distributed  it  to  the  houses. 

Travelling  thus  a  certain  distance,  we  reached,  at  the 
outskirts  of  the  capital,  the  park-gate  of  the  Chateau  of 
Laken.  Its  parks  and  its  avenues  are  very  fine.  It  is  a 
l^rivate  park,  special  to  the  King's  use,  into  which  no  one 
has  a  right  of  passage.  Its  woods  and  large  trees  are 
magnificent.  Here  and  there  water  has  stagnated  and 
formed,  as  it  were,  lakes.  Its  grass  and  flowers  are 
pleasant.  We  went  slowly  along  in  the  carriage  until  we 
reached  the  Chateau.  The  Queen  was  there  and  came 
to  meet  us.  We  conferred  upon  the  Queen  the  Order  of 
the  "  Sun,"  with  its  ribbon ;  and  she  herself  put  it  on. 
We  sat  down  in  a  domed  hall,  which  had  a  capital  view 
of  the  city  and  park.  On  each  side  of  the  hall  there  were 
apartments.  A  band  was  playing.  The  princes  and 
others  arrived.  We  went  into  the  apartments.  Tapes- 
tries were  hung  on  the  walls,  woven  of  old  in  this  very 
city  of  Brussels,  and  figured  with  portraits  beautifully 
executed.  The  manufactory  for  the  weaving  of  these  is  no 
longer  at  work.  The  park  and  lawns  of  the  Chateau  of 
Laken  are  very  charming. 

We  now  returned  to  the  city  and  visited  the  Zoological 
Gardens ;  but,  as  I  had  not  the  time,  I  could  not  examine 
them  properly.  I  saw  some  singular  dogs  in  a  cage,  large 
and  small,  and  of  different  colours.  It  had  a  small 
aquarium,  into  which  we  took  a  peep,  and  then  went  home. 

Before  driving  out  to  Laken  we  paid  a  visit  to  the 
H6tel-de-Ville  ;  i.e.,  the  residence  of  the  Governor  and 
functionaries  of  the   city.      It  is  a  very  imposing  and 

136  Diary  of  a  Tour  m  Europe.      [chap.  m. 

ancient  edifice.  Above  it  there  is  an  exceedingly  lofty 
tower ;  and  it  has  a  hall,  the  ceiling  of  which  is  painted 
in  a  very  striking  manner.  There  is  the  figure  of  IsrafJl 
blowing  the  last  trump,  executed  with  so  much  talent 
that  wherever  one  places  one's  self  to  examine  it,  the  eyes 
of  the  figure  appear  directed  on  the  observer.  The  works 
of  the  artist  who  painted  this  picture  are  marvellous,  and 
are  well  known  to  all  the  world.  The  walls  of  the  edifice 
are  hung  with  figured  tapestries.  In  front  of  it  is  a  large 
square,  where  immense  crowds  had  collected,  and  to  which 
the  fire-brigade  came,  performing  their  various  exercises 
in  a  very  satisfactory  manner.  The  firemen  here  were  not 
mounted,  but  go  on  foot.  They  have  pulled  down  the 
greater  portion  of  the  streets  and  houses  of  the  city,  and 
are  building  them  anew.  They  have  erected  the  Law 
Courts  in  a  very  imposing  pile. 

In  the  middle  of  the  afternoon  we  returned  home,  where 
we  are  invited  to  dine  with  the  King.  We  all  went  in 
our  state  uniforms,  the  Diplomatic  Corps,  and  others, 
being  present  also.  We  ate  a  good  dinner,  and  then 
retired  to  our  apartments,  as  we  had  to  rise  betimes  in  the 
morning  and  proceed  to  the  port  of  Ostend  on  our  way  to 
England.     We  therefore  went  to  bed  early. 

22wiZ  {Wednesday,  ISth  June). — In  the  morning  we 
arose  earlier  than  usual,  thoroughly  worn  out  with  a 
sleepless  night,  and  hastily  dressed.  It  was  very  cold. 
The  inhabitants  of  the  city  were  not  yet  astir.  A  battalion 
of  infantry,  with  their  band,  arrived  and  were  drawn  up 
in  front  of  the  palace.  There  were  also  some  cavalry. 
The  King  came.     We  took  our  seats  in  a  carriage,  drove 

CHAP.  III.]      Prtcssia,   Germany,  Belgmm.  137 

through  streets  and  avenues,  and  arrived  at  the  railway 
station.  The  same  train  was  there  in  readiness  for  us 
which  we  had  used  two  days  previously.  A  battahon  of 
infantry,  with  band,  was  drawn  up;  others  also  were 
there.  We  said  adieu  to  the  I^ng,  took  our  seat,  and 
left  Brussels. 

We  traversed  the  Flemish  provinces,  where  all  was  flat 
I)lain,  populous,  green,  grassy,  full  of  gardens  and  flowers. 
In  these  parts  the  people  speak  Flemish ;  i,e,,  Dutch. 
We  at  length  arrived  at  the  sea-port  town  of  Ostend — an 
important  commercial  town,  where  we  found  many  ships. 
It  is  a  flourishing  place.  We  performed  the  distance 
from  Brussels  in  less  than  three  hours,  as  the  train  to- 
day travelled  at  great  speed. 

The  Belgian  officials  took  their  leave,  and  the  Governor, 
with  the  functionaries  of  Ostend  had  an  audience. 
They  delivered  an  excessive  speech.  We  then  alighted 
and  passed  from  the  wharf  on  board  of  the  ship  of  Her 
Most  Exalted  Majesty  the  Sovereign  of  England,  which 
was  named  the  *'  Vigilant."  Laransiin  Sahib  and  the 
Englishmen  who  accompanied  us  led  the  way  and  per- 
formed the  presentations. 

The  distinguished  Admiral  of  the  English  ships  is 
named  M'Clintock.  He  has  several  times  gone  on 
voyages  to  the  islands  of  the  North  Pole,  and  enjoys  a 
great  reputation.  He  had  come  to  meet  us,  and  was  in 
the  ship.  There  were  also  a  great  number  of  naval 
officers  besides. 

We  went  to  the  cabin  specially  designated  for  our  use, 
and  there  seated  ourselves.     The  ship  is  very  handsome 

138  Diary  of  a  Tottr  in  Europe.      [chap.  m. 

and  of  great  speed.  The  Grand-Vazir,  with  our  personal 
attendants,  and  a  few  others,  were  in  our  ship ;  the 
princes,  and  the  remainder,  were  in  two  other  vessels 
similar  to  her.  "We  waited  a  considerable  time  for  the 
baggage  to  be  brought,  and  our  travelling  companions 
dispersed  themselves.  On  account  of  my  drowsiness,  I 
myself  went  below  and  took  a  little  repose  ;  after  which  I 
went  up  again.  On  the  table  I  found  some  fine  fruit, — 
excellent  peaches,  white  and  black  grapes  of  exquisite 
aroma,  some  banana  fruits, — which  are  a  very  nice  thing. 
There  was  also  a  little  melon, — very  sweet.  These  fruits 
are  all  raised  in  hothouses,  and  the  price  of  them  is  very 
high.  For  instance,  they  sell  a  single  bunch  of  grapes 
for  two  thousand  (Persian  mites, — about  twenty  pence 
English) ;  from  whence  the  rest  may  be  inferred. 

From  the  port  of  Ostend  to  Dover, — the  first  place  on 
the  coast  of  England, — takes  five  hours  to  cross ;  and  the 
sea  of  the  British  Channel  is  much  noted  for  its  storms 
and  roughness.  But,  thanks  be  to  God  Most  High, — the 
sea  was  very  calm,  like  the  palm  of  one's  hand,  so  that 
no  one  was  incommoded.  It  was  like  a  trip  on  a  river. 
Behind  us  followed  another  ship,  while  two  large  ironclad 
ships  of  war  accompanied  us,  to  show  us  honour,  the  one 
to  our  right,  the  other  to  our  left.  Occasionally  they  fired 
guns.  When  we  had  advanced  a  certain  distance,  there 
appeared  another  ship,  with  two  turrets,  and  each  turret 
with  two  guns  ;  which  turrets  they  can  turn  round  in  any 
direction  they  choose.  This  ship  also  is  covered  with 
iron,  and,  as  they  said,  has  a  steam  power  of  five  thousand 
horses.     The  ship's  sides  were  not  high  out  of  the  water. 

CHAP.  III.]      Prussia,   Germany^  Belgium.  139 

They  informed  me  that  the  projectiles  from  her  guns 
would  smash  to  pieces  the  other  ships.  They  fired  two 
or  three  rounds  from  her  guns,  which  made  much  noise. 

Many  merchant  ships  came  and  went,  as  well  as 
others.  At  length,  as  we  neared  the  English  coasts,  the 
hills  on  the  seashore  became  visible,  and  a  large  number 
of  men-of-war  hove  in  sight,  coming  to  meet  us.  They 
all  fired  guns.  The  surface  of  the  sea  was  covered  with 
ships,  and  boats,  and  large  steamers,  in  which  the  mag- 
nates and  nobles  of  the  English  had  seated  themselves, 
and  were  come  forth  to  witness  the  spectacle.  The  hills 
at  the  seaside  are  not  very  high,  their  stones  being 
white,  like  g^uarries  of  lime. 

Our  ship  now  reached  the  port  of  Dover,  where  they 
have  constructed  a  long  stone  pier,  so  that  the  ships  in 
the  harbour  may  be  safe  from  storms  and  the  waves.  It 
projects  a  great  distance  into  the  sea.  Upon  it  were 
women  and  men,  dames  and  nobles,  infantry  and 
cavalry,  in  great  numbers.  Here  we  stopped.  The 
sons  of  Her  Most  Exalted  Majesty  the  Queen  of  the 
English  Dominions,  with  the  Secretary  for  Foreign 
Affairs,  Lord  Granville,  and  the  notables  and  authori- 
ties of  London,  had  all  arrived ; — the  second  son  of  the 
Sovereign,  the  Duke  of  Edinburgh, — and  the  third  son, 
Prince  Arthur.  We  stood  up  in  the  ship ;  the  Sove- 
reign's sons,  the  Foreign  Secretary,  and  the  Chief  Usher 
of  the  Sovereign, — a  man  of  consideration  and  official 
in  waiting,  came.  We  went  into  the  ship  and  sat  down 
in  the  cabin,  where  we  conversed  until  the  baggage  was 
carried  out  of  the  ship.     The  Queen's  second  son  is  a 

140  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Etcrope.      [chap.  m. 

youth  with  a  very  pleasing  countenance,  and  stout.  He 
has  crow's  eyes  (bluish  grey)  and  a  small  beard ;  in 
stature  he  is  not  tall ;  his  age  must  be  twenty- seven  or 
eight.  The  third  son  is  shorter  than  he*,  and  his  com- 
plexion is  darker,  his  body  slighter.  The  Chief  Usher 
(Lord  Chamberlain)  is  named  Lord  Sydney.  He  is  a 
robust  old  man. 

At  length  we  rose  and  went  up  on  the  jetty,  where 
there  was  a  wonderful  assembly.  We  took  our  seat  in  a 
railway  carriage, — I,  the  Sovereign's  sons,  the  Grand- 
Vazir,  the  Foreign  Secretary,  and  the  Principal  Official 
in  Waiting,  being  together  in  one  compartment.  They 
were  exceeding  beautiful  carriages ;  none  such  had 
hitherto  been  seen.  We  gently  went  forward  a  few 
feet;  and,  at  a  building  where  they  had  prepared  food, 
we  alighted.  I  went  into  a  small  room.  The  Hakimu- 
'1-Mamalik,  who  had  been  here  some  time,  was  admitted. 
They  then  told  me  the  Governor  of  the  town  of  Dover 
had  prepared  a  speech  which  he  must  recite.  I  went  into 
a  hall  and  stood  at  the  top  of  a  high  flight  of  steps,  the 
whole  of  the  English  princes  and  notables,  our  princes 
and  others,  with  our  servants,  being  present,  and  the 
Governor  (Mayor)  recited  his  speech  at  great  length,  in 
which  there  was  much  praise  and  laudation  of  us.  We 
replied,  and  Laranstin  explained  in  English.  The  people 
clapped  (their)  hands.  Eeturning  from  thence,  we  went 
to  breakfast,  accompanied  by  all  the  princes.  The}^ 
served  hot  cooked  food,  fruit,  and  other  things,  of  which 
we  partook.  Then  arising,  we  returned  to  our  train, 
and  took  our  seat  in  a  carriage  with  the  self-same  per- 

CHAP.  III.]      Prussia,   Gerinany,  Belgiu^n.  141 

sonages.  We  started.  Everywhere  we  passed  over  the 
bosoms  of  mountains  and  across  valleys,  traversing 
numerous  tunnels,  of  which  two  were  about  a  quarter  of 
a  league  in  length,  very  dark  and  suffocating. 

The  country  in  England  has  no  resemblance  to  that  in 
other  territories.  It  has  much  forest,  large  trees,  popu- 
lation without  interval,  and  cultivation  enormous.  The 
wealth  of  the  English  is  famous  throughout  the  world  ; 
there  is  no  need  to  describe  it  (here). 

We  passed  by  the  town  and  outlying  districts  of 
ChiseDmrst,  the  abode  of  Napoleon  III.,  and  where  he 
died.  His  tomb  is  also  there.  The  train  travelled  at 
so  furious  a  rate  that  it  was  impossible  for  one  to  dis- 
tinguish any  place.  From  the  rapidity  of  our  motion 
fire  came  out  of  the  wheels,  and  one  carriage  caught  fire. 
It  wanted  but  little  for  aU  to  be  burnt.  They  stopped 
the  train,  got  down,  and  extinguished  the  fire.  All  was 
right,  and  again  we  went  on  until  we  reached  the  begin- 
ning of  the  city  of  London.  Again  it  is  impossible  to 
describe  the  prosperity,  the  populousness,  the  extent  of 
the  city,  the  numbers  of  lines  of  railway  over  which  in- 
cessantly the  trains  come  and  go  in  every  direction,  the 
smoke  of  the  manufactories,  and  the  like.  We  travelled 
over  the  exteriors  of  the  roofs  of  the  houses ;  and  thus 
we  reached  the  station  and  stopped. 

There  was  an  assemblage  of  spectators,  and  a  crowd, 
beyond  all  limits ;  there  were  the  armour-wearing 
EngHsh  household  cavalry ;  there  was  the  Nawwab  the 
Heir-Apparent  of  England,  known  as  the  Prince  of 
Wales ;  and  the  whole  of  the  Ministry,  of  the  notables, 

142  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe,      [chap.  m. 

and  of  the  nobles,  were  present.  We  alighted.  I,  the 
Heir-Apparent,  the  Grand-Vazir,  and  Lord  Morley, — 
the  Lord-in- Waiting  upon  us,  took  our  seats  in  an  open 
carriage,  and  drove  off.  Both  sides  of  the  road,  the 
roofs,  the  upper  stories  of  the  houses,  were  full  of  women, 
men,  and  children,  who  exhibited  much  joy  and  pleasui^e 
by  shouting  hurrahs,  by  waving  handkerchiefs,  by  clap- 
ping hands.  It  was  a  surprising  turmoil.  I  saluted  in- 
cessantly with  head  and  hands.  The  crowd  of  spectators 
was  never-ending.  The  population  of  the  city  is  said  to 
be  over  eight  crores  (four  millions)  of  souls.  It  has 
most  lovely  women.  The  nobleness,  the  greatness,  the 
gravity  and  sedateness  of  the  women  and  men  shine  out 
from  their  countenances.  One  sees  and  comprehends 
that  they  are  a  great  people,  and  that  the  Lord  of  the 
Universe  has  bestowed  upon  them  power  and  might, 
sense  and  wisdom,  and  enlightenment.  Thus  it  is  that 
they  have  conquered  a  country  like  India,  and  hold 
important  possessions  in  America  and  elsewhere  in  the 
world.  Their  soldiers  are  very  strong  of  frame  and 
beautifully  attired;  their  armour-wearing  household 
cavalry  are  very  strong  and  handsome  young  men, 
exquisitely  dressed,  like  the  cavalry  in  Kussia.  Their 
horses  are  very  fine  and  strong,  but  their  number  is  few. 
They  are  but  four  regiments,  each  of  four  hundred 

In  this  way  did  we  reach  the  half  of  our  ride,  when  a 
heavy  rain  set  in  and  wet  the  people  through  and 
through.  I  was  myself  also  a  good  deal  moistened ;  but 
I  requested  it,  and  the  carriage  was  closed  (in  part),  the 

CHAP.  III.]      Prussia,  Germany^  Belgmm.  143 

Grand- Vazir  and  Lord  Morley  remaining  exposed  to  the 
rain,  so  that  they  were  wet  through.  We  arrived  at  our 
destination — Buckingham  Palace,  where  quarters  were 
allotted  to  us,  and  there  we  alighted. 

This  palace  is  the  town  residence  of  the  Sovereign. 
It  is  a  veiy  imposing  and  extensive  structure.  The 
Heir- Apparent  and  the  other  princes  accompanied  us, 
and  led  us  into  the  palace.  The  whole  of  our  suite  are 
also  accommodated  in  this  building.  There  is  an  exten- 
sive and  beautiful  garden  in  front  {i.e.,  at  the  back)  of 
this  palace,  with  magnificent  lawns  and  beautifully  kept. 
They  have  a  kind  of  reaping-machine  like  a  cart  and 
drawn  by  a  horse.  This  cuts  down  the  grass  in  strips  a 
cubit  (21  inches)  wide,  and  collects  it  into  the  cart.  There 
is  a  very  pretty  natural  lake,  with  ships  and  boats  to  row 
about  in.  They  have  •  also  erected  several  very  elegant 
tents.  In  every  corner  of  the  garden  there  are  some 
very  large  forest  trees,  and  also  most  beautiful  flowering 
shrubs.  There  were  a  large  number  of  peacocks,  and  a 
crane  was  walldng  about  on  the  lawn. 

I  was  very  tired  and  worn  out ;  so  I  went  early  to 
bed.  The  Sovereign  is  at  Windsor  Castle,  a  distance  of 
six  leagues  from  town,  but  got  over  by  rail  in  half  an 

Upon  the  stairs,  and  within  the  palace,  there  are 
posted  some  elderly  English  soldiers  in  costumes  four 
hundred  years  old,  dating  from  the  time  of  Elizabeth, 
Queen  of  England.     An  extremely  singular  costume. 


ENGLAND  ;   18  DAYS. 

^%  >^  ED  {Thursday,  19th  June). — In  the  morning 
-^■^  '\  I  arose,  and  in  the  course  of  the  day  paid  a 
*^  visit  to  the  Nawwah  the  Heir-Apparent. 
Th^  road  was  not  far  to  go.  He  has  a  nice  house,  with 
seven  or  eight  sweet  children.  The  wife  of  the  Heir- 
Apparent  is  a  daughter  of  the  Sovereign  of  Denmark, 
and  sister  to  the  wife  of  the  Heir- Apparent  of  Kussia, 
who,  with  liis  wife,  was  present;  having  arrived  a  few 
days  before  on  a  visit,  for  which  they  will  stay  a  month. 
We  sat  and  conversed  a  while.  Every  place  in  the 
house,  as  far  as  the  walls  of  the  rooms,  &c.,  go,  were 
covered  with  figures  of  deer,  &c.,  with  tiger-skins,  and 
the  like. 

On  leaving,  we  went  to  visit  Prince  Alfred,  whose  title 
is  the  "Duke  of  Edinburgh."  His  house,  too,  is  very 
fine.  Heads  of  stags,  of  deer,  and  the  head  of  an 
elephant  he  had  shot  at  tKe  Cape  of  Good  Hope, 
together  with  many  beautiful  birds,  striped  or  speckled, 
dried  and  stuffed,  were  collected  in  glass  cases,  and  the 
like.  There  were  also  implements  of  the  chase.  Prince 
Arthur  was  not  at  home,  having  gone  to  an  exercise  of 
the  troops. 

CHAP.  IV.]  England,  145 

Thence  we  proceeded  to  the  residence  of  the  Duke  of 
Cambridge,  cousin-german  to  the  Sovereign^  through 
her  paternal  uncle.  He  has  a  nice  house,  and  is  Com- 
mander-in-Chief of  all  the  English  army,  besides  being 
the  Colonel  of  the  (Royal  Regiment  of)  Artillery  and 
Ordnance.  He  is  an  old  man,  but  hale  and  stout,  rosy- 
cheeked  and  fair,  with  a  pleasing  countenance.  He  is  a 
man  of  importance.  AVe  had  a  little  chat,  and  I  next 
went  to  his  sister's,  wife  of  the  Duke  of  Teck,  a  prince 
and  nobleman  of  Germany,  a  very  handsome  young  man 
with  scanty  mustachios  and  a  good  figure.  He  has  a 
good  house  and  garden,  given  by  the  State. 

As  it  was  now  the  time  appointed  for  the  recep- 
tion of  the  Diplomatic  Corps  and  of  the  English 
Ministry,  we  soon  rose  and  returned  home,  put  on  my 
(state)  dress,  and  went  up  into  a  saloon  of  the  upper 
story  of  the  palace,  where  all  our  princes  and  officials 
were  assembled.  The  Sovereign's  Chief  Usher  had 
come  with  the  whole  of  the  Diplomatic  Body,  and  they 
were  waiting  on  foot.  I  addressed  a  few  words  to  each, 
enquiring  after  their  healths.  The  Russian  Ambassador, 
Baron  Brunnow,  is  an  old  man,  and  has  been  now  thirty 
years  in  London  as  a  Representative.  Musurus  Pasha, 
— the  Ottoman  Ambassador,  is  a  Greek,  and  an  elderly 
man.  M.  Beust,  Austrian  Ambassador,  is  an  old,  but 
inteUigent  great  man,  who  was  formerly  the  Austrian 
Premier,  and  is  a  German.  The  French  Representative, 
Count  d'Har court,  is  a  nobleman  of  France.  The  others 
were  also  present,  even  the  Japanese  Minister.  The 
Nawwab   Raja   Dhuleep- Singh,    son   of   the    celebrated 

146  Diary  of  a  Toicr  in  Ettrope.      [chap.  iv. 

Ranj it- Singh,  came  likewise.  It  is  twenty  years  that  he 
has  lived  in  London,  as  the  Government  gives  him  a  large 
allowance.  He  is  a  young  man,  with  pleasing  eyes  and 
eyebrows.  He  speaks  English.  He  had  decorated  him- 
self with  some  beautiful  jewels  and  pearls.  He  is  an 
Indian  prince. 

"When  these  were  all  gone,  the  present  English 
Ministry,  of  the  Whig  party.  Lord  Granville — Foreign 
Secretary,  Lord  Gladstone — the  Premier,  the  Duke  of 
Argyll— Indian  Secretary,  together  with  the  other 
Ministers  and  people  of  importance,  were  received  in 
audience.  We  had  a  lengthened  conversation  with  Lord 
Gladstone  and  the  EngHsh  Foreign  Secretary.  They 
also  went  away,  and  we  were  left  to  ourselves. 

We  made  a  tour  of  the  upper  apartments  of  the 
palace,  which  is  a  wonderful  building.  It  has  some  very 
fine  pictures  and  portraits. 

For  the  evening  we  were  invited  to  dinner  with  the 
Heir- Apparent  at  his  house,  and  to  an  evening  dancing- 
party  at  the  Duke  of  Sutherland's,  an  English  nobleman 
who  has  an  income  of  a  crore  (500,000  tumans;  about 
200,000L).  We  went  to  the  Heir-Apparent's,  and  par- 
took of  dinner.  Our  princes,  the  Grand-Yazir  and 
others,  the  EngHsh  Ministers,  the  Russian  Heir- 
Apparent,  and  the  wives  of  the  two  Heirs-Apparent, 
were  present.  After  dinner  we  proceeded  to  the  Duke 
of  Sutherland's,  who  has  for  wife  an  intelligent,  noble 
lady.  His  house  is  beautiful.  There  was  a  numerous 
company.  We  took  our  seat  in  a  long  hall.  The 
English  Princes,  with  their  wives,   the  Indian  Prince, 

CHAP.  IV.]  England,  147 

and  the  Nawwab  Nazim,  of  Bengal,  with  his  son,  were 
present.  It  is  two  years  since  he  came  to  London  about 
some  business,  and  has  remained  here.  He  is  a  grandson 
of  the  renowned  Tipu  Sahib  (sic,  readj  Tipu-Saib). 
When  the  dancing  was  over,  we  returned  home  and  went 
to  bed. 

24i/i  {Friday,  20th  June), — We  have  to  go  to  Windsor 
Castle,  the  residence  of  Her  Most  Exalted  Majesty 
Victoria,  Sovereign  of  England,  which  is  one  hour's 
journey  by  rail.  So  we  dressed,  and  then  taking  our  seat 
in  the  carriage  with  the  Grand- Vazir  and  Lord  Morley, 
started.  Crowds  beyond  limit  were  standing  at  the 
ends  and  on  both  sides  of  our  road.  There  were  that 
number  of  carriages  that  no  one  could  count  them. 
Passing  along  the  drive  in  Hyde  Park,  and  through  the 
town,  we  reached  the  station,  and  took  our  seat  in  the 
train.  The  carriages  were  most  sumptuous,  each  side 
being  a  single  sheet  of  plate  glass.  We  traversed  inha- 
bited places,  the  open  country,  and  green  meadows ;  and 
at  length  Windsor  Castle  rose  to  view  at  a  distance, 
appearing  like  a  fortress  with  four  turrets.  Arriving 
near  thereto,  we  alighted  and  got  into  a  carriage.  All 
our  suite  were  of  the  party.  At  the  foot  of  the  steps  of 
the  Castle  we  alighted.  Her  Most  Exalted  Majesty 
the  Sovereign  advanced  to  meet  us  at  the  foot  of  the 
staircase.  We  got  down,  took  her  hand,  gave  our  arm, 
went  up  stairs,  passed  through  pretty  rooms  and  corri- 
dors hung  with  beautiful  portraits,  and  entering  a 
private  apartment,  took  our  seat.  The  Sovereign  pre- 
sented her  children,  relations,  and  officers.     We,  too,  on 

L  2 

148  Diary  of  a   Tottr  in  Eii7'ope.      [chap.  iv. 

our  part,  presented  our  princes,  the  Grand-Vazir,  and 
the  others.  The  Lord  Chamherlain,  who  is  the  Minister 
of  the  Court  of  the  Sovereign,  brought  for  us  the 
Insignia  of  the  Order  of  the  Garter  set  in  diamonds;  i.e., 
the  Knee-tie,  which  is  one  of  the  most  esteemed  English 
Orders.  The  Sovereign  rose,  and  with  her  own  hand 
decorated  us  with  the  Order,  and  cast  the  ribbon  upon 
us,  presenting  us  at  the  same  time  with  a  long  stocking- 
tie.     The  history  of  this  Order  is  as  follows  : — 

"Two  opinions  are  current  among  historians  as  to  the 
(origin  of  the)  Order  that  is  called  the  *  Order  of  the 
Garter,'  and  which  was  instituted  by  Edward  III.,  King 
of  England,  in  a.d.  1349,  at  Windsor  Castle. 

"  One  opinion  is  that  he  instituted  this  Order  in  com- 
memoration of  the  victory  at  Cressy,  where  the  power  of 
Philippe  IV.  of  France  was  broken. 

"  The  other  is  that  on  an  occasion  at  a  baU  the 
stocking-tie — the  garter,  of  the  Countess  of  Salisbury, 
Edward's  sweetheart,  fell  off,  and  became  a  source  of 
merriment  among  those  present.  The  Sovereign,  out  of 
the  perfect  zeal  and  attachment  that  he  had  for  her, 
lifted  up  the ,  stocking-tie,  and  pronqunced  the  motto  : 
*  Honi  soit  qui  mal  y  pense,'  which  is  to  this  day 
embroidered  on  the  strap  of  the  Order,  and  said :  '  This 
stocking-tie  will  I  raise  to  such  a  degree  of  estimation, 
that  all,  to  obtain  it,  shall  risk  refusal.'  " 

Thus  it  was  that  he  made  it  the  first  Order  of  his 
kingdom;  and,  besides  the  Sovereign  of  England,  who 
is  the  Head  and  Governor  of  the  Order,  the  English 
Princes,  and  foreign  Sovereigns,  this  order  is  given  to 

CHAP.  IT.]  England,  149 

no  one ;  also,  the  number  of  its  wearers,  home  and 
foreign,  can  never  be  more  than  twenty-six. 

I  received  the  Order  with  the  utmost  respect,  and  sat 

down.     I  too  presented  to  the  English  Sovereign  the 

"  Order  of  the  Sun,"  set  in  diamonds,  with  its  ribbon, 

and   also   the    Order    of  my  own   Portrait,   which    she 

.  received  with  all  honour  and  put  them  on  herself. 

We  then  rose  and  went  to  table.  Three  daughters  of  the 
Sovereign  and  one  young  son,  who  does  not  yet  go  any- 
where away  from  her,  and  whose  name  is  Leopold,  were 
already  seated.  This  son  to-day  had  come  to  the  station 
to  meet  me.  He  is  very  young-looking  and  very  grace- 
ful. He  wore  the  Scotch  costume.  The  peculiarity  of 
the  Scotch  costume  is  this  :  the  knees  are  left  visible  up 
to  the  thighs.  One  of  the  Sovereign's  daughters,  six- 
teen years  of  age,  is  always  at  home  with  her,  and  has 
not  a  husband  as  yet.  Her  other  two  daughters  have 
husbands.  The  princes,  the  Grand-Vazir,  Lord  Gran- 
ville, and  others,  were  present.  A  beautiful  breakfast 
was  eaten.     There  were  some  fine  fruits  at  the  breakfast. 

The  Sovereign  again  took  my  hand  and  led  me  to  a 
private  apartment,  she  herself  going  away.  I  sat  there 
a  while.  The  armour- wearing  household  cavalry,  together 
with  a  battalion  of  infantry,  were  drawn  up  in  a  small 
court  in  front  of  the  Castle.  They  are  very  handsome 
cavalry  and  very  choice  infantry.  The  English  troops 
are,  it  is  true,  few  in  number,  but  they  are  extremely 
well  dressed,  disciplined,  and  armed,  being  very  stout 
young  men.     A  band  played  beautifully. 

There  is  a  wide  avenue  in  front  of  the  Castle,  a  league 

150  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Eicrope.      [chap.  iv. 

in  length,  and  on  either  side  of  it  two  rows  of  ancient 
and  strong  forest  trees,  very  \oiij.  The  ground  is  all 
grass,  with  flowers  and  verdure.  We  descended, 
mounted  our  carriage  with  the  Grand- Vazir  and  the 
Lord-in-Waiting,  and  drove  along  this  avenue,  our  suite 
following  us  in  other  carriages.  Along  the  road  there 
were  numerous  women  and  men ;  also  heautiful  women, 
children,  and  grown  persons  of  the  inhabitants  of 
Windsor  itself,  were  promenading  in  the  avenues,  on 
foot,  on  horseback,  and  in  carriages.  It  was  a  pretty 

When  we  had  proceeded  a  certain  distance  the  con- 
course of  people  dwindled 'away.  They  have  turned 
loose  on  the  lawns  and  in  the  avenues  about  a  thou- 
sand head  of  antelopes  (fallow-deer),  which  were  now  seen 
in  numbers,  like  a  flock  of  sheep,  feeding  in  separate 
batches,  and  not  very  timid  of  man.  But  no  one  is 
allowed  to  molest  them.  In  reality,  they  are  not  ante- 
lopes, but  of  a  kind  between  the  red-deer,  the  antelope, 
and  the  roebuck  (?),  very  graceful. 

The  avenues,  the  lawns,  the  trees  were  interminable. 
We  drove  two  leagues,  and  passed  along  another  avenue 
resembling  paradise,  both  sides  of  the  avenue  being  a 
mass  of  tall  trees  (or  shrubs),  all  in  bloom  with  large 
light-blue,  red,  and  other  coloured  flowers,  of  the 
oleander  family  (probably  rhododendrons).  So  charming 
was  this,  that  nothing  superior  can  be  imagined. 

We  came  to  a  lake  of  water  of  some  extent,  around 
which  were  multitudes  of  women  and  maidens.  We 
crossed  the  lake '  to    a    small   palace,  very  pretty,  the 

CHAP.  IV.]  England,  151 

property  of  the  Sovereign.  There  we  alighted  and 
partook  of  some  fruit.  All  our  princes  and  suite  came 
there  also,  and  then  went  off  to  the  station.  We  got 
into  a  boat  and  went  about.  On  the  other  side  of  the 
water  there  was  a  crowd  of  women  and  men.  After 
remaining  on  the  water  a  little  while,  we  went  to  a  small 
model  of  a  man-of-war,  that  has  been  constructed  and 
armed  with  twenty-four  guns  about  the  size  of  swivels. 
We  went  on  board,  saw  all  over  her,  returned  to  our 
boat,  and  in  her  to  the  palace,  where  we  again  got  into 
our  carriage  and  drove  to  Windsor  by  a  different  road 
that  was  still  all  avenues,  lawns,  and  numerous  antelopes. 
There  we  rejoined  our  train  and  left  for  town.  Similar 
crowds  to  those  of  the  morning  were  waiting  about,  and 
mutual  greetings  continually  took  place  until  we  reached 

Windsor  Castle  is  very  ancient,  and  externally  has 
not  much  ornament.  It  looks  like  an  old  building 
reared  of  stone,  and  each  stone  is  about  the  size  of  a 
brick  (or  Roman  tile).  It  has  one  large  tower,  with 
several  smaller,  lofty  turrets.  But  the  interior  of  the 
Castle  is  highly  ornamented,  is  pretty,  and  full  of 
objects,  with  very  handsome  rooms,  halls,  and  corridors, 
and  a  museum  of  arms  and  armour.  The  age  of  the 
Sovereign  is  fifty,  but  she  looks  no  more  than  forty. 
She  is  very  cheerful  and  pleasant  of  countenance. 

We  are  invited  this  evening  to  the  house  of  the  Lord 
Mayor, — the  Governor  of  the  old  city  of  London,  for  an 
evening  party  and  supper.  At  night,  therefore,  we 
mounted  our  carriage  and  drove  off.     From  our  palace 

152         '    Diary  of  a  Totcr  in  Etcrope.      [chap.  iv. 

to  the  Lord  Mayor's  house  was  quite  a  league.  The 
whole  of  both  sides  of  the  roads  and  streets  was  crowded 
with  so  many  women  and  men  as  passes  all  calculation. 
AU  shouted  hurrahs,  and  we  continually  saluted  them 
all.  Every  street  is  Hghted  with  gas ;  and,  besides  this, 
electric  lights  from  the  roofs  and  windows  of  the  houses 
made  the  streets  as  clear  as  the  day.  They  had  also 
arranged  various  designs  with  gaslights  upon  some  of 
the  h6uses,  in  the  streets,  and  elsewhere.  They  had 
further  dressed  out  the  city  and  the  streets  with  flags,  &c. 
We  passed  along  in  front  of  imposing  public  buildings, 
magnificent  shops,  and  open  squares,  and  so  came  to  the 
gate  of  the  City  .(Temple  Bar),  i.e.,  of  the  old  town  of 
London,  over  which  the  Lord  Mayor  is  Governor, 
though  he  has  no  authority  over  the  other  townships  and 
parishes ;  i.e.,  the  remainder  of  the  town  has  no  Go- 
vernor, but  each  parish  has  a  council  (vestry),  and  if  any 
(grave)  event  happen,  it  is  referred  to  the  head  police- 
man, i.e.,  the  head  patrol-man,  of  the  parish,  and  he 
refers  to  the  Home  Secretary.  The  police  of  this  town 
is  eight  thousand  strong,  all  handsome  young  men,  in  a 
particular  dress.  The  citizens  set  great  estimation  on 
the  police;  whoever  behaves  disrespectfully  to  the  police, 
is  adjudged  worthy  of  death. 

Well;  we  arrived  at  the  door  of  the  Lord  Mayor*s 
house,  asceilded  some  steps,  and  there  was  a  hall,  where 
were  assembled  the  Heirs-Apparent  of  England  and 
Russia,  their  wives,  all  the  Corps  Diplomatique,  our 
princes  and  others,  the  princes,  the  lady-princesses, 
ladies   of  distinction,   the  magnates,   and  the   English 

ciiA?.  lY.]  England.  153 

Ministers.  We  shook  hands  with  each  of  the  Heirs- 
Apparent,  and  saluted.  This  is  a  Government  huilding, 
in  which  the  Governor  of  London  resides.  It  is  called 
The  Guildhall.  Once  a  year,  at  the  discretion  and 
choice  of  the  citizens,  this  Governor  is  changed.  The 
members  of  the  local  administration  wear  a  remark- 
able costume,  large  sable  caps,  gowns  and  robes  lined 
with  sable,  &c.,  carrying  in  on^)i  hand  a  long  thin  stick, 
and  in  the  other  a  small  sword  in  the  ancient  fashion. 
They  walked  in  front  of  us. 

We  remained  in  that  room,  where  the  Lord  Mayor 
made  a  speech,  and  we  gave  a  reply.  After  that,  in  a 
ceremonious  manner,  we  went  into  an  extremely  spacious 
hall  in  which  were  chandeliers  and  jets  of  gas,  having 
given  our  arm  to  the  wife  of  the  Heir-Apparent  of 
England.  The  company  of  women  and  men  was  great. 
This  evening  three  thousand  individuals  were  incited. 
The  Lord  Mayor  had  on  a  robe  the  hinder  skirt  of  which 
was  very  long  and  trailed  on  the  gi^ound.  We  went  to 
the  place  of  honour,  where  there  were  some  steps,  up 
which  we  mounted  and  then  sat  down  on  a  chair.  The 
wives  of  the  two  Heirs-Apparent  sat  on  either  side  of 
us ;  all  the  rest  were  standing.  The  Lord  Mayor  read 
out  a  written  address  felicitating  our  arrival  and 
enlarging  on  the  friendship  and  union  existing  between 
the  two  States  of  England  and  Iran  (Persia).  This 
address  they  had  caused  to  be  printed  in  the  Persian 
language,  and  they  gave  a  copy  of  it  to  each  of  those 
(present)  who  knew  Persian.  When  the  Lord  Mayor 
had  finished  his  recital,  the  Grand-Vazir  read  out,  with 

154  Diary  of  a  Totcr  in  Europe,      [chap.  it. 

perfect  elocution,  the  Persian  (version)  thereof.  "We 
delivered  an  answer,  which  Laransun  Sahib  interpreted 
in  the  English  tongue.  The  ceremonious  session  was 
now  at  an  end. 

They  then  gave  into  the  hand  of  each  person  a  gilt 
pen,  having  its  ink  in  it,  together  with  a  slip  of  paper 
on  which  they  had  written  a  name ;  so  that  each 
one  might  write  thereon  the  name  of  whomsoever  he 
might  wish  to  dance  with.  They  also  offered  the  gift 
of  a  gilt  casket.  Now  the  dancing  began,  which  we 
surveyed  ^sitting  in  that  self-same  place.  Both  the 
Heirs- Apparent,  together  with  the  ladies  and  others,  all 

When  the  dancing  was  over,  we  again  gave  our  arm  to 
the  wife  of  the  English  Heir- Apparent,  and  went  to  supper 
— a  dinner  after  midnight.  We  passed  through  large  halls 
and  many  staircases  and  corridors,  all  full  of  men  and 
graceful  women,  and  in  the  rooms  and  staircases  of  which 
they  had  arranged  all  sorts  of  flowers  and  shrubs  grown  in 
vases.  Thus  we  reached  a  large  hall,  where  they  set  out 
the  supper-table.  About  four  hundred  persons  were 
seated  .  around  this  table.  An  individual,  one  of  the 
citizens,  who  was  the  Lord  Mayor's  deputy,  stood  behind 
me,  and  every  now  and  then  made  proclamation  with  a 
loud  voice  to  the  persons  of  the  company,  that  they  were 
to  prepare  themselves  for  a  toast ;  with  this  signification : 
.  "  The  Lord  Mayor  drinks  wine  to  the  health  of  the  great ; 
all  must  stand  up  and  drink."  First  of  all  the  Lord 
Mayor  drank  to  our  health ;  then  the  Heir-Apparent  of 
England  gave  a  toast,  and  again  the  Lord  Mayor  gave 

CHAP.  IV.]"  England.  155 

one.  Each  time,  that  individual  gave  notice  to  the 
company  beforehand. 

Supper  finished,  we  rose,  returned  to  our  home,  and 
went  to  bed.  Throughout  our  return  drive,  too,  when  it 
was  midnight,  there  was  the  same  dense  crowd.  This 
evening  the  Chief  Usher  and  the  Grand-Yazir  rode  with 
me  in  my  carriage. 

The  Sovereign  of  England  keeps  a  book,  in  which  each 
person  who  goes  to  Windsor  Castle  to  see  her  inscribes 
his  name ;  I,  too,  wrote  mine  to-day. 

26^/j  {Saturdayy  21st  June), — To-day  we  went  to  see 
the  workshops  at  Woolwich,  which  is  the  arsenal,  the 
cannon  factory,  and  the  iron- works  of  the  English 
Government.  From  our  quarters  to  that  place  is  a  two 
hours'  drive  in  a  carriage,  the  whole  being  through  the 
town  and  inhabited  suburbs.  Woolwich,  a  town  of  itself, 
is  really  a  parish  of  London,  and  inhabited  quarters  join 
the  two. 

In  the  morning  we  mounted  our  carriage  and  drove 
thither,  the  princes  and  others,  with  our  personal  at- 
tendants, accompanying  us.  We  passed  through  populous 
quarters  of  the  town,  and  over  the  river  Thames  by  a 
bridge,  then  through  the  outskirts  where  butchers  mostly 
do  congregate,  with  labourers  and  pliers  for  hire,  the 
faces  of  the  whole  being  black  with  the  smoke  of  coal, 
and  so  reached  the  town  and  city  of  Woolwich,  a  place 
of  great  importance,  where  are  all  the  barracks  of  the 
entire  cavalry  and  infantry  of  the  realm  of  England.  It 
is  seated  on  the  banks  of  the  river  Thames. 

The  Duke  of  Cambridge,  Prince  Alfred,  Prince  Arthur, 

156  Diary  of  a  Totcr  in  E^trope.      [chap.iv. 

General  Wood,  Commander  of  the  Artillery,  and  Military 
Governor  of  Woolwich,  together  with  other  commanders 
of  artillery,  infantry,  &c.,  all  came  forth  to  meet  us,  and 
formed  a  procession  in  front  of  us.  We,  in  our  carriage, 
drove  to  see  the  factories.  We  traversed  a  considerahle 
distance  through  streets  and  public  places,  where  crowds 
were  assembled  on  both  sides  of  our  path,  shouting 
hurrahs,  and  whom  I  saluted  in  turn,  until  we  reached 
the  workshops.     We  alighted  and  entered  these. 

It  is  now  the  sj^stem  no  longer  to  cast  cannons  in 
moulds.  They  make,  with  implements  they  use,  sheets  of 
iron  into  pipes,  of  the  size  they  wish  the  cannons  to  be. 
These  they  convey  to  another  shop,  'place  them  under 
steam-hammers,  and  squeeze  them,  and  weld  them,  so 
that  they  become  cannons.  They  told  me  this  system  is 
held  in  greater  consideration. 

One  by  one  we  visited  the  workshops.  In  one  place 
they  draw  rifled  cannons  (as  they  draw  wire),  in  another 
they  cut,  in  another  they  bore,  in  another  they  hammer. 
Quantities  of  useless  cannon  of  old  pattern  were  lying  in 
front  of  the  workshops ;  and  numbers  of  shot,  with  large 
supplies  of  material,  were  collected ;  this  place  being  the 
arsenal  of  all  England. 

After  all  these  visits  and  venturing  near  to  the  furnaces 
of  fire, — which  were  pretty  warm,  we  mounted  our  carriage 
and  drove  to  the  edifice,  by  the  flank  of  which  we  had 
before  passed.  There  a  breakfast  was  laid  out.  It  is  a 
hall  where  the  officers  of  the  land  and  naval  forces,  as 
well  as  those  of  the  artillery,  eat  breakfast.  It  was  a 
nice  place.     We  took  breakfast;  after  which  we  mounted 

CHAP.  IV.]  England.  157 

our  charger  "  Blaze,"  and,  with  the  sons  of  the  Sovereign, 
the  Duke  of  Cambridge,  and  the  rest  of  the  officers, 
went  on  to  a  plain  (Woolwich  Common)  of  grass-land  to 
see  the  artillery  exercise.  It  was  not  over  spacious. 
More  than  twenty  thousand  individual  women  and  men 
were  standing  around  the  plain  and  grass-land  to  witness 
the  spectacle.  There  were  seventy  pieces  of  cannon, 
large  and  small.  According  to  what  they  said,  these 
cannons  had  newly  arrived  from  India,  and  were  to  return 
thither.  The  gunners  and  officers  were  beautifully  dressed. 
The  English  cannon  are  after  the  old  pattern,  being  loaded 
from  the  muzzle  by  ramming,  and  are  not  breech-loaders 
like  those  of  Krupp. 

The  horse  and  foot  artillery  marched  past  in  our 
presence  ;  the  second  time  they  came  at  a  trot,  then  at  a 
canter,  and  lastly  at  a  gallop.  After  the  exercises  they 
fired  a  salute  ;  they  also  made  me  a  present  of  one  of  the 
nine-pounder  guns. 

We  now  mounted  our  carriage  anew,  and  by  the  road 
we  had  come  we  returned  home. 

Having  to  go  to  the  theatre  in  the  evening,  we  dressed ; 
and  having  taken  our  seat  in  a  carriage  with  the  Sove- 
reign's Master  of  the  Horse, — ^who  is  an  intelligent  man, 
and  the  Lord  Chamberlain,  we  drove  there.  There  were 
great  crowds  by  the  way,  all  of  whom  we  saluted.  We 
arrived  at  the  theatre.  The  Heirs-Apparent  of  England 
and  Russia,  the  wives  of  both,  the  princesses,  the  princes, 
and  the  magnates,  were  all  present.  It  is  a  very  large 
and  beautiful  theatre,  with  six  tiers  of  seats.  They 
acted  some  beautiful  scenes,  the  number  (of  actors)  being 

158  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Ein^ope,      [chap.  iv. 

also  large.  They  had  sent  expressly  to  Paris  and  had 
called  from  thence  Patti,  who  is  one  of  the  renowned 
songstresses  of  Firangistan.  She  sang  most  exquisitely. 
She  is  an  exceedingly  graceful  woman.  She  accepted  a 
fabulous  sum  of  money,  and  came  to  London.  There 
was  another  also,  Albani  by  name,  from  Canada  in 
America,  who  sang  extremely  well  and  performed  some 
wonderful  feats.     At  last  we  rose  and  went  home. 

26^/i  {Sunday,  22nd  June), — This  day,  after  breakfast, 
we  went  to  the  Garden  of  Wild  Beasts  (Zoological 
Gardens),  the  Husamu-'s-Saltana  and  the  Nusratu-'d- 
Dawla  being  seated  with  me  in  the  carriage ;  the  officers 
of  our  household,  and  others,  going  with  us. 

As  it  was  Sunday,  the  streets  were  empty,  'all  the 
people  being  in  the  fields  and  lanes  taking  walks.  So 
soon,  however,  as  they  saw  our  carriages,  they  ran  from 
all  quarters  and  came  towards  us,  shouting  hurrahs. 

The  journey  was  long.  We  passed  through  streets, 
squares,  and  the  like,  and  so  reached  the  gate  of  the 
Garden  of  Wild  Beasts,  where  we  alighted.  There  were 
many  carriages  at  the  gate  of  the  Garden  and  in  the 
road,  which  made  it  evident  that,  by  reason  of  its  being 
Sunday,  a  large  company  had  come  to  the  Garden  of 
Wild  Beasts. 

The  Director  of  the  Garden,  an  old  man  hard  of 
hearing,  came  forward,  and  as  he  knew  a  little  French, 
we  conversed  with  him.  There  were  great  numbers  of 
women  and  men,  and  we  passed  along  a  narrow  wa}^ 
between  these  men  and  women,  who  unceasingly  shouted 
hurrahs.     In  justice, — they  do  entertain  a  love  towards 

CHAP.  IV.]  England,  159 

us,  and  they  conduct  themselves  with  boundless  respect 
and  good  manners. 

Well ;  the  wild  beasts  here  are  separated  from  one 
another  in  special  cages.  There  were  here  several  in- 
teresting animals,  which  had  not  been  seen  (by  us)  else- 
where. First,  the  hippopotamus,  i.e.,  the  marine  horse, 
which  is  a  curious  thing.  There  were  three  of  them ;  one 
pair,  male  and  female,  with  one  young  cub  born  in  this 
very  place,  and  already  of  considerable  age.  This  was 
standing  out  of  the  water,  the  full-grown  ones  being  in 
the  water.  People  threw;  food  into  its  .  mouth,  which  it 
opened  like  a  gateway.  It  had  very  rugged  teeth,  and 
was  of  an  enormous  size.  From  what  I  could  make  out, 
this  is  the  marine  rhinoceros.  Secondly,  there  was  a 
monkey  of  great  size  and  very  repulsive  in  appearance  ; 
it  was  exactly  like  a  human  being,  and  more  especially  had 
it  the  hands  and  feet  of  a  man.  Its  keeper  made  it  dance ; 
he  stamped  w^ith  his  foot,  it  stood  up ;  he  spoke  (to  it), 
it  understood  English ;  it  then  walked  forwards  towards 
us,  but  it  continually  evinced  the  desire  that  they  should 
hold  it  by  the  hand  and  lead  it.  They  then  sent  it  into 
the  cage  of  the  monkeys,  where  it  leapt  and  sprang  about 
in  a  wonderful  manner,  and  played  like  a  rope-dancer. 
Thirdly,  the  sea-lion  and  the  sea-fox,  which  were  in  a 
basin  of  water,  around  which  was  a  railing.  An  indi- 
vidual spoke  to  them  in  French ;  they  showed  great 
intelligence.  The  lion  was  of  a  considerable  size,  its 
body  being  covered  with  a  fine  down,  and  its  feet  re- 
sembHng  the  fins  of  a  fish  and  the  wings  of  a  bat,  but  it 
ran  along  with  them  at  a  good  pace.     At  the  side  and  in 

i6o  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe,     [chap.  iv. 

the  middle  of  the  basin  there  was  a  bench,  on  which  a 
chau'  had  been  placed.  It  got  up  on  the  chair,  and  sat 
down.  The  fox  (seal)  was  like  the  lion,  but  smaller. 
They  dived  beneath  the  water ;  the  keeper  gave  a  sound  ; 
immediately  on  which,  they  came  out  of  the  water  and 
kissed  their  keeper,  who  had  seated  himself  on  the  bench. 
He  said:  *' One  kiss;"  "Two  kisses."  As  many  as 
he  asked  for,  kisses  they  gave  him.  It  was  a  strange 
sight.  Fourthly,  there  were  some  very  small  monkeys, 
no  bigger  than  the  rat  of  Sultaniyya  (perhaps  the 
marmot,  arctomj^s  marmotta), — very  curious.  There 
were  elephants,  rhinoceroses,  maned-lions,  black  panthers, 
tigers,  and  other  beasts  ;  also  birds,  and  j^arrots  of  all 
colours.  Besides  these  there  were  many  other  places  to 
visit ;  but  I  was  tired  and  could  not  go  about.  The 
crowds,  too,  were  very  great ;  so  we  returned  home. 

27i/t  {Monday,  2Srd  June). — This  day  we  have  to  pro- 
ceed to  the  town  and  harbour  of  Portsmouth,  to  witness 
a  review  of  the  men-of-war ;  Portsmouth  being  one  of  the 
principal  military  harbours  of  England.  In  the  morning 
I  therefore  arose  early,  though  languid  from  sleepless- 
ness, dressed,  took  my  seat  in  a  carriage,  and  with  the 
Grand-Vazir,  princes,  and  others,  drove  to  the  station  of 
the  Portsmouth  railway.  A  great  crowd  had  collected. 
We  took  our  places  in  the  train,  and  waited  until  the 
Heir- Apparent  of  England,  the  Heir-Apparent  of  Kussia, 
with  their  wives,  and  others,  arrived.  They  occupied 
another  carriage  in  the  same  train  with  ourselves,  and  w^e 
started.  The  whole  of  the  road  was  populous,  green  and 
smiling,  with  larch  forests.     We   travelled  about  three 

ciLvr.  I V.  ]  England.  1 6 1 

hours  or  less  before  arriving  at  Portsmouth.  This  is  a 
town  of  importance  and  a  great  military  harbour,  with 
strong  forts  and  batteries.  At  the  wharf  we  alighted. 
The  Governor,  with  his  subordinates,  came  and  made  a 
speech,  formal  presentations  being  also  gone  through. 
They  fired  many  guns  on  shore  and  on  the  water.  We 
entered  the  ship  named  the  "  Victoria  and  Albert," — a 
ship  special  to  the  Sovereign,  very  fast,  large,  and  beau- 
tiful, together  with  the  two  Heirs- Apparent,  the  princes, 
the  naval  commanders,  and  others.  The  captain  of  this 
ship  is  named  Prince-Linoge  {sic,for :  His  Serene  High- 
ness Ernest  Leopold  V.A.J.E.,  Prince  of  Leiningen, 
G.C.B.).  They  had  laid  out  a  breakfast.  We  and  the 
others  went  mto  the  cabin  and  sat  down  to  breakfast. 
Afterwards,  the  Heh^- Apparent  of  England  said:  "Arise, 
and  let  us  go  up  in  the  ship;  the  ships  are  going  to  salute." 
We  arose  and  went  up.  All  came.  Tw^o  little  sons  of  the 
Heir-Apparent  of  England  had  also  come,  dressed  in 
the  costume  of  sailors.  We  stood  up.  The  men-of-war, 
about  fifty  tillers  in  number,  were  stationed  at  anchor  in 
a  double  line,  like  a  street  on  the  sea.  They  fired  a 
volley.  The  sailors  had  gone  up  into  the  yards,  raised 
their  voices,  and  shouted  hurrahs.  Other  spectators, 
also,  that  had  come  from  London,  the  seaj^orts,  and  else- 
where, were  in  steamers  and  boats,  large  and  smaU, 
innumerable.  The  surface  of  the  sea  was  blackened  with 
spectators,  who  all  shouted  hurrahs.  They  had  hoisted 
flags  with  the  Irani  device  on  board  every  ship.  It  was 
a  commotion  L 

We  went  on  approaching  near  to  the  Isle  of  Wight, 

1 62  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Europe.      [chai'.  iv. 

which  is  ill  the  English  Channel,  and  is  a  very  pretty 
island.  A  town  was  visible  on  the  island,  nestled  in  the 
bosom  of  a  hill  and  named  Eyde,  which  had  its  hand- 
some houses  arranged  in  successive  tiers.  On  this  island 
the  Sovereign  has  a  castle,  built  by  her  and  her  husband, 
and  called  Osborne,  which  w^as  sighted  at  a  distance.  It 
appeared,  from  its  external  aspect,  to  be  a  nice  palace 
built  on  a  hill,  with  woods  and  lawns  around  it. 

Still  proceeding,  we  passed  through  the  street  of  men- 
of-war,  all  of  which  fired  guns  and  gave  a  salute.  When 
we  had  finished  the  promenade,  we  got  into  a  boat  for 
the  purpose  of  examining  two  ships.  We  went  fii'st  to 
the  ship  "  Azincourt  "  {sic,  French  for  Agincourt),  which 
is  the  largest  ship  of  war  of  the  English  Government. 
The  captain  of  this  ship  is  named  Fibs  Hurubi  {sic,  for 
Admiral  G.  T.  Phipps  Hornby ;  her  captain  heing 
E.  0.  B.  Fitzroy),  who  was  present  with  many  naval 
officers.  The  length  of  the  ship  is  more  than  150  feet 
{sic;  she  is  400  feet  between  perpendiculars),  with  a 
steam-power  of  15,000  horses^  {sic ;  her  indicated  power 
is  6867  horses) ;  her  guns  are  very  large,  some  of  them 
being  on  the  upper  deck,  but  the  greater  number  on  the 
lower  deck.     We  went  below  and  saw  all  over  her,  even 

*  The  ''Agincourt"  is  really  400  feet  long  between  the  perpendiculars; 
probably  the  mistake  has  been  made  of  saying  "feet"  instead  of  **ells," 
though  the  latter,  150  ells  =  520  feet,  would  have  been  in  excess.  The 
indicated  power  of  her  engines  is  68  C  7  horses. 

The  Russian  ship  "Kremlin,"  mentioned  in  p.  57,  is  said  to  be  armed 
with  eighteen  guns,  six  smooth-bore  60-pounders,  of  97  cwts.,  ten 
breech-loading  and  rifled  180-pounders  of  about  nine  tons,  and  two 
90-pounders  of  about  four  tons  each. — J.  "W.  E. 

GHAr.  IV.]  England.  163 

the  kitchen,  the  sailors'  mess-tier,  and  other  places. 
They  sounded  a  fife,  for  them  to  prepare  for  action.  In 
one  instant  all  the  sailors  came  down  from  the  upper 
deck,  and  with  extreme  celerity  went  through  their  fight- 
ing exercise.  With  the  apparatus  furnished  they  turned 
those  guns  about,  notwithstanding  their  enormous  size ; 
which  had  much  to  surprise  one.  There  were  about 
thirty  of  these  colossal  guns  (really  twenty-eight).  The 
ship  is  also  armour-clad. 

From  her  we  went  by  boat  to  the  other  ship,  named 
the  "  Sultan,"  which  is  also  a  very  large  ship,  armour- 
clad  on  both  sides.  The  name  of  her  nakhuda  (captain) 
is  Vansittart ;  her  guns  are  less  (in  number,  being  but 
twelve  in  all),  but  much  larger.  When  we  had  inspected 
her,  we  descended,  seated  ourselves  in  our  boat,  and 
returned  to  our  own  ship.  In  om-  boat  the  Heirs- 
Apparent  of  Kussia  and  England,  their  wives,  the 
Mu'tamadu-'l-MuIk,  the  Duke  of  Cambridge,  and  others 
were  seated,  and  we  were  taken  in  tow  by  a  small  steamer. 
As  it  arrived  at  the  foot  of  the  accommodation-ladder  of 
om*  ship,  it  shot  past  that  spot  and  went  under  the 
steam-paddle-wheel  of  the  ship,  at  the  very  moment  when 
the  steam-paddle-wheel  was  set  in  motion.  It  wanted 
but  little  for  the  paddles  of  the  wheel  to  strike  our  boat. 
If, — which  God  avert, — only  one  of  the  paddles  had 
struck  our  boat,  we  should  all  have  been  drowned. 
Thanks  to  God  Most  High,  the  wheel  stopped,  we 
escaped  uninjured,  ascended  into  our  ship,  and  returned 
to  the  seaport-town  of  Portsmouth.  There  again  they 
had  set  out  breakfast  in  a  room ;  of  which  we  partook. 

M  2 

1 64  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe.      [chap,  iv. 

Then,  mounting  a  carriage,  we  went  to  see  the  workshops 
where  they  make  the  various  objects  used  in  steamers 
and  for  maritime  purposes.  We  went  through  them  ;  it 
was  an  interesting  sight. 

We  now  took  our  path  up  a  ladder,  and  mounted  to 
where  they  were  building  a  very  large  ship  of  war,  into 
which  we  went.  The  artificers  were  at  work  upon  her. 
They  had  given  her  the  name  of  " Nasiru-'d-Din  Shah" 
{flu  "  Shah,"  26  guns,  5696  horse-power).  We  again 
descended  (went  to  the  station),  took  our  seats  in  the 
train,  and  started  for  town,  where  we  arrived  at  sunset. 

This  evening  there  is  to  be  a  concert,  i.e.,  a  meeting 
with  vocal  and  instrumental  music,  at  the  Albert  Hall,  to 
which  we  are  to  go.  After  our  evening  meal,  therefore, 
we  again  got  into  our  caniage  and  went,  with  the  Grand- 
Vazir  and  others,  through  Hyde  Park,  and  entered  that 
edifice,  where  the  Heirs-Apparent  of  England  and 
Russia,  together  with  all  the  English  officials,  and  others, 
were  present. 

We  first  were  shown  into  a  corridor  more  than  six  or 
seven  ells  wide  (21  ft.  to  24  ft.  6  in.),  and  covered  over 
with  glass.  It  was  said  to  be  of  iron.  On  either  side  of 
this  corridor  were  ranged  various  factory  machines,  i.e., 
small  machines  like  models,  but  beautifully  made,  and 
very  pretty, — that  were  put  in  motion  by  steam  power. 
We  noticed  many  industrial  processes,  —  sweetmeat- 
making,  cigar  and  tobacco-making,  the  cutting  of  the 
flour  threads,  called  macaroni  by  the  Franks,  lemonade- 
making,  soda-water-making,  where  the  bottles  are  filled 
and  securely  corked  in  an  instant,  Tunbridge-ware-mak- 

CHAP,  ly.]  Englafid.  165 

ing,  silk-winding,  cloth-weaving,  newspaper-printing,  and 
many  various  branches  of  art  and  industry  that  we  cannot 
enumerate.  They  were  performed  with  ease  by  these 
machines.     It  was  in  great  detail. 

The  management  of  this  exhibition  is  in  the  hands  of 
the  magnates  of  England, — of  the  Foreign  Secretary 
Lord  Granville,  and  others.  They  walked  on  before  us, 
the  Heirs- Apparent  of  England  and  Russia  being  present, 
with  others. 

Having  inspected  these  for  a  considerable  time,  we 
mounted  a  gi-eat  many  stairs,  and  anived  at  numerous 
halls  hung  with  portraits,  panoramic  views,  and  other 
paintings.  There  were  very  choice  portraits  painted  in 
oil,  such  that  we  had  not  yet  seen  so  beautiful  in  any 
other  place.  The  President  of  this  collection  of  pictures 
is  Prince  iUfred,  son  of  the  Sovereign  of  England,  who  is 
the  chief  of  the  navy ;  and  the  paintings  have  all  been 
done  by  naval  officers  and  navy  officials  each  out  of  his 
own  imagination,  and  then  sent  here. 

Leaving  these,  we  entered  into  a  series  of  corridors 
where  were  collected,  for  the  purpose  of  sale,  the  articles 
produced  by  the  machines  we  had  inspected  below. 
There  were  beautiful  women  and  maidens,  some  em- 
ployed at  work  with  those  machines  in  the  manufactory 
below,  and  others  occupied  in  the  business  of  selling 
them  here  abo^e. 

Passing  through  these  we  came  to  a  place  the  very 
picture  of  paradise.  All  these  corridors,  apartments, 
and  manufactories  were  lighted  up  in  various  wonderful 
manners  by  jets  of  gas. 

1 66  Diary  of  a   To2tr  in  Etirope,     [chap.  iv. 

The  very  concert  itself  was  in  an  exceedingly  spacious 
enclosure  with  a  roof  in  shape  of  a  dome,  very  vast 
and  very  lofty.  Around  this  dome  were  seven  tiers  of 
seats,  all  occupied  by  people,  all  filled  with  beauteous 
women  magnificently  apparelled,  a  great  assembly,  and 
all  nobles  and  magnates.  The  pit,  too,  was  full  of 
women  and  men.  Multitudes  of  gashghts  were  bui-ning. 
We,  likewise,  went  below,  where,  in  the  midst  of  all  that 
assembly,  they  had  arranged  chairs.  Together  with  the 
Heirs- Api)arent  of  England  and  Eussia,  with  the  grandees 
of  Persia,  and  with  the  ministers  and  magnates  of 
England,  we  took  our  seats  in  due  order.  In  front  of 
us  was  a  very  large  organ  of  the  size  of  a  palace,  with 
iron  columns,  and  with  tubes  from  whence  issue  the 
sounds  of  musical  instruments.  Outspreading  Hke  a 
l^lane-tree,  it  was  fixed  to  one  side  of  the  wall  of  the 
building.  Eight  and  left  of  the  organ  eight  hundred 
individuals,  beautiful  women  and  maidens,  were  seated 
in  tiers,  four  hundred  on  the  one  side,  four  hundred  on 
the  other,  all  dressed  in  white,  but  four  hundred  wearing 
blue  ribbons,  four  hundred  red.  Above  these  women 
there  were  boys  in  handsome  dresses,  also  to  the  number 
of  eight  hundred.  These  all  sang  in  extremely  sweet 
accord  to  the  tunes  of  the  orchestra  and  organ.  This 
latter  was  played  by  one  person,  and  its  sound  reached 
to  a  great  distance.  He  played  well ;  but  wind  was 
supplied  to  it  by  steam.  Otherwise,  how  could  one  indi- 
vidual, with  his  feet,  or  Avith  his  hands,  blow  the  needful 
blast  ?  On  the  lower  benches  there  were  also  a  great 
many  musicians.     From  no  one  did  there  arise  a  sound 

cjiAi'.  iv.j  England.  167 

all  quietly  lent  ear  and  looked  on.  It  lasted  more  than 
an  hour.  When  all  was  come  to  an  end,  we  returned 
home  and  went  to  bed. 

28^/j  {Tuesday,  24:th  June). — To-day,  at  2  o'clock  in 
the  afternoon,  we  have  to  go  to  Windsor  Castle,  to 
witness  a  review  of  some  troops  b}'^  the  Sovereign.  I 
arose  in  the  morning,  and  the  English  Secretary  of  State 
for  India,  the  Secretary  of  State  for  Foreign  Affairs,  and 
the  Prime  Minister,  came  to  an  audience.  A  great  deal 
of  conversation  took  place,  which  lasted  an  hour  and  a 
half.  The  Grand- Vazir  was  also  present.  The  meeting 
passed  off  pleasantl3\     We  then  went  to  breakfast. 

The  Grand- Vazir  now  came  and  represented  that  the 
Indian  Secretary  was  waiting  and  wished  to  present  his 
subordinates,  and  that  the  inhabitants  of  the  cities  of 
England  had  brought  an  address,  i.e.,  a  petition  of  felici- 
tations on  our  arrival,  which  they  wished  to  recite.  We 
went  into  a  hall ;  deputations  were  come  from  the  great 
cities  of  England,  and  presented  the  felicitations  of 
arrival.  The  members  of  the  Persian  Mission  (in  London) 
were  then  presented.  The  Jews  of  London,  the  Magians 
(Parsees),  the  Armenians  of  Manchester,  and  others,  had 
addresses  or  speeches  which  they  delivered. 

Afterwards,  the  Indian  Secretary  presented  his  subor- 
dinates, who  were  in  great  numbers ;  among  them  being 
Gold-Ismit  (Col.  F.  J.  Goldsmid,  K.C.S.I.),— who  had 
gone  to  the  frontiers  of  Sistan  and  Baluchistan,  Ismit 
(Major  Smith),  the  telegraph-men  of  Tehran,  and  others. 

We  now  mounted  our  carriage  and  drove  to  the  station. 
The  Heirs -Apparent  of  England  and   Russia,  with  their 

1 68  Diary  of  a   Tour  i7i  Europe,     ['hai-.  iv. 

wives,  and  others,  as  also  the  greater  part  of  our  suite, 
were  there.     We  started  and  arrived  at  Windsor. 

Windor  Castle  is,  in  truth,  a  strong  fortress,  built  of 
stone  in  times  of  old  on  the  summit  of  a  hill.  We 
alighted  at  the  foot  of  the  steps.  The  Sovereign  had 
again  come  to  the  foot  of  the  staircase  to  receive  us.  AVe 
took  each  other's  hands,  and  went  upstairs.  All  came. 
We  stopped  (there)  a  little,  when  I,  with  the  two  Heirs- 
Aj^parent,  and  the  others,  descended  and  mounted  on 
horseback.  I  rode  the  charger  of  the  Yaminu-'d-Dawla. 
Some  English  Generals  and  Officers,  with  a  squadi'on  of 
cavalry,  all  rode  in  front  of  us,  and  we  went  down  the 
long  avenue  that  fronts  the  Castle,  at  the  end  of  which 
was  an  open  space,  the  parade  ground.  The  road  was 
exactly  a  league  in  length.  On  both  sides  of  our  path 
women  and  men  stood  in  such  crowds,  that  it  was  (almost) 
impossible  to  get  along;  and  they  shouted  hurrahs  in 
such  a  fashion,  that,  at  the  sound  thereof,  the  horses  of 
om*  cortege  took  fright  and  began  to  act  as  though  mad. 
My  horse,  however,  by  reason  of  its  long  journeys,  and  of 
the  shakings  it  had  sustained  at  sea  and  on  the  railways, 
showed  no  signs  whatever  of  taking  fright,  but  remained 

In  this  way  we  proceeded  until  we  arrived  at  the  end  of 
the  avenue,  near  to  the  parade  ground.  There  we  halted 
until  the  Sovereign  should  come  up,  with  the  wives  of  the 
two  Heirs-Apparent,  who  were  seated  with  her  in  the 
same  carriage.  So  soon  as  they  approached,  we  jmshed 
on,  and  the  Sovereign  followed  behind  us.  We  went  on 
to  the  parade  ground, — a   spacious   greensward,    around 

CHAP.  IV.]  England,  169 

which  were  trees  and  forests.  On  one  side,  in  form  of  a 
semicu'cle,  women  and  men,  spectators,  were  standing  in 
such  nmnbers  that  no  computation  of  them  was  feasible. 
There  were  also  erected,  in  a  row,  about  ten  or  fifteen 
timber  huts,  like  tents,  in  which  the  grandees  and  nobles, 
men  and  women,  were  seated,  tier  upon  tier.  They  had 
hoisted  flags  of  the  "  Lion  and  Sun,"  and  the  English 
flag,  everywhere  in  front  of  this  semicircle  ;  while  two 
large  standards,  one  with  the  device  of  Persia,  the  other 
with  that  of  England,  were  hoisted  in  the  centre  of  the 
circle,  where  we  were  to  take  up  our  positions. 

Well;  we  arrived  under  the  standards,  and  there 
stopped.  The  Sovereign  also  came,  and  stopped,  in  her 
carriage.  Mutual  salutations  took  place.  Then,  we,  with 
the  Heirs -Apparent  and  the  Duke  of  Cambridge,  &c., 
started,  passed  down  the  ranks  of  the  troops,  returned, 
and  took  up  our  positions  by  the  side  of  the  Sovereign's 
carriage.  The  weather  to-day  was  cloudy  and  inclined 
to  rain.  We  oflered  thanks  to  the  Lord  that  rain  did  not 
fall.  There  were  seven  or  eight  battalions ;  three  or 
four  battalions  of  Guards,  who  had  splendid  uniforms, 
with  enormous  fur  caps  of  bear-skin,  &c.  These  caps  are 
very  awe-inspiring.  The  battalions  were  very  beau- 
tiful. There  were  two  battalions  in  Scotch  costume,  and 
another  battalion  named  after  the  Heir-Apparent  of 
England,  and  called  *'  Archers  "  (Eifle-Brigade  ;  Col.  in 
Chief,  H.E.H.  the  Prince  of  Wales,  K.G.).  The  artillery, 
the  amiom'- wearing  household  cavalry,  the  hussar  cavalry, 
were  all  very  beautiful.  Altogether  there  were  seven  or 
eight   thousand   men   present,  who  went  through  their 

1 7o  Diary  of  a   Toicr  in  Eu7^ope.     [chap,  w, 

manoeuvres  beautifully.  Several  times  tliey  marched 
round  the  parade-ground;  and  then,  retiring  to  a  dis- 
tance, they  practised  firing.  I  gave  with  my  own  hand  a 
jewelled  sabre  to  the  Duke  of  Cambridge,  Commander- 
in-Chief  of  the  English  (Forces).  Much  conversation 
took  place  with  the  Sovereign. 

When  the  exercises  were  finished, — which  was  about  the 
time  of  sunset,  I,  with  the  two  Heirs -Apparent,  the  Duke 
of  Cambridge,  and  others,  gallopped  through  the  crowd 
to  Windsor  Castle,  a  distance  of  a  league ;  and  on  ar- 
riving there,  dismounted  and  went  upstairs,  retired  to  a 
l)rivate  room,  and  took  our  repose.  In  half  an  hour's 
time  we  returned  to  the  Sovereign's  presence,  took  leave, 
and  went  to  the  station. 

We  were  invited  for  this  evening  to  a  dinner  and  ball 
at  the  residence  of  the  Foreign  Secretary  Lord  Granville. 
As  the  Heir- Apparent  of  England  and  his  wife  were 
fatigued,  they  telegraphed  from  Windsor  to  ask  for  the 
entertainment  to  be  put  off.  On  accomit  of  this  telegram 
we  dined  at  home.  But,  since  we  had  given  our  promise, 
we  went  to  the  evening  party  and  ball  at  the  residence  of 
the  Foreign  Secretary.  But  the  ball  was  at  the  Foreign 
Office,  i.e.,  at  the  Government  Office  of  the  Ministry  for 
Foreign  Affairs.  The  Heirs- Apparent,  and  others,  were 
present.  We  went  there.  It  is  an  imposing  and  beau- 
tiful building.  The  wife  of  the  Foreign  Secretary  came 
forward.  We  gave  her  our  hand  and  went  upstairs. 
They  had  collected  numerous  flowers  and  shrubs  on  the 
stau's  and  in  the  passages.  The  whole  of  the  nobihty  of 
England,  women  and  men,  the  Diplomatic   Corps,  with 

CHAP.  IV.]  England.  T71 

their  wives,  were  invited.  We  went  into  a  room  and 
took  a  seat,  where  there  was  a  table  with  chairs  round  it. 
We  then  arose,  took  the  hand  of  the  Foreign  Secretary's. 
wife,  and  wallied  round  the  whole  of  the  rooms  and  stair- 
cases ;  after  which,  performing  mutual  salutations  witli 
all,  we  returned  home  and  went  to  bed. 

29^/i  {Wednesday,  ^5th  June). — To-day  we  have  to. 
go  to  Greenwich.  It  is  not  connected  with  the  town, 
nor  outside  of  it.  It  is  on  the  bank  of  the  river  Thames  ; 
and,  in  reality,  is  accounted  a  subm'ban  parish  of  the 

In  the  morning  we  arose  early.  The  Grand- Vazir  was 
not  present.  We  took  our  seat  in  a  carriage  with  the 
Mu'tamadu-'l-Mulk  and  the  Lord-in- Waiting,  and  so- 
started.  We  passed  through  the  streets  of  the  town  and 
entered  the  city — the  old  town  of  London.  We  passed 
down  the  well-known  street  named  Kegent  Street — full  of 
beautiful  shops,  where  the  whole  of  the  business  of  buying 
and  selling  is  carried  on,  and  which  is  very  famous. 
There  was  such  a  concourse  of  people,  and  such  a  throng 
of  carriages,  that  one  became  bewildered  and  stupefied.. 
Again,  we  passed  through  other  streets,  and  so  entered 
the  old  Tower  of  London.  The  Governor  of  the  Tower, 
who  is  a  General,  came  out  with  all  the  notables  and 
Aldermen  of  the  City.  The  walls  and  turrets  of  the 
fortress  are  all  of  stone.  The  jewels,  arms,  &c.,  of  the 
ancient  monarchs  are  all  kept  there.  We  had  wished  to 
see  them  to-day,  but  there  was  no  opportunity.  We  came 
out  on  the  bank  of  the  river  Thames,  where  a  battalion  of 
infantry,  with  the  band,  was  drawn  out.     The  crowd,  too. 

172  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe,     [ohap.  iy. 

was  such  tliat  one  marvelled.  They  had  carj^eted  the  river- 
bank  and  hoisted  flags.  All  the  officers  and  grandees  of 
England  were  present.  They  had  prepared  for  us  a  large 
and  handsome  steamer.  The  English  Heir- Apparent,  the 
Bussian  Heir- Apparent,  with  their  wives,  and  others,  had 
all  arrived  before  us,  and  had  taken  their  places  in 
iinother  steamer.  As  soon  as  we  arrived  with  our  suite, 
— all  our  princes  and  followers,  with  the  exception  of  the 
'Imadu-'d-Dawla,  being  present,  we  went  on  board.  The 
weather  was  very  cold,  and  a  nasty  wind  was  blowing. 
The  smoke  of  ships  and  manufactories  invaded  our  vessel. 
This  river  has  an  ebb  and  flow.  In  the  morning,  up  to 
noon-time,  the  water  rises ;  and  from  the  middle  of  the 
afternoon  it  diminishes,  so  as  to  make  a  difterence  of  one 
or  two  ells  (3  ft.  6  in.  to  7  ft.).  Of  the  English,  DTksun, 
Tamsun,  Laransun,  and  others,  were  present. 

Our  ship  took  the  lead,  that  of  the  Heirs-Apparent 
followed,  and  we  steamed  ofll     There  were  such  numbers 
of  spectators  on  steam  and  sailing  vessels,  that  they  could 
not  be  counted,  while  there  were  multitudes  of  large  and 
small   boats;    the   whole   coming  along  with   us.      We 
j)assed  through  the  middle  of  London.     Both  banks  of 
the  river  were  covered  with  public  buildings,  manufac- 
tories, and  lofty  edifices.   We  entered  a  Dock.   A  "  dock" 
is  a  number  of  basins  constructed  for  ships, — in  which 
merchantmen  and  others  are  repaired, — in  which,  having 
entered,  they  take  in  their  cargoes  of  merchandize,   or 
discharge  the  same.     There  are  warehouses,  too,  built  on 
the  quays  of  the  docks,  which  are  furnished  with  mecha- 
nical  appliances   of  large    size,    by   which  they  lift  the 

ciiAr.  IV.]  England.  17^ 

cargoes  of  merchandize  from  tlie  ships  to  the  shore,  or 
from  the  shore  to  the  ships,  with  great  facilitj^  These 
docks  have  a  gate  of  iron  arranged  to  the  river,  which  is 
opened  and  shut  with  ease  at  the  time  of  ships'  passing 
in  or  out.  The  width  thereof  is  small,  so  that  large 
vessels  pass  with  difficulty.  So  many  ships,  and  so  man}- 
spectators  were  seen  as  to  set  one  wondering  where  they 
could  all  have  been;  and  all  were  well-dressed,  the 
women  all  good-looking. 

We  left  the  dock  again  and  returned  to  the  river.  The 
same  crowds  in  ships, — some  accompanjdng  us  on  our 
course,  others  fast  to  the  shores  of  the  stream,  and  all 
gazing  at  us.     They  fired  cannons  everjr^here. 

After  continuing  a  certain  distance,  we  arrived  at 
Greenwich,  Avhere  is  the  Naval  College  of  England,  and 
which  possesses  an  imposing  palace.  Landing  from  our 
shij),  we  went  to  the  palace  of  the  Minister  of  Marine, — 
a  very  large  and  ancient  palace,  built  two  hundred  years^ 
ago.  The  Heirs -Apparent,  with  their  wives,  and  others, 
were  of  the  party.  In  this  hall  there  are  some  portraits 
of  ancient  commanders,  and  some  paintings  of  naval 
engagements.  It  had  a  dais,  ascended  by  some  steps,  up 
which  we  went.  Here  they  had  prepared  breakfast  for 
us,  and  we  sat  down  to  it  with  the  princes  and  others. 
The  table  where  the  remainder  breakfasted  was  very  long^ 
and  there  a  large  party  of  men  and  women  sat  down  to 
the  repast. 

The  collation  over,  they  showed  me  the  blood-stained 
garments  of  Lord  Nelson,  which  are  preserved  in  a  case. 
A  bullet  struck  his  epaulette  and  passed  down   by  his 

1 74  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Ettropc.     [cHAr.  iv. 

shoulder-blade.  We  examined  his  white  waistcoat,  which 
bore  the  marks  of  blood.  The  action  is  known  as 
the  Battle  of  Trafalgar,  in  which  the  English  Fleet  en- 
gaged those  of  France  and  Spain,  and,  notwithstanding 
that  Lord  Nelson  was  killed,  the  English  gained  the 

We  now  descended,  and  the  Heirs-Apparent,  with  their 
wives,  took  leave  and  departed,  as  I  wished  to  go  to  the 

I  proceeded  to  the  open  ground  of  the  Naval  College, 
in  the  middle  of  which  there  was  a  large  ship  of  war  fully 
rigged,  for  the  exercises  of  the  naval  boys,  who  there 
practise  their  manual  drills.  About  five  hundred  naval 
pupils,  too,  were  drawn  up  in  line.  We  stopped  a  while 
to  see  them  exercise ;  and  then,  mounting  a  carriage, 
drove  off  to  the  Observatory. 

The  tower  of  the  Observatory  is  built  on  a  high  hill, 
and  is  ascended  by  stone  steps.  Large  telescopes  are 
mounted  in  a  species  of  turrets,  which  are  made  to 
revolve  by  machinery,  so  that  the  telescopes  point  in  any 
required  direction.  It  has  a  celebrated  Chief  Astronomer, 
who  has  so  often  ascended  into  the  air  in  a  balloon.  Its 
view  over  the  city  of  London  and  the  environs  of  the 
river  Thames  is  magnificent.  We  descended,  drove  to 
the  landing-place,  and  again  mounting  the  same  ship 
(that  had  brought  us),  proceeded  on  our  return.  The 
water  of  the  river  towards  the  afternoon,  acted  upon  by 
the  influence  of  the  tides,  becomes  low.  This  time,  as 
we  passed  the  .docks  b}^,  and  went  straight  on  our  course 
up  the  river,  we  passed  under  several  large  bridges  of 

€11 AP.  IV.]  England.  1 75 

iron  and  of  stone, — on  which  great  crowds  were  standing, 
and  arrived  opposite  to  the  Houses  of  Parliament. 
These  are  a  majestic  pile  of  building,  surprisingly  lofty, 
and  with  a  very  high  tower.  They  told  me  that  twelve 
crores  (6,000,000Z.)  have  been  spent  in  its  erection.  The 
Houses  of  Parhament  are  on  the  right  of  the  river  (as 
you  ascend  the  stream),  and  opposite  to  them,  on  the  left 
bank,  stands  St.  Thomas's  Hospital,  which  is  also  an 
imposing  structure. 

"We  left  the  ship,  mounted  our  carriage,  and  drove 
home.  This  evening  there  is  to  be  a  ball  in  the  upper 
rooms  of  this  very  palace  of  ours.  In  the  evening, 
therefore,  we  went  upstairs.  Everybody  was  there.  We 
took  the  hand  of  the  wife  of  the  Heir- Apparent,  walked 
off,  and  sat  down.  Everybody  danced  the  ordinary  ball 
dance ;  after  which  a  man  of  Scotland  came  attired  in 
the  Scotch  garb  and  played  the  bagpipes,  which  make  a 
noise  like  the  trumpet  of  Iran.  Prince  Alfred,  Prince 
Arthur,  and  others,  danced  a  Scotch  dance.  Well; 
after  this  dance  the  company  broke  up,  and  we  went  to 
another  room  to  supper.  They  had  placed  food  and 
fruit,  &c.,  on  the  table ;  of  which  all  ate.  The  Indian 
prince  was  also  there.  We  then  descended  and  went  to 

To-morrow  we  have  to  go  to  the  cities  of  Liverpool  and 
Manchester ;  also  to  the  castle  of  Trentham,  which  is  the 
property  of  the  Duke  of  Sutherland. 

Thursday,  SOth  {26th  June). — We  arose  from  sleep 
early  in  the  morning,  mounted  our  carriage,  and  started. 
The  Mu'tamadu-'l-Mulk  and  Lord  Morley  rode  with  me  ; 

1 76  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Europe,     [chap.  iv. 

the  Grand-Vazir,  the  princes,  and  the  greater  portion  of 
our  retinue  remained  behind  in  London . 

AVell;  we  passed  through  Kegent  Street,  which  has 
many  beautiful  shops,  full  of  goods  of  every  kind  in  the 
world.  We  also  noticed  in  that  same  street  a  most 
magnificent  hotel,  where  Americans  chiefly  resort,  and 
therefore  called  The  American  Hotel.  We  continued  our 
course,  arrived  at  the  station,  took  our  seat  in  a  train, 
and  started. 

From  London  to  Liverpool  is  a  five  hours'  journey, 
and  a  distance  of  fifty  leagues.  To-day  tlie  train  passed 
through  very  many  "holes  in  mountains,"  the  ground 
being  extremely  hilly  and  intersected  with  valleys. 
Everj^here  we  found  woods,  green  fields,  cultivation, 
and  populousness.  We  passed  by  towns,  large  and  small. 
The  town  of  Stoke,  which  possesses  a  very  celebrated 
manufactory  of  porcelain,  was  on  our  wa3\  It  is  here 
they  make  the  English  china-ware.  In  contiguity  with 
the  town  of  Liverpool  we  passed  through  a  very  long 
"hole,"  that  occupied  five  minutes  to  clear  it.  Im- 
mediately on  quitting  it,  the  Liverpool  terminus  was 
visible.  An  immense  crowd  was  there  collected.  To-day, 
in  the  course  of  our  journey  we  passed  over  an  enormous 
bridge,  very  lofty,  built  across  the  river  Mersey,  which 
flows  through  this  very  town  of  Liverpool,  and  falls  into 
the  sea.  It  is  not  a  long  river,  but  it  is  broad  and 

Well;  coming  out  from  the  terminus,  we  mounted  a 
carriage.  The  Governor,  with  other  officials  and  mag- 
nates of  the  cit}^,  was  in  front  of  the  terminus.     The 

CHAP,  iv.]  England.  177 

Governor  mounted  a  carriage  and  preceded.  We  followed 
him,  the  Mu'tamadu-'l-Mulk,  with  the  Lord  (Morley), 
heing  in  front  of  us  again.  The  city  of  Liverpool  is  one  of 
the  gi'eat  cities,  ports,  and  commercial  marts  of  England, 
and  does  business  chiefly  with  America,  from  whence  it 
principally  draws  wheat  and  cotton.  The  wheat  crop  of 
England  is  not  sufficient  for  the  food  of  its  inhabitants. 
Emigrants  in  large  numbers  embark  at  this  port  for 
America,  coming  from  England,  Germany,  and  elsewhere. 
According  to  what  was  learnt,  more  than  tw^o  hundred 
thousand  emigrants  annually  leave  this  port  for  the  New 
"World,  not  one  of  whom  ever  retm-ns.  The  region  of 
Firangistan  has  an  important  company  for  the  expedition 
of  emigrants.  There  were  two  large  ships,  with  emi- 
grants, anchored  in  front  of  the  city  in  the  river,  that 
were,  according  to  arrangement,  to  have  left  this  morning, 
but  put  off  their  departure  merely  to  witness  my  arrival, 
and  will  start  this  evening.  The  name  of  one  of  them 
was  the  **  Oceanie  "  ;  she  was  a  very  large  ship,  and  had 
a  thousand  emigrants  on  board. 

Well ;  the  crowds  along  our  road,  on  each  side,  were 
innumerable  ;  and  the  streets  having  been  made  narrow, 
there  was  no  getting  along  with  the  carriages.  Froni 
the  windows,  roofs,  and  roadsides  such  vociferations  of 
hurrahs  were  there,  that  one's  ears  were  deafened.  Not 
one  old  woman  or  child  was  left  in  the  town,  that  did  not 
come  to  see  the  sight.  It  is  a  city  of  commerce  and 
manufactures;  it  has  therefore  many  working  people. 
In  proportion  to  the  inhabitants  of  London,  many  more 
poor  people  were  noticed  in  these  parts,  on  whose  counte- 


1 78  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Etcrope.     [chap.  iv. 

nances  were  visibly  stamped  the  signs  that  they  obtained 
a  living  with  difficulty. 

We  arrived  at  an  open  space,  alighted,  and  entered  a 
public  building  named  St.  George  (St.- George's  Hall), 
where  there  were  a  large  hall  and  upper  chamber,  and  on 
a  platform  in  the  hall  of  which  they  had  arranged  a 
throne,  on  which  we  took  oiu:  seat.  In  the  hall  were 
crowds  of  women  and  men.  The  Governor  read  an 
address  and  commented  on  the  friendship  and  concord  of 
the  two  States  of  England  and  Persia.  To  this  we 
made  a  reply,  which  Laransun  interpreted.  Tamsun  and 
Diksun  were  both  present. 

We  now  rose,  returned  to  the  carriage,  and  drove  to  the 
residence  of  the  Governor, — a  nice  building,  where  we 
waited  a  while  in  a  room,  as  a  light  rain  was  falling. 
Thence  we  went  into  a  large  hall,  where  a  breakfast  was 
laid  out  on  tables.  We  took  a  seat  and  ate  some  fruit,  &c. 
The  Governor  drank  my  health  as  a  toast,  after  which 
the  breakfast  came  to  an  end.  An  immense  crowd  had 
collected  in  the  square  and  courtyard  of  the  edifice.  We 
went  in  front  of  a  window  and  saluted  them  for  a  while, 
returning  thence  to  a  private  room,  where  we  remained  a 
certain  interval,  and  then  descending,  remounted  the 
carnage,  and  drove  to  the  riverside. 

Here  we  went  on  board  a  ship,  together  with  our  whole 
party,  proceeded  to  the  mouth  of  the  sea  and  back  again. 
The  river  is  very  broad  and  has  a  town  on  both  shores. 
The  air  of  the  town  was  cold.  We  now  retraced  our 
course  through  the  crowds  and  reached  the  station,  got 
into  our  train,  and  by  the  same  railway  that  we  had  come 

■CHAP,  iv.]  England.  1 79 

iravelled  back,  after  an  interval  of  three  hours,  to 
Trentham  Castle,  the  seat  of  the  Duke  of  Sutherland. 

Our  train  stopped  before  the  gate  of  the  park,  where 
the  Duke,  with  his  following,  was  waiting.  We  got  into 
a  carriage  and  drove  in.  There  were  lawns,  avenues, 
flowers ;  and  deer  of  the  same  kind  that  we  had  seen  at 
Windsor  were  grazing  on  the  lawns.  The  Duke  has 
erected  here  and  there  detached  houses  for  his  gardeners, 
his  keepers,  and  others.  He  has  also  built  a  hotel,  and 
has  a  small  chapel.  We  arrived  and  alighted  at  the  door 
of  the  Castle,  entered  the  apartments,  and  went  to  a 
private  conservatory  that  was  within  the  house.  We 
there  saw  varieties  of  flowers,  palm-trees,  and  the  like, 
which  are  found  in  but  few  places.  In  the  centre  was  a 
small  round  basin  of  water,  with  a  fountain,  over  which 
was  the  figure,  in  marble,  of  a  naked  woman  seated. 
Beneath  this  water  flowed,  extremely  clear  and  pellucid. 
The  perfume  of  the  flowers  clung  about  the  place  ; 
especially  the  odour  of  a  species  of  large  white  and 
variegated  lily,  of  seed  from  Japan,  that  was  beautiful 
and  fragrant  beyond  conception. 

We  sat  there  awhile  and  smoked  a  galayan  (Persian 
huqqa,  hookah,  hubble-bubble,  water-pipe),  and  then 
went  in  front  of  the  facade  of  the  building,  where  is  a 
large  garden,  but  of  which  the  trees  are  small  shrubs  of 
cypress,  larch,  and  others  like  orange-trees,  grown  in 
pots,  placed  out  in  the  flower-beds,  and  clipped  round 
into  globular  heads.  The  flower-beds  were  very  exten- 
sive and  beautiful,  full  of  bloom,  and  with  all  sorts 
of  evergreens  permanently  planted  out.      There   were 

i8o  Diary  of  a   Totir  in  Ettrope.     [chap.  iv. 

avenues,  lawns  like  velvet,  numerous  fountains  playing  \ 
and  beyond  these  beds  and  gardens  a  natural  lake,  long, 
crooked,  and  tortuous,  in  which  were  several  small 
islands  full  of  copses,  flower-beds,  and  walks,  to  which 
access  was  had  by  boats.  Around  this  lake,  again,  is  a 
lising  ridge  covered  with  green  and  smilmg  verdure  ;  and 
beyond  all  are  avenues  covered  in  with  trees,  flowers,  and 
grapevines,  for  which  they  have  set  up  trelHses  of  iron 
wire;  and  external  to  these  trellises  and  avenues  are 
the  Duke's  hothouses ;  which  are  extremely  neat  and 
handsome,  being  stocked  with  all  sorts  of  flowers,  and 
plants  of  variegated  foliage,  from  the  New  World  and 

The  banana  was  seen  there,  which  is  a  pretty-looking 
edible  thing,  like  a  small,  long,  fresh  pumpkin ;  it  has  a 
yellow  skin,  and  when  ripe  has  the  flavour  of  a  musk- 
melon,  is  soft,  and  in  like  manner  can  be  taken  with  the 
fingers  and  eaten,  though  it  is  somewhat  nauseating ;  it 
is  called  muz  in  Persian  or  in  Hindustani,  and  is  pro- 
duced largely  in  that  part  of  Baluchistan  which  is  held 
by  Persia,  and  in  Makran.  There  were  also  nectarines, 
peaches,  white  and  black  grapes,  figs,  plums,  straw- 
berries, cucumbers,  and  other  things.  The  whole  of 
these  fruits  are  found  in  these  hothouses  in  the  various 
stages  of  unripeness,  half-ripeness,  and  maturity.  With 
the  assistance  of  apparatus  and  screws  which  they  have 
applied,  the  gardener  has  only  to  turn  these,  and  he  can 
open  the  windows  and  rooflights,  or  close  them,  as 

Well ;  we  returned  to  the  apartments.     The  edifice 

x:!iiAP.  IV.]  Eiigla7id,  i8r 

possesses  grand  rooms,  full  of  objects,  cheerful,  and 
cadorned  with  beautiful  paintings.  The  English  Consul- 
General  in  Egypt,  Ostantene  {sic^for  Colonel,  now  Major- 
General  E.  Stanton,  C.B.),  was  there  ;  he  has  recently 
arrived  here.  Lord  Choseby  {sic,  for  the  Earl  of 
Shrewsbury),  who  is  a  nobleman,  and  has  a  palace  in  the 
neighbourhood,  with  a  garden  laid  out  in  the  Swigs 
fashion,  was  also  present.  An  Englishman  who,  before 
the  war  with  the  English  and  French,  had  been  a  pri- 
soner in  the  hands  of  the  Chinese,  whose  name  was  Cok 
{sic,  for  H.  B.  Loch,  Esq.,  C.B.),  and  who  had  a  long, 
thick  beard,  was  there  too.  I  asked  him  the  particulars 
of  his  captivity,  and  he  told  me  that  the  Chinese  in  his 
captivity  had  tortured  him  exceedingly.  Some  English 
noblemen  were  present,  who  for  years  have  been  the 
companions  and  associates  of  the  Duke.  A  brother,  a 
brother's  son,  and  a  son  of  the  Duke,  were  there  like- 
wise. The  Duke's  son  is  entitled  the  Marquis  of 
Stafford;  his  eldest  brother  is  Lord  Albert  Gower,  and 
Jiis  younger  brother  is  Lord  Konald. 

Well ;  in  the  evening  we  partook  of  an  excellent 
dinner,  and  a  beautiful  illumination  was  carried  out. 
We  took  a  stroll.  There  was  a  place  arranged  for  the 
game  of  bowls.  In  the  middle  was  a  long  plank,  hollow 
down  the  centre,  and  in  two  stages  ;  within  these  they  had 
passed  many  bowls,  large  and  small.  On  either  side  of 
this  a  line  on  the  ground  is  laid  down  with  planks, 
ridgeways  ;  and  on  both  sides  of  this  is  a  channel.  One 
must  throw  the  bowl  with  force,  so  that  it  may  go  and 
sti'ike   certain  objects  collected  together  at  the    (other) 

1 82  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe,     [chap.  iv. 

end.  Every  bowl  that  strikes  an  object  they  take  away; 
and  each  one  that  does  not  strike,  falls  into  those 
channels.  The  players  form  two  sides  ;  one  party  plays 
on  this  side  of  the  wooden  line,  the  other  party  on  the 
other  side.  Several  people  stand  also  at  the  further  end. 
When  the  bowls  are  cast  into  the  wooden  line,  they  come 
along  of  themselves  to  the  players  ;  and  the  objects  which 
have  been  struck  and  have  fallen  down,  are  again  set  up.. 

We  went  to  that  place ;  and  at  that  conjuncture,  the 
Duke  and  the  rest  came  also.  I  asked  him  whether  he 
himself  played.  In  one  instant  the  Duke  and  the  other 
Englishmen  stripped,  took  off  their  hats,  and  played. 
It  was  a  beautiful  game,  well  worth  seeing. 

The  intendent  of  the  Duke's  household,  who,  a  few 
days  before,  had  been  wounded  in  the  leg  (or  foot)  by  the 
charge  of  a  gun  that  went  off  in  the  hands  of  one  of  his 
men,  limped.  His  name  was  Raite  (sic,  for  H.  Wright, 
Esq., — the  Duke's  private  secretary). 

Friday,  1st  of  Jurndda-l'^ula  {First  Jumddd,  27th 
June). — Having  breakfasted  in  our  quarters,  we  took  our 
seat  in  a  train,  and  started  to  go  into  the  city  of 
Manchester.  The  train  went  at  a  very  rapid  pace.  The 
greater  number  of  our  household,  &c.,  remamed  behind 
at  home.  To-day  also  we  passed  through  some  dark 
"  holes."  Leaving  behind  us  various  towns  and  "  popu- 
lous places,"  we  went  in  the  first  instance  to  the  works 
at  Crew.  AHghting  from  the  main  line  of  railway,  we 
mounted  a  very  diminutive  steam- carriage  that  Avent 
through  the  works.  It  was  a  very  pretty  and  novel 
thing.     But  soon  alighting,  we  went  on  foot  to  see  the]  England.  183 

workshops.  In  that  place  they  manufacture  the  various 
parts  and  appliances  of  engines,  locomotives,  and  railway 
cariiages ;  and  they  saw  with  great  facility  very  large  and 
tliick  masses  of  iron,  while  they  are  red-hot.  Conveying 
them  imder  rollers,  they  soften  them,  form  them  into 
plates  and  sheets  that  excite  surprise.  And  furthermore, 
the  masses  of  iron  which,  being  destined  to  be  made  into 
chains  (probably,  for  rails),  are  rendered  long  and  thin, 
were  like  so  many  red  snakes  running  about  on  the 
ground.  Again,  in  order  to  unite  the  plates  of  iron,  to 
forge  them,  and  to  weld  them,  they  had  machines  like 
two  rams  butting  one  another.  They  place  the  iron 
between  these  ;  they  butt. 

Well ;  after  surveying  all,  we  came  away,  and  pro- 
ceeded to  another  shop  where  finer  work  is  done.  This, 
too,  we  witnessed.  Then,  rejoining  our  train,  we 
journeyed  to  Manchester.  It  is  two  hours  and  a  half  s 
journey  from  Trentham  Castle  to  Manchester.  We 
arrived  at  the  station,  where  there  was  a  greater  as- 
semblage and  more  sightseers  than  at  Liverpool. 

The  city  of  Manchester,  by  reason  of  its  exceeding 
number  of  manufactories,  has  its  houses,  doors  and 
walls,  black  as  coal.  So  much  so,  that  the  complexions, 
visages,  and  dresses  of  the  people  are  all  black.  The 
whole  of  the  ladies  of  that  place  at  most  times  wear 
black  clothing,  because,  no  sooner  do  they  put  on  white 
or  coloured  dresses,  than  lo  !  they  are  suddenly  black. 

The  Governor,  magnates,  and  nobles  of  the  city,  with 
the  magistrates  of  the  environs,  were  at  the  station 
waiting.      We   mounted   a   carriage    and    drove   to   the 

1 84  Diary  of  a   Toicr  in  Europe.     [cHAr.  w. 

Government  House,  where  there  was  a  large  hall.  On 
the  top  of  a  flight  of  steps  they  had  placed  a  chair,  on 
which  we  took  our  seat.  The  Governor  made  a  speech  ; 
and  we  gave  a  detailed  repl}^  enunciatory  of  our  friend- 
ship with  the  Government  of  England,  and  of  the  pleasure 
and  gratification  we  had  experienced  from  the  fact  that, 
from  the  first  of  our  arrival  on  the  soil  of  England,  the 
greatest  regard  had  heen  shown  us  by  the  Sovereign  and 
the  nation.  Laransun  Sahib  interpreted  this  in  English. 
Every  one  approved. 

We  then  went  to  another  room,  where  breakfast  was 
laid  out.  We  ate  a  little  ;  and  then,  mounting  a  carriage, 
we  drove  to  see  a  manufactory  of  cotton  yarn.  We  drove 
down  a  very  long  street,  both  sides  of  which  were  densely 
crowded  with  people.  They  so  shouted  their  hurrahs 
that  one's  ears  were  nearly  deafened.  They  showed  a 
very  great  desire  to  see  us. 

We  arrived  at  the  manufactory,  which  was  of  five 
stories,  in  each  of  which  one  kmd  of  work  was  carried  on. 
For  the  most  part,  women  were  employed  at  the  work, 
and  made  the  yarns  and  other  things.  On  the  ground- 
floor  they  wove  cotton  cloths,  which,  when  taken  to 
another  place,  were  coloured  as  chintzes,  and  are  carried 
to  all  parts  of  the  world.  The  lower  worki'oom  was 
exceedingly  interesting,  and  was  as  spacious  as  a  large 
public  square.  Certainly  there  were  about  two  thousand 
looms  there  for  weaving,  and  at  each  loom  four  women 
were  occupied.  I  walked  past  the  whole.  Suddenly  the 
manufactory  was  (as  it  were)  overthrown  by  voices. 
Maidens,  matrons,  and  men  sang  a  pretty  song.     After 

>cHAr.  IV.]  England.  185 

the  singing  was  over  we  went  forth,  mounted  our  carriage, 
and  drove  to  the  station,  whence  we  started  on  our  return 
to  Trentham. 

The  Castle  was  reached  an  hour  and  a  half  before  sun- 
set. The  Duke  and  others  were  present.  We  went  on 
foot  to  look  at  the  deer  in  the  park,  and  then  mounted  a 
boat,  the  Duke  himself  accepting  the  fatigue  of  rowing. 
We  landed  on  the  islands  and  walked  about.  All  passed 
oiF  pleasantly.  In  the  evening,  after  dinner,  they  played 
again  at  bowls ;  all  were  there ;  the  Duke's  son  played 
better  than  any  one  else. 

Saturday,  2nd  {2Sth  June), — We  have  to  go  to  London, 
as  we  are  to  be  the  guest,  in  the  afternoon,  of  the  Heir- 
Apparent  of  England  at  Chiswick  for  a  stroll,  conversation, 
and  refection. 

In  the  morning  we  rose,  mounted  a  carriage,  exchanged 
adieux  with  the  Duke,  and  started.  It  was  more  than 
a  three  hours'  journey.  We  passed  some  towns  and 
through  numerous  tunnels.  Two  of  the  ** holes"  were 
long,  each  occupying  five  minutes  in  the  transit.  We 
also  passed  along  two  narrow  and  protracted  gullies 
(cuttings) ;  the  height  of  the  (escarpments  of  these) 
gullies  is  not  very  great,  but  they  were  (sheer)  like  walls, 
one  being  all  of  stone,  the  other  of  stone  and  earth  mixed 
together.  It  became  apparent  what  expenses  are  in- 
xjurred  in  the  construction  of  these  "iron-roads." 

WeU  ;  we  arrived  at  the  London  terminus, — where  there 
were  crowds,  and  from  thence  reached  home.  One  hour 
later  we  left  for  Chiswick. 

This  mansion  and  garden  are  the  property  of  the  Duke 

1 86   '  Diary  of  a   Totcr  in  Ettrope.     [chap,  i v. 

of  Devonshire, — one  of  the  wealthy  men  of  England,  and 
a  relation  of  the  Duke  of  Sutherland.  He  has  given  it,  as- 
a  trust,  to  the  Heir-Apparent  to  serve  as  a  summer  resi- 
dence for  him.  Crowds  innumerable  were  in  the  streets, 
at  the  windows,  and  on  the  roofs.  The  Grand- Vazir  and 
Lord  Morley  were  in  the  carriage  with  us.  The  distance 
took  about  an  hour.  Numerous  carriages  were  journeying^ 
to  Chiswick,  and  bearing  thither  the  invited.  Entering^ 
the  avenue  that  leads  to  the  gai-den,  we  drove  along  until 
we  reached  the  gate  of  the  private  garden.  Here  we 
alighted  and  entered  the  garden.  The  princes  and  others 
were  of  the  party.  They  had  set  up  some  tents  on  the 
lawns  and  about  the  garden,  which  has  a  poor  {or,  small) 
mansion.  In  a  tent  were  the  Heirs-Apparent  of  Russia 
and  England,  their  wives,  with  many  ladies,  the  foreign 
Representatives,  the  English  Ministers,  and  others.  We 
stopped  (there)  a  while ;  the  Sovereign  also  came.  We 
went  into  her  presence ;  we  sat  in  a  tent  a  little  while 
and  conversed ;  after  which  I  went  for  a  stroll  with  the 
English  Heir-Apparent.  There  was  a  pretty  flower- 
garden,  which  also  had  its  hothouse.  The  whole  of  the 
men  and  women  walked  about.  In  a  large  tent  food  had 
been  set  out  in  profusion.  The  people  stood  on  foot, 
and  all  ate  something.  After  this  they  made  ready  in 
the  garden  a  cedar-tree  and  a  spade,  that  I  might  plant 
the  tree  in  memory  of  myself.  I  planted  it.  This  custom. 
in  Firangistan  is  a  high  honour  in  respect  of  great 
personages.  We  then  went  to  the  tent  of  the  Sovereign, 
exchanged  adieux,  and  she  left  for  Windsor.  We  waited 
a  little,  and  then  returned  by  the  same  road  we  came. 

CHAP.  IV.]  England.  187 

Arrived   at  home,   as   we   had  no   engagement  for  the 
evening,  we  retired  to  rest. 

The  brother  of  the  wives  of  the  Heii's -Apparent  of 
Eussia  and  England, — a  son  of  the  Sovereign  of  Denmark, 
had  to-day  newly  arrived.  He  is  a  youth  fourteen  years 
of  age,  and  has  a  rank  in  the  naval  service.  His  name  is 
Valdemir.  We  made  acquaintance  with  him  also.  He 
has  come  to  see  his  sisters,  and  leaves  again  in  two  days. 

Sunday,  drd  (29th  June). — To-day  the  weather  is  very 
cloudy  and  foggy;  heavy  rain  is  also  falling.  After 
breakfast  we  mounted  a"  carriage  with  the  Mu*tamadu-'l-. 
Mulk  arid  (Lord)  Morlej^  and  took  a  little  drive  in  Hyde 
Park.  Although  it  was  Sunday,  and  there  was  no  one  in 
the  roads ;  and  notwithstanding  that  the  rain  was  violent, 
— still  we  saw  a  goodly  number  of  men  and  women. 

We  now  turned  into  the  road  to  Cliiswick,  which  we 
had  gone  over  yesterday,  and  took  our  way  to  Eichmond, 
passing  by  the  side  of  the  Botanical  Garden  (at  Kew). 
There  great  numbers  of  people  were  walking  about.  It 
is  a  very  large  garden,  but  we  did  not  go  inside.  It  has 
a  tall  and  slender  tower  within  it,  built  after  the  Chinese 
fashion,  and  of  many  stories.  It  is  a  very  pretty  place ; 
but  we  saw  it  from  afar. 

Well ;  we  went  to  Kichmond,  which  stands  on  an  emi- 
nence. Richmond  is  not  a  separate  place ;  in  reality,  it 
is  one  of  the  suburbs  of  London.  It  has  some  pleasant 
avenues,  and  a  beautiful  view  over  the  surrounding 
country, — especially  over  the  river  Thames.  On  the 
lawns  here,  also,  there  were  many  deer  of  the  kind  we 
saw  at  Windsor. 

i88  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Etci^ope.     [chap.  iv. 

As  rain  was  still  falling,  and  it  was  impossible  to  go 
about,  it  was  proposed  to  proceed  to  the  house  of  Lord 
Hussell, — one  of  the  olden  English  Ministers  of  celebrity, 
w^hich  was  near  at  hand.  I  experienced  a  •  desire  to  go. 
We  went,  ahghted,  and  entered.  He  and  his  wife  came 
•to  meet  us.  He  is  an  old  man,  nearly  eighty  years  of 
-age.  He  is  short  of  stature.  In  spite  of  his  years,  he  is 
in  possession  of  a  fine  intellect  and  understanding.  He 
is  of  the  Whig  party. 

It  is  here  necessary  to  detail  what  the  Whigs  are.  All 
•the  Ministers  of  the  realm  of  England  are  in  two  parties. 
The  party  now  in  office  are  of  the  Whigs,  the  chiefs  of 
whom  are  Lord  Gladstone,  the  present  Prime  Minister, 
and  Lord  Granville,  the  Secretary  of  State  for  Foreign 
Affairs,  together  with  the  other  Ministers.  The  other 
■party,  who  oppose  the  policy  of  this  group,  are  named 
Tories,  the  chiefs  of  whom  are  Disraeli,  Lord  Derby, 
and  others.  Whenever  the  first-named  set  may  go 
out  of  office,  the  whole  of  the  Ministers  and  others 
must  be  changed,  and  replaced  by  others  from  the  latter 

Well ;  we  sat  a  while.  De  Beust, — the  Austrian  Am- 
bassador, and  other  diplomatists  were  there.  After  a  few 
■minutes  we  mounted  again,  and  drove  to  the  hotel  of 
Eichmond,  which  is  a  very  beautiful  estabUshment.  A 
few  years  ago  it  caught  fire,  and  they  have  rebuilt  it. 
The  view  was  very  fine,  but  the  haze  and  clouds  pre- 
vented its  being  seen  properly.  The  rain  feU  unceasingly ; 
«o  we  sat  there  a  little,  took  some  tea  and  fruit,  and  then 
drove  home. 

cHAiMv.]  E^tgland.  189 

Monday,  4th  (QOth  June). — When  we  arose  in  the  morn- 
ing,  the  whole  of  the  Tory  Administration  came  to  an 
audience.  The  Nazim  of  Bengal,  with  his  son,  was  alsa 
present.  Lord  Eussell,  too,  came,  to  whose  house  we 
went  yesterday.  Seymour  (the  Eight  Honourable  Sir' 
George  Hamilton  Seymour,  G.C.B.,  G.C.H.),  who,  in 
the  time  of  the  late  Emperor  Nicholas  of  Kussia,  before 
the  Sebastopol  war  has  caused  a  cessation  of  relations 
with  Russia,  was  (Envoy  Extraordinary  and)  Minister 
Plenipotentiary  at  (St.)  Peter (sburg),  was  also  (admitted 
and)  seen.  In  like  manner.  Lord  Derby,  Lord  Malmes- 
bury,  who  had  each  formerly  been  Secretaries  of  State 
for  Foreign  Affairs,  and  are  of  the  celebrities  of  the  Tory 
Administration,  had  audiences. 

Next,  some  Indian  merchants  came,  who  had  a  sin- 
gular costume  and  appearance.  Chiefs  of  the  Armenians, 
of  the  Jews,  and  of  the  Christians,  and  afterwards  some 
other  men — inhabitants  of  the  Panj-Ab  (the  Five  Eivers ; 
vulgarly,  Punjab)  in  India,  with  others,  came  (also). 
Among  these  was  Iskandar  Ahmad,  son  of  the  late 
Sultan  Ahmad  Khan,  the  Afgan;  and  who  had  been  a 
certain  time  with  his  father  in  Tehran.  He  is  a  smart 
youth,  and  a  capital  .horseman.  He  said  he  had  been 
several  years  in  Russia,  and  he  has  been  some  tune  irr 
England.  He  had  changed  his  Afgan  costume  and 
turban  for  an  English  dress,  and  he  came  without  his  hat 
(on).     His  colour  and  complexion  were  sallow  and  pale. 

Well ;  next  came  Lord  Radcliffe  (the  Right  Honourable 
Lord  Viscoimt  Stratford  de  Redcliffe,  K.G.,  K.C.B.),  sa 
well  known,  and  had  an  audience.     He  sat  dowTi,  and  we* 

1 90  Diary  of  a  Tour  tn  Eiu^ope.     [chap.  iv. 

conversed  miicli.  This  personage  is  one  of  the  great 
diplomatists  of  Europe.  He  was  for  more  than  twenty 
years  the  English  (Ambassador  Extraordinary  and)  Mi- 
nister Plenipotentiary  at  Constantinople,  where  he  exer- 
cised great  influence.  In  tlie  Sebastopol  war  he  upheld 
the  policy  of  England  and  opposed  the  Eussians.  In  the 
days  of  the  first  Napoleon  even,  when  Qardan  Khan 
(General  Gardanne), — the  French  Envoy,  left  Persia, 
and  the  late  Khaqan,  Fath-*Ali  Shah,  of  pious  memory, 
received  the  English,  he  had  entered  the  service,  though 
not  in  Persia.  According  to  one's  recollections  of  those 
times,  he  must  be  nearly  eighty-five  years  old ;  and  still 
he  conversed  with  the  utmost  wisdom  and  knowledge. 
He  suffers  from  gout.  Were  he  not  so  afflicted,  I  am  of 
opinion  that  he  stiU  is  in  possession  of  the  judgment, 
intellect,  and  stamina  for  the  English  Government  to 
confide  important  missions  to  him. 

When  he  left,  we  arose  and  performed  our  service  of 
worship.  This  evening  we  have  to  go  to  the  Crystal 
Palace,  which  is  outside  of  the  city  of  London,  and  where 
there  are  to  be  fireworks  and  hospitality. 

To-day,  before  seeing  the  Ministers  and  others,  the 
English  Fire  Brigade  came,  and  in  the  garden  at  the 
back  of  our  palace  went  through  their  exercise.  They 
planted  ladders,  with  the  supposition  that  the  upper  floor 
of  the  palace  was  on  fire;  they  mounted  these  ladders 
with  perfect  celerity  and  agility,  and  brought  down  people 
who  were  burnt,  half-burnt,  or  unharmed,  some  taken  up 
on  their  shoulders,  and  others  let  down  by  ropes  made 
fast  round  their  waists.     They  have  invented  a  beautiful 

cHAr.  IV.]  England.  191 

means  of  saving  men.  But,  the  wonder  is  in  this,  that 
on  the  one  hand,  they  take  such  trouble  and  originate 
such  appliances  for  the  salvation  of  man  from  death, 
when,  on  the  other  hand,  in  the  armouries,  arsenals,  and 
workshops  of  Woolwich,  and  of  Krupp  in  German}^,  they 
contrive  fresh  engines,  such  as  cannons,  muskets,  projec- 
tiles, and  similar  things,  for  the  quicker  and  more  multi- 
tudinous slaughter  of  the  human  race.  He  whose  inven- 
tion destroys  man  more  surely  and  expeditiously  prides 
himself  thereon,  and  obtains  decorations  of  honour. 

Well;  among  the  others  came  some  Enghsh  prize- 
fighters, and  performed  boxing.  To  box  is  to  strike  one 
another  with  the  fists,  which  requires  great  skill  and 
dexterity.  But  they  wore  on  their  hands  a  kind  of  large 
gloves  stuffed  with  wool  and  cotton.  Had  they  not  worn 
these  gloves,  they  would  have  killed  one  another.  It 
was  verj^  ludicrous  and  amusing. 

In  the  afternoon  we  mounted  our  carriage  and  drove  to 
the  Crystal  Palace,  in  which  building  the  first  Exhibition 
took  place,  that  was  held  eighteen  or  nineteen  years  ago, 
and  the  building  is  still  standing.  It  took  an  hour  to 
arrive  there ;  but  a  heavy  rain  came  on,  which  threw  a 
deep  gloom  over  the  spirits  of  the  people.  In  spite  of 
this,  however,  great  crowds  of  women  and  men  were 
standing  along  our  road,  and  greeted  us.  We  arrived  and 
ahghted  in  front  of  the  building.  The  Grand-Vazir,  our 
princes  and  household  officials,  &c.,  were  of  the  party. 
In  front  of  the  building  a  tent  was ,  pitched.  Prince 
Alfred,  the  lady-princesses,  and  nobles  were  waiting  for  us 
there ;  and  they  had  prepared  fruit,  ices,  and  the  like. 

192  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe,     [chap,  ir^ 

We  tarried  there  a  few  minutes,  until  the  Heii'- Apparent 
of  England,  the  Heir-Apparent  of  Russia,  their  wives^ 
and  others  arrived.  We  then  took  the  hand  of  the 
wife  of  the  Enghsh  Heir-Apparent,  and  entered  the 

A  wonderful  assembly  came  in  ^dew.  On  each  side  of 
our  path  they  had  arranged  chairs,  on  which  beautiful 
women  in  splendid  attire,  with  men,  were  seated  in  rows, 
leaving  a  space  through  which  we  were  to  pass,  so  that  it 
was  necessary  to  traverse  the  whole  of  them. 

The  palace  is  of  iron  and  crystal.  It  is  so  lofty  and 
spacious  that  this  evening  forty  thousand  individuals 
came  here  with  tickets. 

Well ;  we  went  to  the  centre  of  the  building,  which  has 
a  lofty  arcade.  In  the  middle  of  the  arcade  there  is  a 
basin  of  water,  made  to  represent  natural  rocks  and 
mountains,  with  a  beautiful  fountain,  from  which  water 
flowed  plentifully.  On  the  left  hand  side  there  was  a  gallery 
with  steps  to  it,  at  the  top  of  which  was  a  balcony  with 
many  chairs  arranged  in  it.  I,  the  Heirs-Apparent,  their 
wives,  the  lady-princesses,  and  the  princes,  all  sat  down 
there.  The  Duke  of  Cambridge  was  not  present ;  they 
said  an  attack  of  gout  had  seized  him. 

Facing  us  there  was  a  large  organ,  similar  to  the  one 
in  the  Albert  HaU.  There  were  also  a  numerous 
orchestra  and  singers.  They  played;  they  sang;  and 
such  an  assembly  was  there  in  that  place,  above  and 
below,  around  and  on  all  sides,  seated  on  chairs,  that 
one's  eyes  were  dazzled.  They  brought  me  a  double 
opera-glass,  through  which  I  looked. 

CHAP.  IV.]  England.  193 

Beyond  the  windows  wliicli  were  behind  our  back  most 
charming  fountains  were  playing.  The  wife  of  the  Duke 
of  Sutherland,  with  her  daughter,  was  seated  behind  us. 
The  Duke's  daughter  is  extremely  graceful. 

In  front  of  us  some  English  gymnasts  performed  their 
feats  ;  and  wonderful  tricks  did  they  do,  by  w^ay  of  leap- 
ing, springing,  and  hanging  upon  a  rope,  &c.,  which  few 
•could  perform.  They  then  brought  out  the  gymnastic 
pillars  of  Persia,  and  performed  pillar  feats. 

After  these  a  company  of  Japanese  came  forward,  from 
little  children,  up  to  full-grown  men  and  women,  dressed 
in  the  costume  of  their  own  country.  They  performed 
some  wonderful  toitrs,  at  which  one's  senses  became 
bewildered.  For  the  most  part  they  performed  their  tricks 
with  their  feet.  They  lay  down.  They  took  a  large 
wooden  chest  and  caused  it  to  spin  about  as  they  wished 
like  a  blade  of  grass,  and  threw  it  up  into  the  air,  whence 
it  fell  again  on  to  the  soles  of  their  feet.  One  of  them 
lay  down  on  his  back  with  his  eyes  blindfolded,  and  held 
upright,  upon  the  soles  of  his  feet,  a  very  long  ladder. 
A  child  of  about  ten  years  old  went  up  to  the  top  of  this 
ladder,  and  there  went  through  some  feats.  He  threw 
some  curious  balls  up  into  the  air,  and  held  in  his  hand 
a  case  with  holes  in  it,  so  that  the  balls  always  fell  into  the 
holes  of  the  case.  Still  continuing  to  lie  similarly  on  his 
back,  he  took  the  fold  of  a  door  on  his  feet  and  spun  it 
about  in  a  manner  that  is  not  to  be  described. 

There  was  a  stout  and  long  rope  suspended  from  the 
roof  of  the  arcade  to  the  ground,  a  height  of  forty  ells 
(140  feet).     Two  or  three  English  gymnasts,  acting  just 

194  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Europe.      [cjiap.  iv. 

as  tliey  pleased,  took  hold  of  the  rope,  and  with  all 
celerity  mounted  to  near  the  roof.  There,  standing  on 
one  foot,  they  leant  on  one  side,  and  one  of  them  came 
down  head  foremost.     This  was  very  sm-prising. 

Again,  they  had  fastened  ropes  to  the  sides  of  the 
arcade,  so  that  these  hung  down,  and  beneath  them  a 
roj)e  netting  was  secured.  One  Englishman  performed 
on  these  ropes  in  a  manner  that  up  to  this  day  I  had 
never  seen  or  heard  of.  I  will  simply  note  it  down  that 
it  was  not  a  performance  with  ropes, — he  performed  magic, 
— he  flew.  For  instance,  he  leapt  ten  ells  (35  feet)  from* 
this  trapeze  to  that  trapeze  which  was  suspended  in  the- 
air ;  and  as  a  finish,  he  threw  himself  from  his  trapeze 
and  fell  into  the  net. 

The  play  being  now  concluded,  the  comj)any  broke  up^ 
"We  went  to  the  top  of  the  building  and  dined  at  a  table- 
wdiere  all  the  magnates  and  notables  were. 

The  garden  of  the  Cry&tal  Palace,  which  is  the  finest 
of  all  the  gardens  of  England,  was  visible  from  this, 
height ;  and  there  were  fountains  in  the  gardens,  in  great, 
numbers,  each  one  of  which  sprang  to  a  height  of  more 
than  twenty  ells  (70  feet).  The  source  of  these  jets  is  a 
lofty  tower  built  in  front  of  the  door  of  the  palace  (b}' 
which  visitors  of  distinction  are  admitted  privately). 

Well;  great  numbers  of  people,  with  umbrellas  over 
their  heads,  remained  in  the  garden  at  the  foot  of  the 
building,  in  spite  of  the  rain,  and  shouted  hurrahs. 

After  dinner  there  were  fireworks  in  the  garden, — very 
fine  fireworks;  and  they  discharged  a  great  number  of 
bombs,  out  of  which  there  issued  stars  of  man}^  colours* 

England.  195 

The  fireworks  over,  we  came  downstairs.  They  had 
arranged  an  electric  apparatus  like  a  telegraph  wire ;  and 
the  instant  that  I  put  my  hand  to  it,  a  large  flight  of 
rockets  mounted  from  the  garden  into  the  air,  which 
formed  a  grand  spectacle. 

On  our  return  we  again  took  the  hand  of  the  wife  of 
the  Heir- Apparent,  and  went  home. 

The  heggars  of  Firangistan,  instead  of  asking  for 
alms,  play  musical  instruments,  as  guitars  or  violins, 
and  never  heg.  If  some  one  gives  them  monej^,  they 
take  it ;  if  not,  they  go  on  playing. 

In  the  garden  at  the  back  of  our  palace  a  great 
number  of  cock  and  hen  pheasants  were  seen  in  the 

There  are  multitudes  of  pigeons  in  Firangistan ;  and, 
as  in  Persia,  pigeon-fliers  send  them  up.  Especially  in 
Belgium  did  we  see  many  of  them. 

They  place  sucklings  and  little  children  in  small 
carriages  (perambulators),  and  during  the  day-time 
wheel  them  about  by  hand  in  the  avenues  and  on  the 
lawns,  in  a  very  pretty  manner ;  and  the  children  go  to 
sleep  in  the  carriages. 

We  have  received  from  the  Duke  of  Sutherland  four 
head  of  the  deer  which  were  feeding  in  his  park,  aii^ 
which  are  a  kind  of  argali,  but  resembling  the  stag.  We 
have  consigned  them  to  Ibrahim  Khan,  that  we  may 
God  willing,  bring  them  to  Tehran,  and  that  they  may 
breed  and  multiply. 

Tuesday,  5th  {1st  July). — To-day  we  have  to  visit  the 
Bank,  the  Tower  of  London,  the  churches  of  St.  Paul's 


196  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe.     [cHAr.  iv. 

and  Westminster,  as  also  the  Houses  of  Parliament.  In 
the  morning,  therefore,  having  breakfasted,  we  mounted 
our  carriage,  drove  to  the  cit}^,  entered  it,  and  went  to 
the  Tower.  The  Chiefs  of  the  locality  were  admitted  to 
our  presence.  We  went  up  into  a  very  old  and  ancient 
turret  in  which  was  a  large  glass  case  with  an  iron 
railing  round  it.  Several  of  the  crowns  of  ancient 
English  kings  were  within  this,  enriched  with  rare  jewels ; 
more  especialty,  in  one  crown  there  was  a  large  ruby, 
exceeding^  choice.  There  were  staves  (sceptres)  of  gold, 
and  a  few  vessels  of  gold.  A  model  of  the  diamond,  the 
Kuh-i-nur  (mountain  of  light),  in  crystal,  had  been  made 
and  placed  there ;  but  the  diamond  itself  has  been  cut 
into  a  brilliant  in  London,  and  the  Sovereign  has  had 
it  made  into  a  brooch  which  she  wears  on  her  bosom. 
On  the  day  when  I  went  to  Windsor  to  make  my 
adieux,  she  wore  it  on  her  bosom.  It  is  a  very  beautiful 

Well;  as  time*  was  scant,  we  did  not  go  into  the 
armouries  which  are  in  this  Tower ;  but  I  drove  to  the 
church  of  St.  Paul's.  The  head  priest  of  that  place  was 
unwell,  and  was  not  present ;  his  substitute  was  there. 
We  walked  about  in  the  church,  which  is  a  very  lofty 
and  ancient  edifice.  Many  women  and  men  were  there. 
The  people  of  celebrity  interred  in  this  church  are  as 
follows  :  Lord  Nelson,  the  Duke  of  Wellington.     .     .     . 

Coming  out  of  there,  we  went  to  the  Government 
Bank  (Bank  of  England),  passing  by  the  Royal  Ex- 
change,— the  Merchants'  Mart.  The  merchants  of 
renown  of  London,  together  with  a  crowd,  were  there. 

CHAP.  IV.]  England,  197 

We  reached  the  gate  of  the  Bank.  The  Governor  of  the 
Bank,  with  all  the  writers  and  members  of  this  business, 
were  present.  We  ascended  some  stairs.  It  is  an 
imposmg  edifice.  We  saw  its  repository  of  archives, 
its  council-chambers, — all.  For  the  purpose  of  printing 
the  receipt  and  assignat-papers  (bank-notes,  .treasury- 
bonds,  &c.),  for  assaying  the  weights  of  gold  and  silver 
(coins),  and  for  cutting  up  the  light  coins,  they  have 
beautiful  machines  and  instruments,  as  also  steam- 
engines;  the  whole  of  which  we  saw.  Next,  we  inscribed 
our  own  name  in  their  book;  and  from  thence  going 
do'wnstairs,  we  went  underground,  where  numerous 
ingots  of  gold  and  silver  were  seen,  each  ingot  being  (of 
the  value)  of  two  thousand  tiimans  of  Persia  (800Z.). 
There  was  existent  in  that  place  (the  value  of)  three  to 
four  crores  of  money  (1,200,000Z.  to  1,600,000Z.) 

Well ;  returning  thence,  we  went  home.  There  were 
three  curious  things  seen  in  that  place.  Firstly, — in 
each  machine  that  prints  the  bank-notes,  there  were 
three  (dials  like  those  of)  compasses,  each  with  hands 
like  those  of  a  watch.  For  every  number  that  was 
printed,  these  compasses,  by  the  revolution  of  their 
hands,  took  and  kept  an  account.  At  each  movement 
given  to  the  machine,  one  note  came  forth  printed ;  and 
a  hand  moved  from  subdivision  to  subdivision  (of  the 
dial).  The  reason  of  this  is  that  no  one  may  be  able 
to  pm'loin  any  from  the  number  of  bank-notes  (printed). 

Secondly, — there  were  engines  for  trying  and  testing 
the  weights  of  coins ;  so  that  large  quantities  of  gold 
coins  flowed  down  a  place  similar  to  a  spout,  on  each 

198  Diary  of  a   Tour  i^i  Europe,     [chap.  iv. 

side  of  which  was  a  repository  like  a  till,  and  every  coin 
that  was  light  of  weight  was  made  to  fall,  by  machinery, 
into  one  of  those  tills,  while  those  of  full  and  perfect 
weight  fell  into  the  other. 

Thirdly, — there  were  machines  that  cut  in  two,  like 
shears,  the  coins  that  were  light  of  weight,  throwing 
them  out  of  circulation,  so  that  they  have  to  be  reminted. 

Well;  we  went  home,  and  rested  a  while.  Then, 
mounting  our  carriage,  we  went  to  the  house  of  Glad- 
stone, the  Prime  Minister.  He  had  an  elderly  wife, 
and  they  both  came  to  meet  us.  We  gave  our  hand  to 
his  wife,  and  went  upstairs.  It  had  nice  rooms.  An 
exceedingly  small  basin  of  water,  with  fountains,  was  in 
the  upper  room, — very  pretty.  It  had  a  nice  outlook 
towards  the  Houses  of  Parliament  and  over  the  town. 
The  Austrian  Ambassador,  the  Ottoman  Ambassador, 
the  German  Ambassador,  and,  of  English  grandees. 
Lord  Granville — the  Foreign  Secretary,  the  wife  of  the 
Duke  of  Sutherland,  and  others,  were  present.  We  sat 
down  a  while,  and  then  went  to  the  Parliament-House. 

A  description  of  tliis  building,  and  an  enumeration  of 
its  rooms,  upper  chambers,  and  corridors,  is  beyond  the 
power  of  man.  They  say  that  a  fabulous  sum  has  been 
spent,  in  course  of  time,  on  this  edifice.  Its  foundation 
is  from  eight  hundred  years  ago ;  but  ten  years  pre- 
viously to  the  present  time,  they  added  very  much  to 
the  pile. 

The  Begulator  of  the  assembly  of  the  Lords,  who  is 
an  old  man  of  the  name  of  Clifford  (Sir  A.  C.  Clifford,  Bart.) 
went  before  us,  and  we  visited  the  rooms  one  by  one. 

'CHAP.  IV.]  England.  199 

It  is  a  very  grand,  solid,  and  majestic  structure.  In 
point  of  fact,  so  great  a  palace  is  worthy  and  seemly  for 
the  Parliament  of  England.  We  j^assed  through  a  large 
hall,  called  the  Waterloo  Hall,  in  which  were  two  large 
pictures,  most  beautifully  painted,  and  hung  on  the  two 
sides.  One  is  of  the  battle  of  Trafalgar,  formerly  men- 
tioned in  detail;  the  other,  a  representation  of  the 
meeting  of  Wellington  with  Marshal  Blucher,  Com- 
mander of  the  Prussian  forces,  and  participator  in  the 
battle  of  Waterloo.  After  the  rout  of  Napoleon  on  the 
field  of  Waterloo,  they  met  one  another  on  horseback, 
:shook  hands,  and  offered  mutual  congratulations. 

Well ;  we  went  into  the  chamber  of  the  House  of 
Lords,  where  the  Peers  were  assembled.  The  number 
of  Peers  in  this  congregation  is  about  one  hundred 
(realhj,  four  hundred  and  eighty-one,  barring  recent 
changes).  We  sat  a  little  wdiile,  rose,  passed  through 
rooms  and  corridors,  and  so  reached  the  hall  of  the 
House  of  Commons,  the  number  of  whom  is  three 
hundred  and  fifty  {then  present ,  perhaps  ;  the  total  number 
being  six  hundred  and  fifty-eight,  barring  any  subsequent 
changes).  Lord  Gladstone,  Disraeli,  and  the  other 
Ministers,  Whig  and  Tory,  were  present.  The  Whigs 
were  (seated)  on  one  side  (of  the  house),  the  Tories  on 
the  other  side.  We  took  our  seat  on  a  chair  in  a  gallery- 
overlooking  the  assembly,  to  which  a  narrow  passage 
led.  They  brought  forward  a  question,  on  which  there 
was  a  difference  of  opinion.  The  President  (Speaker) 
of  the  House  adjudged  according  to  the  *'  majority,"  i.e^ 
the  greater  number,  the  lesser  number  being  called  the 

200  Diary  of  a   Totcr  in  Europe,     [chap.  iv. 

**  minority."  Tlie  whole  of  the  members  went  forth,  to- 
be  comitecl  outside ;  the  (place  of)  assembly  remained 
vacant,  no  one  being  left  exce^^t  the  President.  After  a 
minute  or  so  they  came  (back) ;  the  "Whigs  were  the 
victorious  party,  wiio  now  hold  office.  Then  Lord 
Gladstone — the  Premier,  came  up  to  us,  and  we  had  a 
little  conversation. 

Eising,  we  went  to  the  church  of  Westminster  (West- 
minster Abbey),  which  is  near  to  the  Parliament  (House). 
It  is  a  very  grand,  beautiful,  and  harmonious .  pile.  Its 
structure  is  ancient,  and  all  of  stone.  It  has  a  lofty  and 
long-extending  roof.  Henry  VII.,  King  of  England, 
built  a  chapel,  most  magnificent,  and  contiguous  to  the 
great  church,  being  like  a  royal  balcony,  with  numerous 
sculptures  in  its  roof  and  on  its  walls.  The  tomb  of 
Henry  himself  is  in  that  place,  in  the  middle,  and  has  a 
large  kon  railing. 

Of  other  sovereigns,  of  generals  of  celebrity,  and  even 
of  poets,  a  great  number  are  buried  within  this  church. 
Its  length  is  five  hundred  and  thii'ty  English  feet ;  its 
height,  two  hundred  and  twenty-five.  The  names  of 
the  other  monarchs  buried  here  are :  Edward  the  Con- 
fessor, Henry  III.,  Henry  V.,  Henry  VII.,  Elizabeth, 
all  the  Sovereigns  of  the  House  of  Stuart,  and  all  those 
of  the  House  of  Hanover.  Those  of  ministers  are  : 
Pitt,  Fox,  Kobert  Peel,  Lord  Palmerston ;  of  generals, 
Outram,  Lord  Clyde. 

.  There  was  a  very  ancient  throne  in  that  place,  seated 
upon  which  the  English  monarchs  must  be  crowned  in 
this  chiu'ch.     The  stone  of  the  patriarch  Jacob — upon 

CHAP.  IV.]  England.  201 

whom  be  peace — is  set  in  that  throne.  It  is  a  large 
stone,  upon  which  the  patriarch  Jacob  slept ;  and  it  came 
from  Egypt  to  Europe  ;  i.e.,  passing  from  the  hand  (of 
one  possessor)  to  the  hand  (of  another  possessor),  it 
became  the  property  of  the  monarchs  of  England. 

Well ;  we  returned  and  went  home. 

In  the  Houses  of  Parliament  there  is  a  very  important 
librar}^,  in  which  are  the  written  reports  of  the  ancient 
and  modern  debates  of  Parliament,  the  laws  of  England, 
and  other  matters,  in  sej^arate  volumes. 

Wednesday,  6th  (2nd  Jidy). — We  must  go  to  Windsor 
to  take  leave  of  the  Sovereign. 

We  breakfasted  at  home.  The  Heir-Ai)parent  of 
Russia  came,  with  whom  w^e  conversed ;  for  we  are 
going  away,  and  he  too,  to-morrow,  has  to  go  to  one  of 
the  English  seaports ;  i,e.,  he  has  ordered  a  yacht  for 
himself,  which  is  now  ready,  and  which  is  about  to  be 

After  his  departure  we  set  out  for  Windsor,  all  the 
princes,  the  Grand-Yazir,  and  others,  being  in  attend- 
ance. We  arrived  at  Windsor ;  the  Sovereign  came  to 
the  foot  of  the  stairs  to  meet  us.  We  took  each  other's 
hands  and  went  upstau's.  She  led  me,  and  took  me 
round  all  the  apartments  of  the  palace.  It  has  very 
sumptuous  rooms  and  halls ;  the  view  towards  the  city 
of  London  and  over  the  country  is  very  fine.  There  is  a 
pretty  flower-garden  at  the  foot  of  the  building,  towards 
the  country ;  also  an  extensive  library.  We  saw  some 
books  in  the  Persian  language  and  characters ;  in  par- 
ticular, a  history  of  India,  written  like  a  diary,  and  very 

202  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Eicrope.     [chap.  iv. 

beautifully  illuminated  in  the  Indian  stjde.  There  was 
also  a  magnificent  armoury,  in  which  all  the  ancient 
weapons  and  armour  that  have  heen  obtained  from  India 
and  elsewhere  are  preserved  in  glass  cases ;  also  some 
objects  of  jewellery  and  gold,  as,  for  instance,  the  royal 
throne  and  the  jewelled  saddle  of  Tipu  Sahib  {read 
Tipii  Sa'ib),  the  Indian,  which  were  set  with  many 
]precious  stones.  In  like  manner  there  were  great 
quantities  of  ancient  arms  and  armour  in  the  European 
styles,  of  presents  from  sovereigns,  and  of  similar 
objects,  arranged  in  the  rooms ; — a  ver}"  large  vase  of 
malachite  sent  by  Nicholas,  the  Emperor  of  Russia  ;  the 
niusket-ball  that  killed  Lord  Nelson  in  the  battle  of 
Trafalgar,  and  that  had  been  extracted  from  his  body, 
was  preserved  in  a  case  ;  the  mast  of  the  very  ship  in 
which  Lord  Nelson  was,  and  which  a  cannon-shot  had 
pierced  through,  together  with  several  of  those  cannon- 
balls,  were  in  one  of  the  rooms,  and  were  surrounded 
with  a  railing;  some  Russian  cannon-balls,  also,  taken 
in  the  Sebastopol  war ;  two  soldiers'  muskets  with  flint 
locks,  as  used  by  the  Russian  troops,  and  serving  as  spe- 
cimens, were  placed  there  likewise.  A  bust  of  Nelson, 
carved  in  stone,  was  placed  on  the  half-mast  of  a  ship, 
Xoierced  by  a  cannon-ball.  Two  cannons  sent  as  pre- 
sents by  Ranj it- Singh  were  also  there.  In  the  halls  were 
painted  the  portraits  of  the  sovereigns  and  ministers  of 
celebrity  in  the  times  of  the  first  Napoleon,  who  were 
called  "  The  Holy  AlHance." 

When  we  had  strolled  about  a  considerable  time,  we 
went  into  a  room  and  sat  down  at  a  table,  I  being  there. 

CHAP.  i\'.]  England.  203 

and  the  Sovereign,  her  youngest  daughter,  and  Prince 
Leopold,  who  to-day  again  had  come  to  the  station  to 
meet  me,  and  who  was  dressed  in  the  Scotch  garb.  He 
is  a  very  nice  prince.  After  partaking  of  a  little  fruit, 
we  arose,  and  the  Sovereign  conducted  me  to  the  door 
of  a  room  assigned  to  me,  and  went  away.  I  gave  my 
reflexion  (photograph)  to  the  Sovereign  as  a  souvenii*; 
she  gave  me  hers,  and  that  of  Prince  Leopold.  In  truth, 
from  my  first  arrival  on  English  soil,  down  to  this  very 
day,  the  Sovereign  has  exercised  towards  us  the  fulness 
of  kindness  and  friendship. 

.  We  now  descended,  took  the  Sovereign's  hand,  and 
went  down  to  the  door  of  the  carriage ;  there  saying 
adieu,  we  seated  ourselves  in  the  carriage.  The 
Sovereign  exj)ressed  her  desire  that  her  special  photo- 
grapher should  take  our  likeness  in  the  carriage ;  and 
he  took  several  negatives  of  us.     Then  we  drove  off. 

Proceeding  a  short  distance  along  the  avenue,  we 
changed  our  direction  and  went  to  the  house  of  the 
Princess  Helena,  daughter  of  the  Sovereign  and  wife  of 
Prince  Christian,  one  of  the  jorinces  of  Holstein  in 
Germany,  whose  territories  are  now  held  by  Prussia, 
though  he  still  makes  a  claim  thereto,  and  may  perhaps 
one  day  obtain  possession  of  them.  Well;  we  arrived  at 
the  Prince's  house,  and  sat  there  a  while.  He  has  a 
beautiful  house  and  flower-garden. 

After  partaking  of  some  fruit  we  drove  to  the  mauso- 
leum of  Prince  Albert,  the  Sovereign's  husband.  It  was 
a  long  way  off.  We  passed  by  the  side  of  the  tomb  of 
the  Duchesse  de  Quint  (Duchess  of  Kent),  the  Sovereign's 

204  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Etirope.     [chap.  iv. 

mother,  and  at  length  arrived  at  the  mausoleum  of 
(Prince)  Albert.  "We  alighted  and  went  to  the  tomb, 
which  is  very  imposing  and  in  good  taste,  built  of  stones 
of  various  colours.  The  sarcophagus  is  of  stone,  and  a 
figure  of  Prince  Albert  l^mself  lying  in  death,  of  very 
beautiful  marble,  is  placed  upon  the  sarcophagus.  I 
laid  on  the  tomb  a  nosegay  which  I  had  in  my  hand.  I 
became  extremely  dejected  and  full  of  sadness. 

Coming  out  from  thence,  we  mounted  and  drove  off. 
Everjnvhere  Prince  Leopold  accompanied  us.  All  these 
parts  are  occupied  by  the  hothouses  for  flowers  and 
fruits,  the  kitchen-garden  for  vegetables,  the  orchards, 
the  fields  for  cows,  and  the  dairies  for  taking  the  milk 
and  butter,  for  the  Sovereign's  use.  We  alighted  and 
planted  a  mountain  cypress  {perhaps,  a  cedar  or  welling- 
tonia)  as  a  memorial  of  ourselves.  We  then  drove  to 
the  station,  bid  adieu  to  Prince  Leopold,  returned  to 
London,  and  went  home. 

A  short  repose  soon  enabled  us  to  set  out  again  and 
drive  to  Madame  Tussaud's  Exhibition.  Madame  Tus- 
saud  was  a  woman,  and  has  now  been  dead  for  twenty 
years,  having  left  a  son  and  grandson.  She  originated 
a  place  in  which  are  arranged  the  effigies  in  wax  of 
monarchs,  of  men  of  celebrit}^,  and  of  great  poets,  ancient 
and  modern,  clothed  in  the  very  garments  of  the  persons 
themselves  or  of  their  periods,  whether  they  were  men 
or  women,  even  to  artificial  jewels,  such  as  crowns,  neck- 
laces, finger-rings,  and  the  like.  These  figures  are 
arranged  in  rooms  and  halls,  in  standing  or  sitting  pos- 
tures, &c.,  in  such  a  manner 'that  there  is  no  possibility, 

CHAP.  IV.]  England,  205 

for  one  to  distinguisli  wlietlier  the}'  are  liiiraan  beings  or 
wax  figures.  Well ;  tlie  son  of  Madame  Tussaud  was 
unwell,  and  her  grandson  explained. 

Tliey  have  made  a  figure  of  Napoleon  III.,  dressed  in 
his  own  clothes  and  lying  on  a  bed  in  the  agony  of 
death,  such  that  it  appears  exactly  like  a  man  still  alive, 
but  moribund.  There  were  some  living  women  sitting 
about  among  the  figures  ;  and  however  much  I  tried  to 
distinguish  which  were  in  reality  human  beings,  and 
which  were  wax  figures,  I  could  not,  until  the  women 
rose,  walked,  and  smiled;  then  alone  did  it  become 
certain  that  they  were  living  women.  The  efiigy  of  the 
present  Sovereign  of  England,  those  of  her  children,  and 
of  the  ministers,  were  all  there ;  also  that  of  Louis- 
Philippe,  and  of  the  Heir- Apparent  of  France,  with  his 
mother  Eugenie.     They  were  excellent  figures. 

In  addition  to  the  effigies  of  sovereigns  and  great 
men,  they  have  also  taken,  in  a  very  striking  manner, 
the  likenesses  of  certain  individuals,  assassins  or  repro- 
bates, notorious  throughout  the  world  for  their  diabolic 
acts  and  wickedness,  such  as  Orsini, — who  attempted  to 
kill  the  third  Napoleon,  and  Mazzini,  the  Italian. 

They  had  bought  in  France  a  galloivs,  on  which,  by 
hanging,  they  put  people  to  death,  and  placed  it  here  to 
show  the  manner  of  killing  men.  They  said  that  with 
this  gallows-tree  nearly  twenty  thousand  individuals  had 
been  executed.  (Evidently  the  guillotine  is  meant, — 
J.  W.  K.) 

There  were  also,  besides  these,  in  a  room,  numerous 
mementos  of  bygone  days.     A  large  number  of  effects 

2o6  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Etcrope.     [chap.  iv. 

that  had  belonged  to  the  first  Napoleon  were  there,  such 
as  the  carriages  captured  by  the  English  in  the  battle  of 
Waterloo  ;  so  that  we  saw  the  very  carriage  in  which 
Napoleon  used  to  ride,  and  also  a  plan  of  battle  traced 
by  himself,  the  whij)  used  by  his  coachman  on  the  da}^  of 
Waterloo,  his  cloak,  and  some  of  his  garments.  There 
were  likewise  various  eifects  that  had  belonged  to  certain 
sovereigns  or  magnates  of  England  and  elsewhere,  in 
ancient  or  modern  times. 

We  then  came  away.  Below  this  exhibition  there  is 
an  extensive  bazaar,  in  which  they  sell  every  kind  of  wares 
that  can  be  imagined.  We  walked  about  there  a  little, 
bought  some  articles  of  crystal  and  the  like,  and,  return- 
ing thence  home,  retired  to  rest. 

Thursday,  7th  {Srd  Jidy). — To-day,  after  breakfasting 
at  home,  we  went  to  the  Crystal  Palace.  We  drove  to 
the  Victoria  Station,  took  our  seat  in  a  train,  and 
started.  The  railway  looked  down  on  the  roofs  of  the 
houses, — not  in  one  place,  not  in  two  places ;  the  train 
went  uninterruptedly  either  over  the  housetops  or  through 
"  holes  "  in  hills.  It  took  us  twenty  minutes  to  reach 
the  Crystal  Palace  Station.  There  we  alighted  and 
walked  upstairs,  where  there  were  innumerable  women 
and  men.  We  bought  a  few  photographs  and  the  like. 
The  dealers  in  this  bazaar  are  all  women.  Articles  of 
every  description  are  there  to  be  had.  The  following  is 
the  history  of  this  building. 

Twenty  years  ago,  when  the  English  Government 
made  the  first  Exhibition-Bazaar  in  Hyde  Park,  which  is 
in  the  town  of  London,  some  members  of  the  Committee, 

CHAP.  IV.]  England.  207 

when  it  was  over,  brought  the  buildmg  here,  where  it  is- 
outside  of  the  town,  set  it  up  again  in  the  same  manner, 
and  established  within  it  a  j^erpetual  exhibition,  with 
refreshment-rooms,  buikling  also  places  of  recreation  for 
the  inhabitants  of  London ;  and  arranging  fountains, 
basins,  parks,  gardens,  and  everything  that  can  amuse 
.people.  It  is  now  the  very  best  of  all  places  of  pastime 
in  London.  Every  day  seven  or  eight  thousand  indi- 
viduals go  there  for  amusement  or  for  taking  the  aii*, 
without  any  intermission ;  and  they  who  originated  the 
enterprize  derive  a  profit  therefrom. 

Well ;  after  making  our  purchases,  we  walked  through 
the  assembled  women  and  men.  I  saw  some  black 
w^omen,  of  the  natives  of  the  Jamaica  islands  (mulattoes 
from  the  West  Indies),  who  were  very  graceful,  and  who- 
had  husbands  as  well.  In  spite  of  their  black  faces, 
with  which  they  were  seated  in  the  midst  of  the  fair  and 
rosy-cheeked  women  of  England,  they  still,  through  a 
certain  sweetness  they  had,  were  very  coquettish.  Their 
complexions  were  of  the  colour  of  raw  coifee-berries,  and 
they  had  beautiful  curls. 

Well ;  after  getting  past,  we  arrived  at  a  place  where 
an  African  maned-lion  and  a  tiger  of  India  were  fighting" 
one  another,  and  a  dead  stag  was  lying  beneath  them. 
All  three  of  these  animals,  formed  out  of  the  stuffed 
skins  of  the  very  beasts  themselves,  were  arranged  in 
such  a  manner,  and  so  made  to  stand  up,  that  there  was 
no  waj'  to  distinguish  them  from  a  live  lion,  a  live  tiger, 
and  a  dead  stag.  Their  claws  with  which  they  had 
attacked  one   another,  and  the  blood  that  had  flowed. 

2o8  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Europe,     [ohai'.  iv. 

were  as  though  the  flesh  of  their  bodies  were  torn  and 
blood  were  flowing.  So  well  was  this  group  executed, 
that  in  ten  daj^s  one  would  not  become  tired  of  con- 
templating it.  We  now  went  to  a  department  where 
they  have  arranged  an  imitation  of  the  palace  Al-Hamra 
(the  Red  Palace,  ol  which  the  word  Alhambra  is  the 
Spanish  corruption),  built  by  the  Arabs  during  the  time 
of  their  occupation  of  Andalusia  and  Toledo  in  Spain. 
I  examined  it.  It  is  very  good  and  very  pretty.  They 
have  there  done  some  nice  work  in  plaster  and  glazed 
tiles.  This  department  took  fire  a  few  years  ago,  and 
was  burnt.  They  have  now  restored  it  again  as  it  was  at 
first,  though  it  was  not  quite  finished.  They  have  done 
the  plaster- work,  &c. ;  but  the  plaster- work  of  this 
country  is. not  carried  out  by  the  same  method  as  in 
Persia.  There,  the  whole  of  a  piece  of  plaster-work  is 
cut  out  by  hand  with  great  labour;  here,  they  have  made 
moulds  of  glue  which  have  various  designs  upon  them ; 
and  whichever  pattern  they  require,  they  place  the  mould 
thereof  on  the  surface  of  a  sheet  of  plaster,  which 
instantly  takes  the  design  and  dries ;  it  is  then  fixed 
on  the  wall  as  though  it  were  a  tile.  It  is  furnished  with 
basins  and  pretty  fountains  arranged  in  the  Arabian 

"We  now  went  on  to  the  aquarium,  descending  by  some 
steps  to  a  place  underground,  a  long  hall,  roofed,  with  a 
cool,  pleasant  atmosphere.  Various  kinds  of  marine 
animals  and  plants  were  in  it,  as  in  the  one  at  Berlin ; 
but  at  Berlin  the  species  of  fishes  and  of  some  other 
things  were  in  greater  numbers  than  here. 

CHAP.  IV.]  England.  209 

Again  we  ascended,  passed  through  the  people,  went 
up  the  stairs  we  had  mounted  on  the  night  of  the  fire- 
works, admired  the  garden  and  the  fountains,  and  then 
again  went  through  the  garden  to  see  two  halloons  that 
were  to  ascend  into  the  air  with  men  in  them.  We 
walked  a  great  distance  on  foot,  through  multitudes  of 
women,  men,  and  policemen,  arriving  at  length  at  the 
end  of  the  garden,  where  the  two  halloons,  of  immense 
size,  were  already  inflated  with  vapour  and  prepared  to 
ascend ;  so  that  there  was  no  power  to  restrain  them- 
They  are  made  of  a  cloth  of  silk,  on  which  something  is 
applied  to  make  it  like  wax-cloth,  and  to  give  it  strength. 
There  is  also  a  kind  of  network  over  the  balloon,  formed 
of  several  cords  knitted  together  like  a  fisherman's  net ; 
and  beneath  the  balloon  a  basket  is  arranged  in  which 
people  sit,  and  large  enough  to  hold  two  or  three  men. 

With  the  first  balloon  to  start,  a  man  named  Smithe,. 
with  another  named  Evenau,  took  their  seats  and  went 
up  into  the  air,  and  were  lost  to  sight.  The  second 
balloon  was  also  full  and  ready.  A  son  of  Smithe, — a 
young  man,  who  said  he  had  already  been  up  with  hi& 
father  a  hundred  and  seventy  times,  ascended  in  this 
one.  On  ,the  following  day,  when  intelligence  was 
brought,  it  was  learnt  that  the  first  balloon  had  descended 
at  a  distance  of  ten  leagues  from  London,  and  the  second 
at  a  distance  of  one  league. 

We  then  turned  back  on  foot  to  the  basins  and  foun- 
tains. The  people  were  crowded  together  in  such  a 
manner  as  to  prevent  one's  geeing.  We  did  however 
manage,  in  one  way  or  other,  to  see  all  the  basins      For 

2IO  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe,     [chap.  iv. 

our  return  to  the  palace  they  had  made  ready  a  carriage, 
in  which  we  took  our  seat.  Now,  in  spite  of  our  road's 
being  uphill,  and  of  oiu?  driving  pretty  fast,  still,  the 
ladies,  the  damsels,  and  the  children  all  kept  pace  with 
the  carriage,  and  not  one  remained  behind. 

Once  more  we  mounted  to  the  top  of  the  building, 
partook  of  some  fruit,  had  our  photograph  taken,  and 
then  descending,  went  to  the  train,  seated  ourselves,  and 
returned  home. 

After  resting  awhile,  we  drove  to  the  Albert  Hall ;  but 
the  machines  were  not  at  work.  We  therefore  went  to 
some  halls,  where  they  had  made  a  collection  of  all  the 
tobacco-pipes,  hubble-bubbles,  and  drinking  utensils  of 
every  nation,  together  with  all  kinds  of  silken  stuffs  of 
China,  Japan,  and  Europe,  &c.,  ancient  and  modern. 
Having  viewed  these,  we  went  up  from  that  place  to  see 
the  pictures  which  people,  during  the  three  months  the 
exhibition  remaias  open,  bring  and  hang  up  here,  some 
for  sale,  others  merely  on  view.  We  examined  the 
whole ;  but  the  greater  part  of  the  more  beautiful  pieces 
were  either  sold  already,  or  were  not  to  be  sold  at  all. 
We  selected  about  ten  or  fifteen  fine  paintings,  Ismit 
Sahib  (Major  R.  M.  Smith,  R.E.,  Acting  Director  of  the 
Persian  Telegraph)  interpreted  for  me. 

The  picture  of  a  donkey  was  seen,  and  I  asked  the 
price  of  it.  The  Director  of  the  Exhibition,  a  fat,  white- 
bearded  man,  who  gave  information  abofit  the  prices, 
told  me  it  was  a  hmidred  pounds  sterHng, — equivalent  to 
two  hundred  and  fifty  tumans  of  Persia.  I  remarked  : 
'*  The   value   of   a   live   donkey  is   at  the  outside   five 

CHAP.  IV.]  England.  211 

pounds.  How  is  it  then,  that  this,  which  is  but  a  picture 
of  an  ass,  is  to  be  paid  so  dearly  for  ?  "  The  Director 
said  :  "  Because  it  is  not  a  source  of  expense,  as  it  eats 
neither  straw  nor  barley  (the  eastern  substitutes  for  hay 
and  oats)."  I  replied:  "True;  it  is  not  a  source  of 
outlay ;  but  neither  will  it  carry  a  load,  or  give  one  a 
ride."  We  laughed  heartily.  Then,  as  time  was  short, 
and  we  were  extremely  fatigued,  we  went  home.  The 
Albert  Hall,  too,  has  its  own  special  garden,  very  nice. 

Friday  J  8th  (4:th  July). — After  breakfast  this  morning, 
I  went  to  pay  a  visit  to  the  English  Heir- Apparent.  The 
wives  of  the  two  Heirs-Apparent,  Russian  and  English, 
with  Prince  Alfred,  too,  were  there.  We  sat  a  while,  and 
then  we  came  back  home.  After  an  interval  we  went  to 
St.  Thomas's  Hospital,  which  is  opposite  the  Houses  of 
Parliament.  This  hospital  has  been  built  by  the  nation. 
It  was  founded  in  the  time  of  Edward  IV.,  and  it  is  now 
two  or  thi'ee  years  since  it  was  completed.  It  possesses 
property  held  in  mortmain ;  and  from  the  time  of  its 
foundation  till  now  people,  of  their  own  free  wiU,  have 
collected  money  and  given  it  for  the  sustentation  of  the 
hospital ;  for  the  medicine  and  food  of  the  whole  of  the 
patients  is*  gratis.  It  is  a  very  beautiful  building,  and 
there  are  always  in  it  four  or  five  hundred  patients,  men 
and  women,  children  or  adults.  Dr.  Tholozan,  too, 
was  present.  The  Director  of  the  Sanitary  Board  of 
London,  whose  name  is  Simon  (J.  Simon,  Esq.,  Medical 
Officer,  Local  Government  Board),  together  with  other 
London  physicians  and  surgeons  of  repute,  were  also 
there.     The  little  children  had  each  a  separate  bed  and 

•»  p  2 

212  Diary  of  a   Totcr  zn  Etirope.     [chap,  iv, 

bed  clothes,  with  nice  clean  garments ;  to  each  one,  for 
the  purpose  of  amusement,  playthings  and  pretty  things, 
that  had  been  collected,  were  given.  As  attendants, 
many  women  were  there. 

We  went  to  other  wards  where  the  men  were.  In 
spite  of  their  ailments,  they  shouted  loudly  their  hurrahs. 

On  the  lower  floor  they  have  appliances,  by  which, 
having  placed  a  sick  man  on  a  bed,  they  lift  him  to  the 
upper  stories  without  his  having  to  move.  The  first 
stone  of  the  building  of  this  hospital  was  laid  by  the 

We  next  proceeded  to  the  residence  of  Lord  Dargil 
(the  Duke  of  Argyll),  Secretarj^  for  India.  His  house 
was  at  a  distance.  We  went  through  Hyde  Park,  &c., 
and  arrived  there.  The  wife  of  the  Indian  Secretary, 
who  is  the  sister  of  the  Duke  of  Sutherland,  and  an 
elderly  woman,  together  with  a  daughter  of  the  Sove- 
reign, who  is  the  wife  of  the  son  of  the  Indian  Secretary, 
came  forward.  Having  shaken  hands  and  strolled  a 
space  in  the  garden,  we  went  into  a  room,  sat  down  to 
table,  and  ate  some  fruit.  The  Duke  of  Sutherland  was 
also  of  the  party.  We  then  went  down  into  the  garden, 
where  a  tent  was  pitched,  in  which  we  took  a  seat. 
A  Scotch  individual,  in  the  Scotch  garb,  came  and  for  a 
while  played  the  pipe  and  drone  (bagpipes).  Another 
individual  in  the  Scotch  garb,  danced  a  Scotch  dance. 
He  arranged  four  swords  on  a  round  board,  and  for  a 
time  danced  about  the  swords. 

An  individual  of  celebrity,  whose  name  is  Viteston 
(Sir  Charles  Wheatstone,  F.K.S.),  has  invented  a  kind 

CHAP.  IV.]  England.  213 

of  telegrapli,  such  that  when,  for  instance,  you  converse 
by  its  means  from  London  to  Tehran,  the  sentence 
becomes  printed  upon  paper,  and  can  be  read  with  perfect 
facility.  They  had  set  one  up  in  the  garden  ;  we  went 
and  saw  it  in  operation. 

We  then  returned,  and  alighted  in  Hyde  Park  at  a 
structure  which  the  Sovereign  has  reared  to  the  memory 
of  her  husband  (Prince)  Albert,  which  we  inspected.  It 
is  all  of  stone  and  has  upon  it  most  beautiful  sculptures, 
in  which  they  have  represented  the  celebrities,  the  poets, 
and  the  painters  of  the  world,  and  others,  in  stone ;  the 
reason  being  that  (Prince)  Albert  himself  was  a  man  of 
science  and  of  art.  The  crowd,  however,  prevented  us 
from  examining  it  properly;  so  we  turned  away,  mounted 
our  carriage,  went  home,  and  in  the  evening  drove  to  the 
theatre  of  Drulelam  (Drury-Lane  Theatre). 

In  the  streets  the  crowds  were  prodigious.  We  reached 
the  Theatre,  where  the  Heir- Apparent  of  England  had 
also  come.  He  met  me,  and  gave  me  his  hand.  We 
went  up  into  a  box  near  the  stage  and  took  our  seats. 
Prince  Alfred  came  also.  There  was  an  opera,  and  also 
a  ballet.  They  sang  and  danced  charmingly.  The 
dancers  were  graceful  and  prettily  dressed.  The  theatre 
has  five  tiers  of  seats.  It  is  somewhat  small,  but  very 
pretty.  There  was  a  young  woman,  a  celebrated  singer, 
of  the  name  of  Nelson  (Nielson),  from  Sweden,  whom 
the  Heir- Apparent  caused  to  be  sent  up,  and  with  whom 
some  conversation  was,  had.  She  was  very  loquacious 
and  shrewd.  She  goes  every  year  to  the  theatres  of  (St.) 
Peter(sburg),  the  New  World,  &c.,  and  makes  a  large 

214  Diary  of  a  Toitr  in  Etirope.     [chap.  iv. 

income.     She  is  now  married  to  a  Frenchman  of  the 
name  of  Gousseau. 

The  play  over,  we  passed,  in  returniog  home,  by  St. 
James's  Palace.  The  palace  is  an  ancient  building ;  and 
the  Com-t  of  England  is  still  designated  as  the  Court  of 
St.  James.  The  Sovereign  used  formerly  to  sit  there 
in  state  (at  drawing-rooms) ;  but  since  the  death  of  her 
husband  she  has  never  gone  there.  At  present,  the 
mother  of  the  Duke  of  Carabridge  is  held  to  reside  there. 
We  reached  home. 

Yesterday  the  Sani'u-'d-Dawla  left  to  go  to  Paris,  in 
order  to  arrange  our  halting-places  and  the  like. 

Well ;  had  we  the  wish  to  write  as  they  deserve  all  the 
particulars  of  the  city  of  London  or  of  all  England,  we 
should  have  to  write  a  voluminous  History  of  England ; 
but  during  a  stay  of  only  eighteen  days  in  London  it 
really  has  not  been  possible  to  write  more  than  we  have 
done.  In  justice  (we  can  but  say  that),  the  demeanour 
of  the  English,  and  everything  of  theirs,  is  extremely 
well  regulated  and  governed,  and  admirable.  In  respect 
to  populousness,  the  wealth  of  the  people,  the  commerce, 
the  arts,  business,  and  dolce  far  niente,  they  are  the 
chief  of  all  nations. 

Saturday,  9th  {5th  July), — To-day  we  have  to  go  to 
the  seaport  of  Cherbourg,  in  France.  In  the  morning 
early  I  arose  from  sleep.  During  these  eighteen  days  of 
our  stay  in  London,  every  day  has  been  cloudy.  Many 
purchases,  too,  have  been  made  in  London. 

Well ;  the  Heir- Apparent  of  England,  Lord  Granville, 
— the  Foreign  Secretary,  Lord    Sarni  (Lord  Sydney?), 

CHAP.  IT.]  England,  215 

Prince  Alfred,  Prince  Arthur,  and  others  came.  We 
mounted  a  carriage  and  drove  for  the  station.  Large 
crowds  were  present,  showing  great  regret.  It  was 
evident  that  the  people  of  England  were  all  sorry  and 
grieved  in  their  hearts  at  our  departure.  We  arrived  at 
the  Victoria  Station,  where  the  Heir-Apparent  took 
leave  and  returned.  Prince  Alfred,  however,  with  Prince 
Arthur  and  the  Grand- Vazir,  took  seats  in  our  car. 
The  son  of  the  Hakimu-'l-Mamalik  remained  behind  in 
London  to  study. 

We  started  for  the  seaport  town  of  Portsmouth,  the 
joui-ney  occupjdng  three  hours,  or  less.  But  on  our 
arrival  (in  England)  we  did  not  travel  by  this  road.  In 
(point  of)  proximity  the  (proper)  port  (for  proceeding 
from  London  to  the  continent)  is  connected  with  our 
former  route.  The  following  are  among  the  towns  and 
populous  places  through  which  we  passed :  Mitcham, 
Epsom,  Dorking,  Horsham,  Arundel,  Chichester. 

AVe  reached  the  seaport  town,  where  crowds  were 
collected.  They  fired  guns  from  the  forts  and  ships. 
The  Admiral-in- Chief  resident  there,  Reaucham  Seymur 
(Bear-Admiral  Frederick  Beauchamp  Paget  Seymour, 
C.B.),  received  us;  after  which  we  went  on  board  a 
French  ship, — a  vessel  named  "  L'Aigle,"  which  had 
belonged  to  Napoleon  III.,  he  having  ordered  it  to  be 
built  as  a  yacht  for  himself;  but  now  that  a  repubhc  has 
come  about,  its  name  has  been  changed,  and  they  have 
called  her  "  Rapide."     She  is  a  beautiful  ship. 

We  breakfasted.  M.  Nicholas — the  French  Inter- 
preter,  together  with    the    interpreter    Biberstein,   M. 

2 1 6  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Ettrope.     [chap.  iv. 

Meline— newly-appoiiited  French  Envoy  to  Tehran,  M. 
Bel — lately  French  Charge  d'Affaires  in  Tehran,  M.  Blie 
— captain  of  the  ship,  and  the  other  naval  officers,  were 
received  in  audience.  A  few  minutes  later  the  ship 
started  on  the  voyage.  The  direct,  hest,  and  nearest 
route  is  that  hy  the  port  of  Dover,  in  England,  to  Calais, 
a  French  port,  which  is  a  sea  voyage  of  only  one 
hour  and  a  half;  whereas,  hy  this  route  from  Ports- 
mouth to  Cherbourg,  the  sea  voyage  is  of  eight  hours' 

Well ;  there  was  another  ship  behind  us,  in  which  our 
household  and  the  rest  were  embarked.  Four  large 
Enghsh  ships  of  war,  too,  were  on  both  sides  of  us  as  (a 
convoy  of)  honour.  As  soon  as  we  got  to  sea  the  waves 
arose;  the  weather,  too,  was  cloudy  and  hazy.  Every 
one  became  so  unwell  that  not  an  mdividual  could  either 
walk  about  or  sit  down.  They  all  fell  prostrate.  I  my- 
self became  so  ill  that  I  went  and  lay  down  until  we 
arrived  near  to  the  port  of  Cherbourg.  Eight  tillers 
(sail)  of  French  men-of-war  came  out  to  mid-channel  to 
meet  us.  They  fired  many  guns.  The  English  ships, 
too,  having  fired  guns,  consigned  us  to  the  French  and 

We  arrived  at  our  port  by  the  time  of  sunset,  the  ship 
dropped  anchor,  all  became  quiet,  and  we  had  dinner. 

French  officials,  as  here  below  detailed,  came  on  board  : 
Vice-Admiral  Penhoat, — Marine  Prefect  of  the  town  of 
Cherbourg,  Vice-Admiral  Kegnaudj — Naval  Commander- 
in-Chief,  General  Dumoulin,— Commanding-in-Chief 
the  forces  at   Cherbourg,  M.  Vaultier, — Prefect  of  the 

CHAP.    IV.] 



Department  of  La  Manche,  M.  Larnac, — Prefect  of  the 
town  of  Cherbourg ;  as  also  other  officials,  adjutants,  &c., 
military  and  naval ;  who  were  received  in  audience  and 
retm-ned.  On  board  the  men-of-war  a  b€?autiful  illumi- 
nation and  exhibition  of  fireworks  took  place. 

^  The  Persian  word  * '  padshah, ' '  rendered  by  * '  Sovereign ' '  in  this  work, 
applies  to  Emperors,  Kings,  or  Queens  equally.  There  is  no  exact 
equivalent  for  either  in  Persian. — J.  "W.  E. 



UNDAY,  10^^  {6th  July).— To-dsiy  we  have  to 
reach  Paris.  We  rose  early  in  the  morning, 
went  down  into  a  hoat,  and  pushed  off  for 
the  shore.  The  weather  was  very  cold.  We 
arrived  at  the  landing, — a  very  handsome  flight  of  steps. 
A  very  pretty  and  choice  triumphal  arch  had  been  erected 
also,  of  flowers  and  shrubs,  bunches  of  flowers,  chande- 
liers and  the  like,  various  devices  with  weapons — such  as 
pistols,  muskets,  lance-heads,  &c.  In  truth,  they  had 
displayed  talent. 

We  went  up  the  steps ;  a  numerous  assemblage  of 
officials,  military,  naval,  and  civil,  national  guards. 
Government  clerks,  and  the  like,  were  drawn  up  in 
ranks;  and  the  Prefect  of  La  Manche  presented  the 
whole.  I,  too,  inquu-ed  after  their  healths.  And  thus 
we  reached  the  train  and  took  our  seats  in  a  carriage, 
which  had  yet  to  wait  a  little. 

The  majority  of  the  women  and  men  in  France  are 
small  made  and  attenuated  of  limb  ;  they  are  not  like  the 
inhabitants  of  Russia,  Germany,  and  England,  but  more 
resemble  the  people  of  the  East. 

The  fortifications  of  Cherbourg  are  very  strong.    Facing 

CHAP,  v.]  France,  Geneva.  219 

the  sea,  it  has  turrets  and  batteries  of  great  power ; 
and  on  the  land  side  also,  it  has  its  works  and  a  wide 
ditch  always  full  of  water.  The  capture  of  this  city  by 
force  would  be  a  veiy  difficult  matter.  The  town  is 
not  so  very  large,  but  it  has  a  population  of  more  than 
thirty-seven  thousand  souls.  It  is  an  excellent  harbour. 
The  commencements  of  the  forts  date  from  the  days  of 
the  first  Napoleon ;  they  were  completed  in  the  time  of 
Napoleon  III.,  but  some  work  is  still  going  on. 

Well;  our  train  started.  To-day  we  traversed  the 
province  of  Normandy, — a  beautiful  country,  abounding 
with  produce.  Extensive  meadows,  trees,  flowers,  grass, 
in  abundance  were  there.  Beautiful  oxen,  mares,  sheep, 
are  kept  in  great  numbers,  by  reason  of  the  plentiful 
pasturages  which  they  possess.  We  saw  quantities  of 
shrubs  and  of  tamarisk-trees,  which  cause  it  to  resemble 
Persia.  To-day  I  saw  the  greater  part  of  the  flowers  and 
trees  of  Persia  in  these  parts,  such  as  the  willow,  the 
''tabrlzi",  the  tamarisk,  and  others.  The  surface  of 
the  soil  hereabouts  is  all  up-hill  and  down-dale,  with 
many  peaks.  The  apples  of  the  province  are  famous  for 
their  good  quality ;  and  we  saw  large  numbers  of  apple- 

Well;  we  reached  the  city  of  Caen,  the  capital  of 
Normandy.  We  stopped  there  half  an  hour,  when  break- 
fast was  taken.  It  is  a  very  pretty  town.  After  leaving 
it,  we  passed  through  many  "  holes  in  mountains,"  one 
of  them  being  about  a  league  in  length.  During  the 
transit  (through  these),  one  feels  a  very  suffocating  kind 
of  sensation  about  the  heart.     From  Cherbourg  to  Paris 

2  20  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe.      [chap.  v. 

the  jouiney  by  rail  occupies  eight  hours,  and  the  distance 
is  ninety  leagues.  At  about  an  hour  to  sunset  we  arrived 
in  the  environs  of  Paris ;  we  passed  over  the  river  Seine 
by  a  bridge  that  is  outside  the  city,  and  so  entered  into 
the  capital.  Thence,  taking  the  line  of  railway  that  goes 
all  round  the  city  within  the  continuous  walls,  we  reached 
the  quarter  named  Passy,  where  the  whole  of  the  present 
Government  and  leading  men  of  France,  together  with  a 
crowd  of  spectators,  were  awaiting  us. 

The  Sani'u-'d-Dawla,  Marshal  MacMahon — the  pre- 
sent Chief  of  the  French  Government,  the  Duke  de 
Broglie — the  newly  appointed  Minister  of  Foreign 
Affairs,  other  officials,  ministers,  &c.,  were  at  the  station. 
We  alighted ;  compliments  passed  with  the  Marshal  and 
the  Foreign  Minister.  There  was  an  avenue  that  they 
had  carpeted  and  greatly  ornamented.  We  walked  a 
certain  distance  on  foot,  and  the  Marshal  presented  the 
commanders,  the  miHtary  officers,  and  others,  until  we 
reached  a  carriage,  in  which  we  took  our  seat  with  the 
Grand-Vazir,  the  Marshal,  and  the  Minister  for  Foreign 
Affairs.  Our  suite,  too,  were  seated  in  other  carriages. 
We  started,  and  a  volley  of  cannon  was  fu-ed.  From  that 
place  to  the  Corps  Legislatif,  our  appointed  quarters,  on 
both  sides  of  the  road  were  posted  infantry  of  the  line, 
cavalry,  and  gens-d'armes,  all  in  beautiful  uniforms. 
Behind  the  ranks  of  the  troops  crowds  of  spectators  were 
standing.  We  passed  through  the  Bois  de  Boulogne, 
which  is  outside  of  the  fortifications ;  agaia  entered  the 
enceinte  of  the  city  ;  went  along  the  Avenue  de  la  Grande 
Armee,  and  arrived  at  the  Arc  de  Triomphe,  which  is  one 

CHAP,  v.]  France,  Geneva.  221 

of  the  grand  structures  of  the  first  Napoleon,  is  huilt  of 
stone,  and  on  it  are  sculptured,  within,  without,  and 
all  round,  the  battles  of  that  leader.  It  is  a  very  impos- 
ing pile  ;  but  in  the  late  wars  with  Prussia,  great  damage 
has  been  done  to  it  by  cannon-balls. 

The  interior  of  the  Arc  de  Triomphe  was  carpeted, 
chairs  were  placed  there,  and  much  ornamentation  had 
been  achieved.  Here  we  alighted  and  sat  a  while.  The 
Governor  of  the  city,  a  fat  man  and  bulky,  named  M, 
Duval,  came  with  the  "  Kalantar  "  (mayor),  and  made  a 
speech,  to  which  we  replied.  Several  persons  charged  to 
represent  the  Deputies  of  the  city  of  Paris  came  also  and 
made  a  speech,  which  we  answered.  We  then  rose,  re- 
mounted our  carriage,  and  entered  the  avenue  of  the 
Champs  Ely  sees,  which  is  very  spacious  and  pleasing. 
On  both  sides  of  all  these  avenues  through  which  we 
passed  they  have  planted  handsome  trees,  and  built 
beautifully-grand  houses.  And  so  we  reached  the  Place 
de  la  Concorde,  where  they  have  erected  a  lofty  obelisk 
brought  from  Egypt.  This  is  a  charming  public  place, 
having  two  basins  of  water  with  fountains.  The  fountains 
do  not  always  play ;  but  whenever  they  wish,  they  cause 
them  to  flow.  Passing  by  a  bridge  over  the  Seine,  we 
entered  the  edifice  which  they  have  assigned  to  us.  At 
the  foot  of  the  steps  of  this  edifice  M.  Buffet, — the  actual 
President  of  the  National  Assembly,  together  with  some 
of  the  Deputies,  made  a  speech  based  on  congratulations 
for  our  arrival ;  and  we  replied  thereto. 

We  went  upstairs.  It  has  rooms  and  halls  spacious 
and  very  handsome.     The  bedstead  which  they  had  pre- 

2  2  2  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Eicrope.      [chap.  v. 

pared  for  us,  was  the  bedstead  of  the  first  Napoleon  at 
the  time  when  he  espoused  Marie  Louise,  daughter  of  the 
Sovereign  of  Austria. 

To-day  we  noticed  a  singular  frame  of  mind  in  the 
French.     First  of  all,  they  still  keep  up  the  state   of 
mourning  that  followed  the  German  war,  and  they  are  all, 
young  or  old,  sorrowful  and  melancholy.     The  dresses  of 
the  women,  ladies,  and  men,  are  all  dresses  used  for  mourn- 
ing ;  with  little  ornamentation,  and  very  plain.     Now  and 
then  some  of  the  people  shouted:  "Vive  le  Marechal," 
*'  Vive  le  Schah  de  Perse  ;  "  from  another  one  I  heard, 
as  I  strolled  about  by  night,  a  loud  voice  saying  :  "  May 
his  reign  and  rule  be  firm  and  enduring."     From  the 
whole  of  these  (circumstances)  it  becomes  evident  that 
there  are  at  present  in  France  numerous  parties  who 
desire  a  monarchy ;  but  they  are  in  three  sections,  one 
desiring  the  son  of  Napoleon,  another  the  dynasty  of 
Louis-Philippe,  and  the  third  Henry  the  Fifth,  who  is  of 
the  Bourbon  family  ;  and  although  this  and  the  family  of 
Louis-Philippe  are  really  one  race,  they  have  distinctions. 
The  wishers  for  a  republic,  on  the  other  hand,  have  great 
power  ;  but  they  are  not  all  of  one  mind.     Some  are  for 
a  Red  Republic,  which  is  a  fundamental  commonweal. 
Others  are  for  a  moderate  republic,  in  which  monarchical 
institutions  shall  be  found,  without  a  monarch's  existing. 
Others  again  wish  otherwise.     Among  all  these  diversities 
of  opinion  it  is  now  a  very  difficult  matter  to  govern,  and 
the  consequences  of  these  incidents  will  surely  eventuate 
in  many  difficulties,  unless  that  all  combine  on  one  plan 
and  estabhsh  either  a  pure  monarchy  or  a  pure  republic. 

CHAP,  v.]  France,  Geneva.  223 

Then,  France  is  the  most  powerful  of  States,  and  all 
must  take  her  into  their  calculations ;  whereas,  with  all 
these  dissidences  it  is  a  difficult  matter  for  her  to  preserve 
her  institutions. 

Well ;  the  troops  drawn  up  to-day  in  line  were  nearly 
twenty  thousand  in  number.  This  edifice  which  is 
allotted  to  as  as  our  residence,  was  formerly  the  Council- 
House,  i.e.,  the  House  for  the  meeting  of  the  Deputies 
of  the  nation.  Since  the  expulsion  of  the  third  Napoleon 
from  the  sovereignty,  and  the  establishment  of  a  re- 
public in  France,  the  Deputies  and  the  Government  have 
all  gone  to  Versailles,  and  have  left  the  city  of  Paris 
entirely  void  of  the  governmental  administrations.  The 
city  of  Paris  is  now  in  reality  the  property  of  the 
peasantry  and  common  people,  who  do  whatever  they 
like,  as  the  Government  has  no  adequate  means  of  re- 
pression. The  palace  of  the  Tuileries,  which  was  the 
finest  building  in  the  world,  is  now  a  mass  of  ruins,  as 
the  men  of  the  Commune  set  fire  to  it.  Nothing  remains 
of  the  palace  but  its  walls.  We  were  sadly  grieved  for 
tliis ;  but,  thanks  be  to  God,  the  palace  of  the  Louvre, 
which  adjoins  that  of  the  Tuileries,  has  been  saved  and 
is  not  destroyed. 

The  H6tel-de-Ville,  one  of  the  fine  buildings  of  the 
world,  and  the  Palace  of  the  Legion  of  Honour,  were 
entu'ely  burnt.  The  column  of  the  Place  Vendome, 
which  the  first  Napoleon  cast  out  of  the  materials  of  the 
enemy's  guns,  and  on  which  he  set  up  his  own  statue, 
pourtraying  all  his  wars  around  the  same,  has  been 
broken  up  by  the  Commune,  and  carried  away,  so  that 

2  24  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe.      [chap,  v, 

nothing  of  it  remains  but  the  block  that  was  the  base  of 
the  column. 

Paris  is  a  beautiful  and  graceful  city,  with  a  delicious 
climate.  It  generally  enjoys  sunshine,  thus  much  re- 
sembling the  cHmate  of  Persia. 

In  the  evening  we  mounted  a  carriage  and  drove  about 
the  city  with  the  Mu*tamadu-'1-Mulk  and  General  Arture. 
We  passed  through  the  Kue  de  Rivoli  and  the  Boulevard 
Sebastopol,  —  well-known  thoroughfares,  through  the 
Place  Vendome,  and  by  the  palace  of  the  Tuileries,  near 
to  c'ertain  bazaars  and  the  like.  The  lamps  of  the  city 
are  all  illuminated  with  gas  ;  so  that  it  is  a  very  bright, 
beautiful,  and  charming  city.  Numbers  of  people  were 
seated  in  carriages  and  driving  about ;  or,  seated  in  the 
cafes  and  similar  places,  were  enjoying  themselves. 

The  river  Seine  is  not  like  the  river  Thames.  It  has 
less  width  and  less  water.    Large  ships  cannot  navigate  it. 

Within  our  palace  there  is  a  pretty  little  garden,  with 
a  basin  of  water  and  a  fountain  of  porphyry  in  three 
stages.  A  tent,  too,  has  been  erected  there.  From 
here  one  can  go  to  the  Ministry  of  Foreign  Affairs,  which 
has  been  assigned  as  quarters  for  our  princes.  It  is  a 
grand  and  beautiful  building,  where  formerly  the  depart- 
ment of  the  Minister  for  Foreign  Affairs  was  located.  It 
has  a  very  pretty  flower-garden ;  and  a  small  fountain 
throws  up  its  water.  The  upper  floor  of  our  palace 
possesses  a  handsome  bath-room,  which  I  admired  ex- 
ceedingly, and  which  is  supplied  with  hot  and  cold  water, 
so  that  in  whichever  way  one  wishes  to  have  it,  there  is 
no  diflicult}'. 

CHAP,  v.]  France,  Geneva.  225 

Monday,  11th  (7th  July). — After  breakfast  we  mounted 
our  carriage  and  set  out  for  a  drive  about  town.  We 
passed  along  a  street  named  Parc-Monceau — a  very 
beautiful  street,  by  a  very  pretty  flower-garden,  and 
arrived  at  the  Ai'c  de  Triompbe,  going  from  thence  to- 
wards the  Bois  de  Boulogne,  where  we  first  visited  the 
Jardin  d'Acclimatisation.  Here  we  alighted  and  entered 
the  garden.  There  were  some  flowers ;  and  there  was 
a  place  built  up  of  rocks,  like  a  natural  mountain. 
Passing  by  these,  we  came  to  the  park  for  wild 
animals,  and  for  birds.  They  had  prepared  nettings  of 
wire  around  rooms,  and  within  these  they  had  set  up 
trees  and  introduced  water  for  the  use  of  the  animals 
and  birds.  We  here  saw  various  kinds  of  birds 
and  of  parrots  from  the  New  World,  Africa,  India, 
and  AustraHa.  There  were  also  monkeys  and  other 
things.  There  is  an  animal  called  the  kangaroo,  that 
is  found  in  Australia, — very  similar  to  the  jerboa.  It 
is  a  singular  thing ;  it  jumps  swiftly,  but  cannot 
walk.  Its  fore-legs  are  short,  its  hind-legs  long.  It. 
must  jump  always.  It  is  of  the  size  of  a  large  jackal. 
The  female  has  a  pouch  on  the  lower  part  of  her 
beUy,  where  she  puts  her  young  after  they  are  born,, 
and  so  jumps  and  runs  about.  They  are  very  swift 

There  were  some  very  curious  pheasants,  with  beau- 
tiful plumage,  of  aU  colours,  that  we  saw  also.  There 
were  likewise  two  elephants  on  which  litters  were 
arranged,  and  so  women  and  children  rode  about  on 
them.     There  was  also  a  droshka  in  which  a  man  was- 

2  26  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Etirope.      [chap,  v 

■seated,  harnessed  to  an  ostrich,  which  drew  it  about 
easily,  having  the  strength  of  a  small  horse. 

After  a  long  stroll,  we  went  to  the  aquarium,  which 
resembled  those  of  other  countries,  but  was  very  circum- 
•scribed  and  of  no  account.  The  Director  of  these 
gardens  and  plants  is  (M.)  Drouin  de  I'Huys,  who  for- 
merly, in  the  time  of  Napoleon,  was  Minister  of  Foreign 
Affairs.  He  was  not  himself  present,  but  was  repre- 
sented by  his  substitute  (M.)  Geoffroy  de  Saint-Hilaire, 
ivho  pointed  out  to  us  the  plants,  and  other  objects. 

We  now  mounted  again  and  went  for  a  drive  in  the 
Bois  de  Boulogne,  where  there  was  an  island  in  the 
midst  of  a  piece  of  water.  We  got  into  a  boat  and  went 
there.  A  military  officer  chanced  to  be  present  on  the 
island,  who  gave  us  some  account  of  the  circumstances 
of  the  war,  and  pointed  out. to  us  where  cannon-shot 
find  musket-balls  had  struck  the  trees.  The  greater 
part  of  the  trees  bore  the  marks  of  shot ;  from  which  it 
was  evident  that  severe  engagements  had  occurred  in 
that  neighbourhood,  both  with  the  Prussians  and  with 
the  Commune.  At  the  further  end  of  the  island  there 
was  a  small  wooden  j)avilion  called  Pavilion  de  I'lm- 
peratrice,  i.e.,  the  pavilion  of  the  wife  of  Napoleon.  It 
was  built  of  wood,  was  very  handsome,  and  small. 

Having  admired  this  for  a  while,  w^e  returned  to  the 
other  side  of  the  water,  remounted  our  carriage,  and, 
wandering  as  we  w^ent,  drove  home. 

Again  in  the  evening  we  went  out,  and  noticed  a 
covered  bazaar,  like  a  corridor.  Here  we  made  a  few 
purchases  and  returned  to  our  palace. 

«HAP.  v.]  France,  Geneva.  227 

It  is  extremely  difficult  to  write  up  our  diary  in  Paris 
day  by  day  and  in  detail.  Our  strolls  about  the  beautiful 
promenades  by  night  as  well  as  by  day  leave  no  chance 
for  us  to  carry  on  the  diary.  However,  all  that  is  needful 
«hall  be  entered  in  a  succinct  manner. 

One  day  the  members  of  the  Diplomatic  Corps  came 
all  to  an  audience.  There  is  here  an  Ambassador,  or  a 
Minister,  or  a  Charge  d' Affaires,  from  every  Govern- 
ment,— even  from  Japan,  and  from  the  Kepublic  of  the 
Island  of  Haiti.  The  Ambasosadrs  were :  Chigi — the 
Papal  Nuncio,  ic,  the  envoy  of  the  Pope;  Lord  Lyons — 
Ambassador  of  England ;  Olozaga  —  Ambassador  of 
Spain ;  Prince  Orloif — Ambassador  of  Bussia,  whose 
left  eye  was  struck  by  a  ball  at  the  siege  of  Silistiia 
during  the  Crimean  war,  and  became  injm'ed ;  he  also 
received  other  wounds  from  sabre-cuts  and  the  like ;  he 
had  a  black  bandage  tightly  bound  over  his  injured 
eye  ;  Appony — Ambassador  of  Austria ;  Server  Pasha — 
Ambassador  of  Turkey ;  M.  Nigra — Envoy  of  Italy  ;  Mr. 
Washbm'n — Envoy  of  the  United  States  of  America; 
Naonobon  Sameshima — Envoy  of  Japan. 

We  here  received  also  Prince  Menschikoff,  who  attended 
us  in  Kussia,  and  Mirza  'Abdu-'r-RahTm  Khan,  the 
Sa*idu-'1-Mulk,  (Persian)  Envoy  at  (St.)  Peter(sburg). 
Furthermore,  we  received  M.  Pichon,  M.  Miniac,  and 
M.  Sartiges,  former  French  Envoys  at  Tehran,  as  well 
as  M.  Mouny,  a  former  French  Charge  d'Affaires  at  that 
capital.     They  were  all  fatter,  and  all  younger  looking. 

One  day  after  breakfast  we  went  to  the  palace  and 
park  of  Versailles.     The  weather  was  very  sultry.     We 

Q  2 

2  28  Diary  of  a  Tour  tii  Eicrope.      [chap.  v. 

went  in  state.  There  were  great  crowds  on  both  sides  of 
the  road.  We  passed  along  the  Champs  Elysees,  by  the 
Arc  de  Triomphe,  through  the  Bois  de  Boulogne,  and 
across  the  river  Seine.  The  prefect  and  other  authorities 
of  the  department  of  Seine  et  Oise,  a  separate  depart- 
ment  on  the  other  side  of  the  river,  came  to  an  audience 
and  delivered  an  address,  to  which  we  replied.  AVe  then 
proceeded  through  the  town  of  Sevres — famous  for  its 
manufactory  of  porcelain,  the  village  of  Chaville,  and 
the  village  of  Ville-D'Avray,  so  reaching  Versailles. 
Troops  of  cavalry  and  infantry  were  drawn  out,  and  stood 
in  a  line  on  either  side  of  our  road.  Great  crowds  were 
also  collected. 

We  went  to  a  mansion  that  was  the  residence  of  M. 
Buffet,  the  President  of  the  National  Assembly,  and  one 
of  the  palaces  built  by  Louis  XIV. ;  that  is  to  say,  the 
whole  of  Versailles,  palace  and  park,  was  called  into 
existence  by  him.  I  saw  some  beautiful  paintings  and 
portraits  in  these  few  rooms.  The  whole  palace  is  of 
stone,  and  very  solidly  built.  It  is  the  first  building 
of  the  Franks  in  point  of  sculptures,  paintings,  and 

M.  Buffet  came  to  meet  us  at  the  bottom  of  the  stairs,, 
the  other  Ministers  of  the  Government  being  present. 
We  went  upstairs  into  a  room,  and  sat  down  on  a  chair. 
The  wife  of  M.  Buffet  came  into  our  presence.  We  then 
rose;  and  by  the  same  route  through  which  we  had 
arrived,  we  returned ;  until,  at  about  half  way,  we  came 
to  a  palace  where  Marshal  MacMahon  has  his  quarters. 
Alighting  there,  the   Marshal,  with  other  commanders,. 

CHAP,  v.]  France^  Geneva,  229 

met  us,  and  we  went  upstairs,  taking  a  seat  in  a  room. 
That  place  was  also  an  imposing,  handsome,  and  highly 
decorated  palace,  being  part  of  the  pile  of  Versailles. 
The  wife  of  the  Marshal  was  received  in  our  presence. 
She  is  a  very  noble  woman.  The  Marshal  has  one  son, 
grown  up,  apparently  of  about  seventeen  or  eighteen 
years  of  age ;  also  two  daughters.  They  came  into 
the  room.  The  Due  de  Broglie — Minister  of  Foreign 
Affairs — was  also  there. 

We  now  descended ;  we  and  the  Marshal  took  seats 
in  a  carriage,  went  into  the  gardens  of  Versailles,  and 
drove  about.  They  have  many  basins  and  fountains  of 
water,  the  source  of  which,  like  that  of  the  fountains  at 
the  Crystal  Palace  of  London,  is  derived  from  a  steam- 
engine.  They  had  opened  the  sources  and  let  the  water 
on  in  the  fountains.  There  was  a  lake  below  the  basins 
and  fountains,  very  beautiful  and  spacious  avenues,  forest 
trees,  the  heads  of  which  were  all  intertwined  so  as  to 
form  a  kind  of  roof,  with  every  here  and  there  a  circular 
open  space  of  grass  with  trees  around,  haying  in  the 
centre  a  large  basin  with  a  fountain  of  great  altitude. 
It  is  a  very  charming  place. 

One  spot  was  formed  into  a  kind  of  artificial  mountain, 
with  a  cascade  falling  from  the  mountain.  Several 
.marble  statues  were  placed  behind  the  cascade, — one,  a 
group  named  Apollo,  who  was  the  specific  deity  of  manly 
beauty,  of  light,  and  of  poetry.  He  is  adorning  (him- 
self), the  others  round  him  are  holding  a  mirror,  flowers, 
or  implements  of  the  toilet.  It  was  so  beautiful  a  piece 
of  statuary,   that   one   could  not   even  imagine  it.      I 

230  Diary  of  a  Toiler  in  Europe.       [chap,  v, 

formed  the  desire  to  go  up  near  to  these  statues  under 
the  cascade.  The  Marshal  and  General  Arture  said  it 
would  be  very  difficult  to  go  there,  as  the  path  was 
altogether  precipitous,  of  rocks,  and  steep.  I  said  I 
would  go  ;  I  ahghted  from  the  carriage,  and  went  up.  It 
is  true  that  the  way  was  disagreeable;  but  to  us,  who 
had  seen  and  traversed  much  worse  paths  in  the  hunting- 
grounds  of  Persia,  it  offered  no  difficulty.  AVhen  we  had 
arrived  near  the  statues,  General  Arture  came  (also) ; 
but,  meeting  with  a  fall,  all  his  clothes  were  bemired,  and 
liis  sword  was  either  bent  or  broken.  The  Marshal  lilie- 
wise  came  up ;  but  with  great  difficulty,  and  with  the 
assistance  of  several  persons.  But  this  manner  of 
getting  up  there  by  a  Marshal  and  a;  general  of  France, 
is  in  no  way  derogatory  to  their  firmness  and  courage* 
Well ;  the  statues  were  very  beautiful,  though  somewhat 
soiled,  and  covered  with  cobwebs. 

Coming  down  from  there,  we  went  to  another  place 
made  like  a  circus.  In  the  middle  of  it  were  a  basin  of 
water  and  a  fountain,  and  all  round  it  two  rows  of  stone 
columns.  Between  these  columns  was  a  tall  stone  basin 
on  a  pedestal,  from  the  middle  of  which  a  very  lofty 
fountain  spouted.  There  were  about  eighty  or  ninety 
basins  of  water,  from  each  one  of  which  a  fountain 
sprang,  the  whole  of  the  columns,  fountains,  and  floor, 
&c.,  being  of  stone. 

In  like  manner,  in  other  parts  of  the  garden,  there  are 
numerous  fountains,  marble  statues,  and  other  adorn- 
ments, with  many  sjpacious  and  beautiful  avenues,  to  do 
full  justice  to  which,  in  writing  their  description,  is  an 

cHAi'.  v.]  France,  Geneva. 

impossibility :  what  is  requisite  is  that  a  person  should 
see  the  whole  for  himself.  Women  and  men,  spectators ^ 
had  formed  a  rare  crush;  they  uttered  cries,  they 
shouted  hurrahs. 

We  turned  back  and  went  upstairs  in  the  palace, 
strolling  about  for  a  while  through  the  apartments- 
Marshal  Canrobert,  and  Palikao — who  commanded  the 
expedition  to  China,  were  received  in  audience,  and  con- 
versed with.  Palikao  is  now  unemployed.  JHe  said  that 
from  want  of  somethmg  to  do,  he  was  engaged  in 
writing  a  diary  of  (his  expedition  to)  China.  Canrobert 
is  also  out  of  enij^loy,  but  is  a  very  able  commander, 
X)ossessing  judgment  and  firmness.  In  the  Sebastopol 
war  he  commanded  in  chief,  and  at  the  siege  of  Metz 
was  under  # the  command  of  Marshal  Bazaine.  At  the 
surrender  of  that  fortress  to  the  Germans  he  was  among 
the  captives,  and  was  greatly  mortified  at  being  under 
Bazaine's  command. 

We  next  saw  the  sons  of  Louis-Philippe.  In  the 
time  of  Napoleon  they  were  expelled  from  France  and 
went  to  England,  returning  to  the  French  territory  after 
the  republic  (had  been  proclaimed).  We  saw  two  of 
them  to-day;  one,  the  Due  d'Aumale;  the  other,  the 
Prince  de  JoinvHle.  The  Due  d'Aumale  is  a  very 
talented  man  ;  de  Joinville  is  also  a  handsome  lorince, 
but  is  somewhat  hard  of  hearing.  The  Comte  de  Paris, 
grandson  to  Louis-Philippe,  and  heir  to  the  royalty  of  the 
House  of  Orleans,  was  not  there ;  i.e.,  he  had  gone  to  a 
house  that  he  possesses  at  a  summer  station  near  Paris. 
We  had  some  conversation  with  the  princes,  who  then 

232  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Etcrope.      [chap.  v. 

retired.  They  are  now  deputies  in  the  Assembly  on  the 
part  of  the  people.  As  they  were  officers  in  the  military 
{and  naval)  service  in  the  time  of  their  father,  so  they 
now  also,  on  state  occasions,  wear  military  (or  naval) 
uniforms.  They  have  a  claim  to  the  sovereignty  of 
France,  up  to  the  point  which  God  may  ordain.  The 
names  and  orders  of  these  princes  are  the  following :  the 
•eldest  son  of  Louis-Philippe  is  the  Due  de  Nemours ; 
:after  him,  de  Joinville ;  next,  the  Due  d'Aumale ;  and 
ihen  the  Due  de  Monpensier — who  is  now  in  Spain  and 
has  a  claim  to  the  sovereignty  of  that  country.  The- 
•Comte  de  Paris  is  a  grandson  of  Louis-Philippe,  and  son 
of  the  Due  d' Orleans,  who  was  a  son  of  Louis-Philippe, 
and  his  heir-apparent ;  when  he  fell  from  his  carriage 
;and  died,  his  son  became  the  heir-apparent.    ^ 

Well ;  after  a  while  Marshal  MacMahon  came,  and  we 
ivent  to  the  room  in  which  is  the  bedstead,  with  the 
bedding,  of  Louis  XIV.  After  seeing  these  we  went  to 
table  to  dinner.  The  table  was  very  long ;  the  dinner 
very  good.  The  most  part  of  those  present  were  mili- 
tary commanders  and  officers,  deputies,  and  the  like. 
On  our  right  was  seated  M.  Buffet,  the  President  of  the 
Assembly ;  to  our  left,  the  Minister  of  Foreign  Affairs. 
Opposite  to  us  was  Marshal  MacMahon,  with  the  Grand - 
Vazir  to  his  right.  In  like  manner,  the  princes  of 
Persia,  with  the  others,  were  seated  along  the  two  sides. 
The  Sani*u-'d-Dawla  stood  behind  our  chair  and.  acted 
as  interpreter.     It  passed  off  very  pleasantly. 

The  (dining-)  hall  was  a  long  apartment,  very  hand- 
some, and  highly  decorated,  with  numerous  chandeliers. 

<3HAP.  v.]  France,  Geneva.  233 

After  dinner  we  came  down  stairs,  and  I,  with  tlie 
Marshal,  took  my  seat  in  a  carriage,  proceeding  to 
witness  the  illuminations  of  the  palace  and  gardens. 
Armour-wearing  cavahy,  each  man  holding  a  flamheau  in 
his  hand,  preceded  us ;  and  the  crowds  were  very  great. 
Afterwards  we  turned  in  another  direction  of  the 
gardens,  where  there  was  a  lake.  The  further  side  of 
this  was  arranged  in  stages,  over  which  water  flowed  as 
in  a  cascade,  while  fountains  spouted  from  the  basins. 
Great  numbers  of  commanders  and  grandees,  the 
members  of  the  Diplomatic  Body,  nobles,  notables, 
deputies,  and  others,  were  present.  They  had  placed  a 
•chair,  and  on  it  we  took  our  seat.  Then  all  sat  down, 
and  a  very  beautiful  display  of  fireworks  took  place.  It 
was  moonlight ;  the  weather,  too,  was  extremely  beautiful 
and  pleasant. 

At  the  conclusion  of  the  fireworks  we  mounted  our 
carriage,  and  went  past  St.  Cloud — which  was  a  noble 
royal  palace,  but  took  fire,  and  was  burnt  in  the  German 
war,  though  its  avenues  and  park  are  still  left, — through 
the  Bois  de  Boulogne,  to  the  city,  and  home.  On  our 
road  we  everywhere  conversed  with  General  Arture. 

One  day  we  went  to  the  Invalides,  where  are  seen  the 
tomb  of  the  first  Napoleon,  those  of  his  commanders 
and  brothers,  together  with  others  of  older  commanders 
-of  the  days  of  Louis  XIV.,  &c.  At  our  quarters,  which 
were  formerly  the  Palace  of  the  National  Assembly,  i.e., 
at  the  Palais  de  Bom^bon,  there  is  a  vast  area  fronting 
the  Invalides,  with  avenues  full  of  trees.  We  arrived 
there.     The  aged  veteran  soldiers,  wounded,  some  with- 

234  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Etirope.      [chap.  v.. 

out  arms  or  legs,  and  some  blind,  were  drawn  up  in  line,, 
and  did  us  military  honour,  we  returning  their  salute. 
In  the  court  of  the  Invalides  are  some  large  old  cannon,, 
mortars,  and  the  like.  The  Governor  of  the  Invalides,. 
a  very  aged  personage,  and  palsied,  was  present,  whose 
name  was  Martinprai.  He  came  to  meet  us  with  his 
aides-de-camp  and  other  officers.  He  was  formerly  a 
Governor  in  Algeria,  and  Chief  of  the  Staff  in  the 
Crimean  and  Itahan  campaigns. 

We  entered  the  chapel,  where  was  a  handsome  altar  of 
stone,  with  gilt-work,  which  Louis-Philippe,  the  former 
King  of  the  French,  had  set  up.  It  is  a  grand  structure. 
On  the  other  side  of  the  altar,  under  a  dome,  is  the  tomb 
of  the  first  Napoleon,  whose  body  was  brought  from  the 
island  of  St.  Helena  by  Louis-Philippe,  and  buried  here.. 
The  stone  that  covers  the  tomb,  of  a  pea-green  colour, 
was  brought  from  the  island  of  Corsica ;  while  the  stone 
above  that,  a  most  beautiful  Siberian  stone,  with  a  ruddy 
tint,  was  sent  by  the  Eussian  Emperor  Nicholas.  The 
general  structure  of  this  chapel  of  the  Invalides  is  of 
the  time  of  Louis  XIY. ;  but  the  altar  and  some  other  of 
its  arrangements  were  constructed  by  Louis-Philippe. 
It  was  the  latter  who  excavated  the  interior  of  the  dome,, 
in  which  the  sarcophagus  of  the  tomb  is  placed.  Around 
it,  above,  is  a  walk  to  which  people  come  to  visit  the 
tomb.  The  palace  of  the  Invalides  is  a  very  noble  pile,, 
the  dome  of  which  was  gilt  by  Napoleon. 

We  saw  there  a  few  veterans  who  had  been  in  the 
battles  of  Waterloo,  Friedland,  or  lena,  who  were  still 
hale  and  hearty,    and   who   gave  descriptions   of  those 

CHAP,  v.]  France^  Geneva.  235. 

battles.      The    following    are    their    names :     Captain 
Duchemin,  Chassy,  Branche. 

On  the  other  side  of  the  tomb  was  a  place  where,  in  a 
glass  case,  they  had  placed  the  hat  worn  in  his  battles  by 
the  first  Napoleon.  We  lifted  the  hat  and  examined  it 
long.  "We  held  in  our  hands  the  hat  of  a  very  great 
monarch  and  commander.  It  was  evident  from  the  hat 
itself  that  Napoleon  had  always  worn  this  very  hat  which 
was  a  plain  hat.  The  sword  of  Napoleon  that  was  by 
his  side  on  the  field  of  Austerlitz,  was  also  there.  We 
took  it  u]3,  and  examined  it.  The  sword  was  small  and 
straight ;  its  hilt  was  of  gold,  but  the  sword  was  rusted, 
and  could  not  be  drawn  from  the  scabbard.  With  the 
utmost  veneration  did  we  replace  both  articles,  and  came 

We  now  proceeded  to  the  museum,  in  which  they  have 
collected  and  arranged  specimens  of  ancient  and  modem 
cannon,  with  inventions  relating  thereto,  ancient  weapons 
of  commanders  and  champions  of  old,  quantities  of 
armour  for  man  and  horse,  all  ticketed  with  a  number 
and  with  the  names  of  their  owners.  There  were  also 
other  places  used  as  armories,  &c.,  but,  as  we  were 
somewhat  fatigued,  we  deferred  to  another  day  a  visit 
to  them,  and  returned  home. 

The  present  number  of  inmates  of  the  Invalides,  ofii- 
cers  and  men,  is  five  hundred  and  ninety  souls.  Of  these, 
thirty-five  are  from  the  days  of  the  first  Napoleon,  the 
rest  from  later  times.  The  palace  was  founded  in  a.d.. 
1670  by  order  of  Louis  XIV.,  Louvois  being  then  the 
Minister  of  War,  and  its  builder. 

:2  36  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe.      \Q^kv.\. 

There  are  thirty-two  pieces  of  artillery  at  the  gates  of 
the  Invalides,  which  are  fired  when  any  event  of  import- 
ance occiu's,  such  as  a  great  victory  or  the  like.  On  our 
arrival  in  Paris,  too,  these  guns  of  the  Invalides  were 

The  flags  taken  from  the  enemy  in  hattle  in  the  time 
of  the  first  Napoleon,  and  since,  are  kept  at  the  Invalides, 
•as  are  also  those  taken  in  the  days  of  Louis  XIV.,  down- 
wards. Around  the  tomb  of  Napoleon  forty-six  flags  are 
disposed,  taken  by  himself  in  battles ;  while  within  the 
-chapel  other  two  hundred  and  forty-five  flags  are  seen, 
taken  at  earlier  periods,  or  later. 

The  following  are  some  of  the  commanders  of  France 
{Marshals),  ancient  and  modern,  buried  in  the  Invalides, 
where  most  of  those  officers  have  their  tombs  :  Turenne, 
Vauban,  Lannes,  Colbert, — who  were  marshals  and 
ministers  of  Louis  XIV.;  Mortier,  Jourdain, — generals 
of  the  first  Napoleon.  Around  the  tomb  of  Napoleon  are 
ihose  of  Jerome,  his  brother,  of  Marshal  Duroc,  and  of 
Marshal  Bertrand. 

Three  days  before  our  arrival  in  France,  two  trains 
<}ame  into  colHsion  on  the  Cherbourg  Railway,  when  a 
number  of  people  were  killed  or  wounded. 

M.  Cremieux,  one  of  the  French  national  deputies,  and 
•a  Jew,  who  was  always  in  opposition  to  Napoleon  III., 
and  is  a  marvellous  orator,  came  to  an  audience.  He  is 
^n  old  man,  and  very  short.  He  still  speaks  in  the 
Assembly,  and  is  in  opposition  to  the  Government. 

The  celebrated  Eothschild,  a  Jew  also,  who  is  exceed- 
ingly rich,  came  to  an  audience,  and  we  conversed  with 

CHAP.  Y.]  France,  Geneva.  237 

him.  He  gTeatly  advocated  the  cause  of  the  Jews,  men- 
tioned the  Jews  of  Persia,  and  claimed  tranquillity  for 
them.  I  said  to  him  :  "  I  have  heard  that  you,  brothers,, 
possess  a  thousand  crores  of  money.  I  consider  the  best 
thing  to  do  would  be  that  you  should  pay  fifty  crores  to 
some  large  or  small  State,  and  buy  a  territory  in  which 
you  could  collect  all  the  Jews  of  the  whole  world,  you 
becoming  their  chiefs,  and  leading  them  on  their  way  in 
peace,  so  that  you  should  no  longer  be  thus  scattered  and 
dispersed."  We  laughed  heartily,  and  he  made  no  reply.. 
I  gave  him  an  assurance  that  I  do  protect  every  alien 
nationality  that  is  in  Persia. 

M.  Lesseps,  so  well  known,  who  has  joined  the  Medi- 
terranean to  the  Red  Sea, — ie.,  a  large  company  having 
been  formed,  has,  through  the  exertions  of  this  personage^ 
opened  that  road,  and  by  this  means  shortened  for  com- 
merce the  passage  to  India,  Persia,  China,  &c.,  from 
Em'ope,  by  about  two  thousand  leagues, — came  to  an 
audience,  together  with  his  son,  a  youth.  He  has  now  a 
fresh  scheme  in  his  head, — that  of  making  a  railway  from 
the  town  of  Orenburg  in  Russia  to  the  city  of  Samarqand, 
and  thence  on  to  Peshawur  in  British  India.  But  this  is 
a  notion  very  remote  (from  reason)  and  distant  (from 

Nadar,  a  Parisian  photographer  of  talent,  had  an 
audience,  and  took  our  photograph.  Formerly,  he  has 
several  times  made  ascents  in  balloons;  but  has  now 
dropped  that  fancy,  and  occupies  himself  with  his  photo- 
graphy.    He  is  a  pleasant  man  and  coq^ulent. 

M.  Tardieu,  Chief  of  the  Sanitary  Council  of  PariSy 

238  Diary  of  a   Toitr  in  Ettrope,       [cHAr.  v. 

liad  an  audience,  together  with  Larrey,  a  distinguished 
surgeon,  and  son  of  the  Larrey  who  was  Surgeon-in- 
Chief  to  Napoleon  I.,  and  Jules  Cloquet,  uncle  .to  the 
Cloquet  who  was  Prmcipal  Physician  to  the  late  Shah 
(Muhammad  Shah,  father  of  the  present  monarch),  and 
also  physician  to  ourselves,  who  of  himself  by  night  in- 
advertently at  Tehran  drank  some  (tincture  of)  canthaiides 
in  lieu  of  wine,  and  died  (in  consequence). 

M.  Bour^,  a  former  Minister  Plenipotentiary  at  Tehran, 
^nd  suhsequently  Ambassador  at  Constantinople  and  else- 
where in  the  time  of  Napoleon  III.,  was  also  received  and 
<jonversed  with  at  length.     He  is  a  man  of  ability. 

Well;  very  many  Prussian  shots  struck  this  verj^ 
Palais  Bourbon,  so  'that  the  marks  thereof  are  still 

One  day  we  went  to  Longchamps  to  a  review  of  troops. 
We  breakfasted  and  mounted  our  carriage.  All  (our 
suite)  accompanied  us.  We  went  by  way  of  the  Champs 
Elysees,  the  Arc  de  Triomphe,  and  the  Bois  de  Boulogne. 
In  the  middle  of  this  latter  Marshal  MacMahon  was 
waiting  with  (a  number  of)  generals,  of&cers,  and  others, 
on  horseback.  There  were  also  great  multitudes  of 
women  and  men.  The  Due  de  Nemours, — eldest  son  of 
Louis-Philippe,  whom  we  had  not  before  seen,  was  also 
there,  mounted,  and  we  conversed  with  him.  I,  too, 
alighted  from  my  carriage,  and  mounted  my  charger 

General  Ladmirault,  the  Commandant  of  the  garrison 
of  Paris,  together  with  liis  staff,  i.e.,  his  aides-de-camp, 
was  present. 

€HAP.  v.]  France^  Geneva.  239 

Well;  in  this  very  order  did  we  proceed  and  came 
upon  the  armour- wearing  cavahy — the  Cuu'assiers,  and 
the  light  cavalry — the  Hussards.  They  were  drawn  up 
on  either  side  (of  our  road),  and  were  a  thousand  strong. 

After  passing  down  between  these  cavalry,  we  went  on 
to  the  plain  and  meadow  of  Longchamps — a  spacious 
piece  of  grassland.  To  our  left  an  artificial  mountain 
had  been  constructed,  down  which  much  water  poured, 
like  a  waterfall,  and  which  is  a  part  of  the  Bois  de 

The  regular  troops  (on  the  ground),  too,  were  about  a 
hundred  and  twenty  battalions;  but  each  battalion  had 
only  about  four  or  five  hmidred  men  present,  not  more ; 
the  remamder  being  on  furlough  at  home.  We  went 
down  in  front  of  the  ranks  of  the  infantr}^  and  artillery. 
These  troops  are  from  the  remoter  environs  of  Paris. 
For  instance,  some  of  the  battalions  had  come  a  distance 
-of  thirty  leagues  to  be  present  at  this  review.  There 
were  three  hundred  pieces  of  artillery  present,  harnessed 
to  their  horses.  The  whole  of  the  troops  in  mihtary 
fashion,  and,  as  a  mark  of  respect  and  honour,  drooped 
their  colours.     We,  too,  retm'ned  the  salutes. 

Round  about  the  grassland,  within  the  woods,  up  in 
the  trees,  everywhere  were  people. 

After  inspecting  the  ranks,  we  went  to  some  rooms 
built  of  timber  long  ago  on  this  plain  for  the  purpose  of 
similar  reviews  and  horse-races.  We  went  upstairs  and 
took  our  seat;  upon  which  the  Marshal  went  into  the 
grass  and  meadow.  French  commanders,  together  with 
-certain  military  attaches — Ottoman,  Austrian,  Russian, 

240  Diary  of  a  Toicr  in  Europe,      [chap.  v. 

Prussian,  drew  up  in  front  of  the  Marshal.  In  the  uj^per 
chamber  where  we  were,  the  French  Minister  for  Foreign 
Affairs,  the  President  of  the  Assembly — M.  Buffet,  Mar- 
shal Canrobert,  and  others,  w^re  present.  As  Canrobert 
is  not  now  in  the  army,  and  has  no  appointment,  he  was 
not  on  horseback. 

Well;  the  infantry  and  artillery  came  and  marched 
past ;  after  them,  the  cavalry  did  the  same.  The  whole 
of  the  deputies  of  France, — five  hundred  in  number,  had 
come,  and  had  all  taken  their  seats.  In  the  building  to 
our  left  the  Diplomatic  Corps,  and  others,  were  seated. 
The  wife  of  Marshal  MacMahon  was  there.  Around  us 
were  seated  an  assemblage  of  graceful  women  and  ladies. 
As  each  battalion  passed  by,  the  national  deputies  clai)ped 
hands  and  shouted  hurrahs.  Marshal  MacMahon,  too, 
took  off  his  hat  to  each  battalion.  It  lasted  nearly  three 
hours  before  the  whole  of  the  infantry,  artillery,  and 
cavalry  had  marched  past.  All  included,  too,  they  were 
more  than  eighty  thousand  men.  The  forces  went  through 
an  admirable  review. 

After  all  those  defeats  and  ruin  of  the  French,  no  idea 
had  been  entertained  of  such  a  collection  and  such  disci- 
pline of  their  forces.  They  were  beautifully  dressed; 
the  muskets  of  the  men  were  the  same  old  Chassepots^ 
and  the  artillery  the  same  guns  used  in  the  German  war 
and  anterior  to  that.  When  all  was  over  we  returned 
home  by  about  sunset. 

Another  day  we  went  again  to  Longchamps  to  witness 
the  horse-racing.  The  Marshal  came  himself  to  our 
residence,  where  we   mounted  a  carriage  and   started. 

<^HAP.  v.]  France y  Geneva.  241 

The  rest  (of  our  people)  went  also.  We  followed  the 
same  route  to  the  Bois  de  Boulogne  that  we  had  taken 
-on  the  day  of  the  review.  From  thence,  however,  we 
went  behind  the  cascade,  but  only  to  arrive  at  the  same 
stand  where  we  were  seated  to  witness  the  march  past. 
The  Minister  of  Foreign  Affairs,  M.  Buffet,  the  wife  of 
the  Marshal,  the  commanders  and  others,  the  Ottoman 
Ambassador,  and  the  Austrian  Ambassador,  were  there. 
Women  and  men  in  multitudes  were  assembled  around 
the  race-course.  Four  heats  were  run.  They  had  given 
to  each  race  the  name  of  a  Persian  province;  such 
as  Ispahan,  Shiraz,  &c.  In  the  first  heat  they  ran 
half  round  the  course,  which  is  one  horse-distance. 
One  jockey,  whose  dress  was  green,  in  accordance 
with  the  Persian  ribbon,  won  the  race.  In  the  next 
two  heats  they  ran  round  the  entire  course;  but,  as 
the  distance  is  not  great,  most  of  the  horses  came  in 
together.  The  horse  that  gets  ahead,  say,  by  one 
head  and  neck,  of  the  others,  is  counted  to  have  been 
first  in.  The  Persian  rule  for  horse-racing  is  better, 
and  affords  a '  better  spectacle.  The  Persian  race- 
course is  half  a  league  round;  six  rounds,  that  is, 
three  leagues,  and  sometimes  seven  rounds,  are  run  in 
one  heat.  Whichever  horse  gets  the  start  has  given 
proof  of  his  power.  Here,  where  at  the  utmost  once 
round  is  the  length  of  a  race,  which  is  but  half  a 
league,  the  powers  of  a  horse  are  not  fully  brought  out 
in  evidence. 

In  the  last  race  the  horses  had  to  jump  at  full  gallop 
over  several  batriers   of  wood  about  an   ell  in  height 

242  Diary  of  a  Tozir  in  Europe.      [chap.  v. 

{42  inches),  and  garnished  at  top  with  wild  brambles  and 
furze.     This  was  much  better  as  a  spectacle. 

The  races  lasted  rather  more  than  an  hour,  after  w^hich 
w^e  returned  home.  The  Marshal  w^ent  his  own  waj^  in 
order  to  be  present  in  the  evening  at  the  fireworks  and 

We  came  along,  and  having  reached  the  Arc  de 
Triomphe,  alighted.  A  number  of  our  suite  w^ere  with 
us.  We  w^ent  to  the  top  of  the  building.  It  had  two 
hundred  and  eighty-five  steps.  It  is  very  high;  the 
steps  are  narrow  and  windmg,  so  that  it  is  exceedingly 
irksome  to  mount.  I  got  to  the  top  in  a  breath,  but  the 
others  followed  slowly.  From  the  summit  the  whole  of 
the  city  of  Paris  is  visible,  with  its  environs  and  its  forts. 
The  people  that  were  returning  frorn  Longchamps  and 
the  races  were  all  in  sight.  From  the  Bois  de  Boulogne 
to  the  end  of  the  Chamj)s  Elysdes  seven  rows  of  carriages 
were  counted ;  and  in  like  manner,  in  the  other  streets 
multitudes  of  carriages  were  seen.  It  was  a  grand 

After  a  certain  stay  there,  we  descended  and  remounted 
our  carriage.  On  starting  there  was  no  possibility  to  get 
along,  by  reason  of  the  crowd  of  vehicles  and  of  pedes- 
trians ;  so  that  we  had  great  trouble  to  reach  home. 

In  the  evening  the  Marshal  came;  we  mounted  together, 
and  passing  through  the  Champs  Elysees,  &c.  From 
our  residence  to  the  site  of  the  fireworks,  both  sides  of 
the  road  were  full  of  people.  This  evening  there  must 
have  been  a  collection  of  a  crore  (half  a  million)  of 
women  and  men  seen  by  us.     They  all  shouted :  *'  Yive 

CHAP,  v.]  France,  Geneva.  243 

le  Schah  de  Perse,"  and  tliey  also  spoke  well  of  the 
Marshal,  saying:  "Vive  la  France." 

They  had  prepared  a  beautiful  illumination.  In 
all  the  streets  they  had  suspended  crystal  lamps  like 
round  globes ;  but  the  wind  somewhat  interfered  with 

We  drove  a  long  way,  and  at  length  reached  a  place 
where  the  river  Seine  occupied  the  middle,  and  the  fire- 
works were  prepared  on  the  other  side  of  it.  On  that 
side  of  the  river,  and  opposite  to  us,  was  the  parade- 
ground  and  the  military  College  (the  Champ  de  Mars  and 
the  Ecole  Militaire),  which  were  all  illuminated.  The 
place  where  we  were  seated  is  named  the  Trocadero. 
On  this  side  of  the  river,  also,  every  avenue  was  illumi- 
nated. They  had  prepared  some  sumptuous  apartments 
for  us,  of  timber,  hung  with  numerous  chandeliers  and 
furnished  throughout  with  curtains  newly  woven  of  silk, 
velvet,  and  satin.  But  the  wind  and  the  rain  somewhat 
disaiTanged  the  preparations.  The  lamps,  however,  being 
lighted  with  gas,  were  but  seldom  ^  extinguished.  The 
fireworks  were  magnificent.  The  whole  of  the  French 
high  officials,  of  the  Corps  Diplomatique,  &c.,  were  pre- 
sent. Thanks  be  to  God,  the  whole  passed  off  pleasantly, 
and  we  came  home.  The  Marshal  again  rode  with  us  in 
our  carriage  to  our  residence. 

Dm-ing  the  fireworks  the  armour- wearing  cavaky — the 
Cuirassiers,  to  the  number  of  three  thousand,  passed 
along  the  bank  of  the  river,  flambeaux  in  hand,  and  their 
band  playing. .  It  was  a  majestic  sight. 

One  evening  we  went  to  the. Circus,  which  is  near  our 
S  k2 

244  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Etcrope.      [chap.  v. 

quarters.  It  is  a  place  like  a  theatre,  but  is  better. 
They  have  constructed  a  circular  edifice,  around  which 
are  tiers  of  wooden  stages,  on  which  people  sit.  It  has 
also  a  roof,  and  many  chandeliers  are  suspended.  The 
middle  part  of  the  edifice  is  like  the  pit  of  a  gymnasium, 
strewed  with  earth.  The  place  is  spacious  enough  to 
hold  three  thousand  spectators.  On  the  night,  more 
especially,  that  we  went  there  the  assembly  was  veiy 
numerous.  They  had  hired  seats  at  the  prices  of  thirty 
to  fifty  tumans  (12Z.  to  20Z.).  There  were  some  extremely 
beautiful  women.  The  Grand- Vazir,  the  princes,  and 
others,  were  all  present. 

The  place  had  three  doors.  One  of  these  is  the  door 
to  the  stables  of  the  circus,  and  is  near  to  the  arena 
where  the  performances  go  on,  as  (the  horses  and  actors) 
come  and  leave  by  that  way.  They  have  from  fifty  to 
sixty  very  handsome  horses,  of  curious  coats.  I  had 
never  seen  similar  horses  anywhere.  There  were  some 
extraordinary  speckled  horses,  which  must  have  been 
worth  a  thousand  .or  five  hundred  tiimans  (400^  or 
200?.) ;  and  in  such  a  manner  had  they  disciplined  and 
accustomed  these  horses  that,  at  one  signal,  they  did 
whatever  was  desired.  The  whole  of  the  horses  under- 
stood the  language.  Their  teacher  said  :  '*  Stop  ;  " 
they  all  stopped ;  he  said :  "Go  on  quickly ;  "  they  all 
ran;  he  said:  "Stand  up;"  and  lo,  suddenly  they 
reared  up  on  their  hind  feet;  he  said:  "Run  away;" 
and  they  did  so.  In  short,  whatever  he  told  them  to  do, 
they  did.  Many  a  moral  lesson  could  be  learnt  there. 
There  was  a  large  whip  in  the  hand  of  the  master  of  the 

CHAP,  v.]  France^  Geneva,  245 

horses,  which  he  continually  kept  in  action,  and  which 
made  a  report  like  that  of  a  musket. 

Beautiful  women,  elegantly  dressed,  rode  upon  the 
horses  and  cantered  round.  They  jumped  upon  the 
horses'  hacks,  they  turned  summersaults,  forwards  and 
backwards,  and  again  they  fell  to  the  earth  without 
receiving  injury. 

Several  men,  stationed  round  the  arena,  held  scarves, 
and  all  put  up  their  hands  on  high.  One  lovely  woman 
mounted  a  horse  and  put  him  to  a  canter  around  the 
place ;  and  when  the  horse  was  at  the  top  of  his  speed, 
she,  on  arriving  successively  at  each  scarf,  sprang  up 
from  the  horse's  back,  turned  a  summersault  backwards, 
passing  over  the  scarf  and  coming  down  on  her  feet 
again  upon  the  back  of  her  steed.  Twice  she  succeeded 
in  performing  this  feat  all  right ;  at  the  third  scarf  she 
fell  to  the  ground.  She  was  not  hurt,  however;  but 
again  leaped  on  the  horse  and  thrice  repeated  her 

They  then  held  up  wooden  hoops,  and  a  young  man 
mounted  a  horse,  put  him  to  a  gallop,  and,  as  he  arrived 
near  the  hoops,  leaped  up,  passed  through  the  hoops, 
and  ahghted  on  his  feet  upon  his  horse. 

Some  hoops  were  prepared  like  tambourines  by  having 
skins  stretched  over  them.  The  horses,  running  at  a 
gallop,  dashed  violent^  through,  tearing  the  skins  to 
pieces  ;  while  a  man,  mounted  on  them,  leaped  over  the 
hoop  and  again  alighted  on  the  horse. 

Several  women  and  children  mounted  and  performed 
such  feats  as  cannot  be  described  or  recounted.     For 

246  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe.      [chap.  v. 

instance,  in  one  breath  and  all  together  they  turned  over 
five  hundred  (many)  summersaults  backwards  upon  the 
horses ; — a  thing  beyond  the  power  of  man.  Little  chil- 
dren, of  graceful  forms,  turned  summersaults  in  a  fashion 
that  cannot  be  imagined ;  performed  most  beautifully 
upon  ropes,  so  that  monkeys  and  spiders  alone  could 
imitate  them.  In  short,  they  worked  wonders,  and  it 
was  a  delightful  spectacle. 

We  went  from  thence  to  the  j)alace  of  the  Louvre, 
where  aU  thp  philosophers  and  learned  men  of  Paris 
were  assembled.  The  Minister  of  Sciences, — a  very  fat 
and  tall  man,  whose  name  is  Batbie,  was  also  present. 
We  went  to  the  ground-floor  of  the  building,  where  the 
marble  statues,  ancient  and  modern,  are  arranged.  The 
armour-wearing  cavalry,  flambeaux  in  hand,  preceded  us. 
The  philosophers  and  learned  marched  on  either  side, 
and  the  Minister  of  Sciences  walked  near  us.  After  a 
protracted  promenade,  we  came  back  to  our  own  home. 

Some  very  fine  statues  had  been  viewed.  There  was 
one  large  statue  of  marble,  of  colossal  proportions  and 
gigantic  mould,  leaning  against  a  mountain  and  seated 
with  his  feet  extended,  having  in  his  hand  a  vase  out  of 
which  water  was  poming.  This  water  is  the  water  of 
the  river  Tiber,  which  is  seen  at  Kome,  the  capital  of 
Italy.  There  were  also  some  marble  statues  of  Venus, 
the  specific  deity  of  beauty,  one  of  which  has  been  beau- 
tifully carved,  but  both  its  arms  are  broke  away  at  about 
the  middle  of  the  upper-arm.  There  were  also  many 
other  statues  that  are  rarely  to  be  matched  elsewhere. 

One   day  we   went    to   an   establishment  ^  called   the 

€HAP.  v.]  France,  Geneva.  247 

Panorama,  i.e.,  a  scene  all  round.  This  is  a  very  wonderful 
piece  of  science  and  art,  the  inventor  of  which  is  a  man 
from  the  New  World.  It  was  not  far  from  our  residence. 
The  Grand-Vazir  and  the  others  were  all  present.  We 
came  to  a  place  where  a  circular  edifice  rose  to  view ; 
having  a  small  door.  We  entered,  and  first  we  reached 
a  panorama  representing  a  street, — one  of  the  streets  of 
Paris,  at  the  time  when  the  Prussians  were  besieging  the 
city.  Shot  and  shell  were  falling  like  hail  from  the  sky. 
The  time  was  the  winter  season.  People  were  coming 
out  of  theii'  houses,  holding  their  wives  and  children  by 
the  hand,  and  fleeing  away.  The  more  one  examined 
this  scene  with  attention,  the  more  real  and  substantial 
did  it  appear,  so  that  one  could  not  tell  it  was  a  painted 
picture  and  not  an  actual  occmTence,  an  incident  of  the 
struggle.  One  man  had  fallen  down,  his  head  broken, 
and  the  blood  flowing.  It  was  impossible  to  discern 
the  pigment  from  real  blood;  and  so  of  the  other 
features  of  the  scene  depicted. 

From  thence  we  had  to  ascend  by  some  stairs  to  a 
place  where  was  a  circular  enclosure,  from  which  one 
could  look  in  every  direction.  The  city  of  Paris,  its 
forts  and  environs,  the  guns  and  their  projectiles,  the 
turmoil  of  battle  and  siege,  the  flight  and  bursting  of 
shot  and  shells  in  the  air,  all  appeared  before  one.  It 
was  as  though  at  that  moment  one  were  in  the  city  of 
Paris,  and  all  the  incidents  and  confusion  of  the  war 
with  the  Prussians  were  before  his  eyes.  In  short, 
unless  one  see  it  with  his  own  eyes,  he  cannot  mider- 
stand  how  it   is   that   a  fictitious  picture   and  a  non- 

248  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Ett7^ope.      [chap,  v. 

existent  circumstance  cannot  be    distinguished    from  a 
real  event  and  a  current  fact. 

This  place  has  always  been  used  for  the  exliibition  of 
works  of  the  same  kind,  so  that  whenever  people  have 
felt  inclined,  they  could  come  here,  pay  theii'  money, 
and  obtain  entrance  to  view  the  sj)ectacle.  The  keepers 
of  the  place  make  a  good  income  by  it.  The  won- 
derful part  of  the  matter  is  that  for  a  length  of  time 
they  exhibited  here  a  view  of  the  conquest  of  Sebas- 
topol,  in  which  the  English  and  French  defeated  the 
Russians.  This  was  removed  to  make  place,  during  a 
certain  season,  for  a  panorama  representing  the  victories 
obtained  over  the  Austrians  by  the  French  forces  at 
Solferino,  Magenta,  and  elsewhere.  Now  they  have 
depicted  and  exhibit  the  defeat  and  humiliation  of 

But  as  the  air  is  very  much  confined  in  this  establish- 
ment, should  any  one  remain  in  it  more  than  ten  minutes- 
or  so,  he  becomes  subject  to  headache  and  other  more 
disagTeeable  ailments,  so  we  also  soon  withdrew. 

On  another  occasion  we  went  to  the  climTli  of  Notre 
Dame  and  to  the  Cite,  which  are  on  an  island  in  the 
river  Seine,  and  are  within  the  city  of  Paris.  We  passed 
by  the  Hotel  de  la  Monnaie,  and  by  the  Conseil  d'Etat — 
a  large  edifice  and  office  of  one  of  the  Ministers,  built  in 
the  time  of  the  first  Napoleon  and  utterly  burnt  by  the 
men  of  the  Commune ;  so  arriving  at  the  church.  The 
priests  came-  forward  to  meet  us.  The  edifice  of  the 
church  is  very  grand,  and  is  entirely  of  stone.  It  has 
been   built   five   or   six  hundred  years.      Entering,  we 

CHAP,  v.]  France,  Geneva.  249 

surveyed  every  part  of  it  with  great  attention.  It 
I)ossesses  some  pulpits  and  some  railings  (screens),  of 
ancient  carved  wood,  exceedingly  rich.  Its  windows  are 
all  of  coloured  glass  in  various  tints  and  very  heautiful.. 
We  saw  the  treasury  of  the  church,  where  were  some 
chalices  and  vessels  of  gold,  gilt,  silver,  and  so  on.  I 
there  held  a  conversation  with  the  chief  priest ;  I  asked 
him :  "  What  is  your  hehef  concerning  His  Holiness 
Jesus,  on  whom  he  peace ;  used  he  to  drink  wine  or 
not?"  All  at  once,  the  whole  of  the  priests,  as  though 
I  had  asked  a  strange  question,  unanimously  said  :  "  He 
certainly  used  to  drink  wine.  That  is  a  small  matter. 
He  himself  also  made  wine."  I  then  said  :  "  Used  he  to- 
drink  seldom  or  often  ?  "  They  all  said  :  "He  used 
even  to  drink  often." 

We  now  left  and  went  to  the  Ecole  des  Mines — the- 
mining  academ}^  The  name  of  the  Director  is  M. 
Doubre.  It  is  a  surprising  place.  In  it  there  are  spe- 
cimens of  all  the  mineral  ores  of  the  world,  beginning 
with  gold,  down  to  coal,  and  the  like.  The  whole  of 
them  are  numbered  and  ticketed,  being  kept  in  glass 
cases.  There  is  an  emerald  mine  in  New  Grenada, 
America,  from  whence  emeralds  are  now  obtained. 
Some  crystals  of  emerald,  of  good  colour  and  free  from 
defects,  were  seen,  still  imbedded  in  the  matrix.  I  saw 
also  specimens  of  the  emeralds  from  the  mines  of  Siberia 
and  elsewhere;  but  these  were  all  large  and  of  bad 
quality.  In  short,  there  were  so  many  specimens  of 
minerals  that  their  number  is  unknown;  and  it  would 
require  the  power  of  a  person's  examining  them  one  by 

250  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe.      [chap.  v. 

one  through  a  long  period  and  with  all  attention,  of  put- 
ting questions  to  the  i^rofessors  and  hearing  theii-  answers, 
for  him  to  comprehend  something  about  them ;  not  for 
us,  who  had  to  see  the  whole  of  these  stones  in  five 
minutes,  as  well  as  to  hear  from  whence  each  came,  so 
that  it  was  an  utter  impossibility  to  understand  anything 
as  to  their  natures  and  properties. 

We  then  proceeded  to  the  upper  floor,  w^here  fossils 
are  kept ;  i.e.,  the  bones  of  animals  from  before  the  tune 
of  Noah's  flood,  and  since  then,  as  well  as  animals  ((/j/., 
plants)  that  have  become  petrified.  There  were  many 
strange  and  marvellous  things,  a  knowledge  of  which  is 
a  science  by  itself,  incompatible  with  the  scope  of  this 
narrative.     After  these  wanderings  we  returned  home. 

The  palace  of  the  Luxembourg  is  another  place  to 
which  we  one  day  rambled.  This  is  a  stately  and  exten- 
sive palace  with  its  gardens,  of  the  time  of  Louis  XVI., 
its  gardens  being  now  oj)en  to  the  public,  so  that  people 
go  there  every  day  to  walk  about.  Its  beds  of  flowers  are 
Tery  beautiful.  The  Hotel  de  Ville  or  town-hall  being 
now  a  ruin  and  burnt  down,  this  edifice  has  been 
assigned  as  the  place  for  the  offices  of  the  city. 

On  our  arrival  in  the  garden,  M.  Duval,  the  Prefect  of 
Paris,  together  with  M.  Alfand,  the  city  architect,  and 
others,  were  waiting  for  us.  The  streets  of  Paris, — ^thus 
straight,  broad,  and  level,  together  with  the  avenues  in 
which  trees  have  been  planted  so  regularly  and  tastefully, 
were  all  planned  and  laid  out  on  the  instructions  and 
under  the  supervision  of  M.  Haussman,  formerly  Prefect 
of  Palis  in  the  days  of  Napoleon,  and  of  this  architect. 

CHAP,  v.]  France,  Geneva.  251 

We  sat  in  the  gardens  awhile,  and  then  entered  the 
palace  to  view  the  pictures  and  other  objects.  M. 
YaiitraiQ,  President  of  the  Municipal  Council  of  Paris, 
was  received  in  audience.  This  palace  of  the  Luxem- 
bourg is  one  of  the  finest  edifices  in  Paris ;  and  in  it  did 
Louis-Philippe  establish  the  Senate,  adding  to  it  a  verj'- 
sumptuous  structiu'e  in  which  that  body  should  hold  its 
meetings.  The  Senate  continued  to  sit  here  until  the 
«nd  of  the  reign  of  Napoleon,  but  was  abolished  when 
repubhcanism  made  its  appearance,  and  we  saw  in  that 
very  chamber  of  the  Senate  one  or  two  professors  who 
were  examining  pupils  from  the  colleges.  Each  pupil 
who  passes  this  examination,  has  the  right  to  enter 
gratis  into  the  other  superior  places  of  instruction. 

The  Senate  consisted  of  one  hundred  members,  more 
or  less,  of  the  magnates,  notabilities,  and  aged  com- 
manders of  the  State,  in  order  that  they  should  not  be 
without  something  to  do.  To  each  of  them  was  assigned 
a,  salary  of  three  thousand  tumans  (1200Z.),  with  a  seat 
in  this  Council,  for  the  pm-pose  of  reconsidering  every 
enactment  that  came  from  the  Chamber  of  Deputies  ; 
since,  until  it  had  received  the  ratification  of  this 
Council,  it  was  not  put  in  force.  Now  it  is  altogether 

Well ;  the  palace  had  some  very  magnificent  halls  and 
rooms ;  but  alas,  a  thousand  pities, — the  whole  of  these 
apartments  were  cut  up  and  partitioned  off  with  wains- 
cotings,  and  in  each  subdivision  an  office,  or  a  committee 
of  the  municipal  administration,  was  installed,  each  with 
a  number  of  members,  and  with  registers,  ledgers,  books, 

252  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Europe.       [chap,  v, 

and  writing  materials  thrown  about,  such  as  paper,  pens, 
ink,  and  the  like.  In  short,  they  have  deposed  the 
palace  from  all  its  majesty.  Still,  whenever  they  may 
desire  it,  they  can  remove  these  boards,  and  restore  the 
place  to  its  pristine  condition.  It  possessed  man}^  beau- 
tiful portraits,  ancient  and  modern,  which  we  examined 
in  great  detail. 

There  is  in  Paris  a  very  large  and  lofty  church,  which 
I  had  noticed  from  the  top  of  the  Arc  de  Triomphe,  and 
which  is  named  the  Pantheon.  Louis  XV.  built  it.  First 
of  all  it  was  a  church  ;  then  a  cemetery  for  men  of  emi- 
nence ;  and  now  again,  latterly,  it  is  a  church  and  place 
of  worshii).  There  were  numerous  scaffoldings  all  around 
it  to  carry  out  repairs,  as  the  Communists,  in  the  days 
of  anarchy,  had  done  much  damage  to  it. 

Another  church  also  is  in  Paris,  ranking  next  after 
that  of  Notre  Dame,  and  named  St.  Sulpice,  which  is^ 
very  handsome  ;  and  again  the  Madeleine,  built  by  the 
first  Napoleon,  and  also  extremely  grand.  Many  other 
churches  were  likewise  seen,  of  which  it  is  not  here 
necessary  to  give  any  account. 

The  Palais  Koyal  we  visited  one  evening.  This  is  a 
very  extensive  place.  In  the  middle  of  its  court  there  is- 
a  garden  and  a  basin  of  water,  around  it  a  colonnade 
with  a  walk  covered  in  overhead,  and  on  each  side  of  this 
walk  rows  of  shops  to  the  number  of  four  or  five  hun- 
dred, where  everything  is  sold — most  beautiful  jewels, 
real  and  supposititious,  cutlery,  glass,  i)orcelain,  and 
the  like.  I  strolled  into  every  shop,  and  I  laid  out  sums^ 
of  money.     There  were  crowds  of  spectators. 

CHAP,  v.]  France y  Geneva.  253 

The  Mint  formed  another  day's  visit.  It  is  called  the 
Hotel  de  la  Monnaie ;  its  Director  is  named  M.  Mar- 
cott,  and  he  came  to  receive  us,  together  with  numerous 
other  persons. 

We  first  went  to  the  upper  floor,  where  there  is  an  ex- 
tensive collection  of  the  coins  of  different  nations,  ancient 
and  modern,  arranged  in  glass  cases — coins  of  the  an- 
cient monarchs  of  Persia  and  Tartary,  Chma,  India,"  and 
the  various  countries  of  Europe ;  coins  of  every  descrip- 
tion, and  medals  of  all  kinds. 

Next  we  visited  a  chamber  called  the  Chamber  of 
Napoleon,  in  which  were  collected  everything  pertaining 
to  that  sovereign,  such  as  obverse  and  reverse  dies  of 
his  coins,  as  well  as  those  of  the  medals  struck  in  his 
days  in  commemoration  of  the  battles  won  or  provinces 
conquered,  of  decorations  for  his  troops,  and  the  lilce. 
A  model  of  the  column  of  (the  Place)  Vendome  was  also 
there,  which  column  the  men  of  the  Commune  destroyed 
altogether.  This  was  about  two  ells  high  (7  feet),  'and 
made  of  cast  metal.  It  is  the  fac-simile  of  the  column 
itself;  but  the  height  of  the  real  column  was  forty-six 
eUs  (161  feet),  with  a  diameter  of  two  ells  (7  feet) ; 
whereas  that  of  the  model  is  only  one  span.  There 
were  also  in  that  place  several  figures  of  Napoleon.  A 
shot  from  the  Communists  had  come  in  there,  had  per- 
forated the  glass  over  the  obverse  dies,  and  then  pene- 
trated into  the  wall.  They  have  preserved  these  things 
exactly  in  that  condition,  and  have  not  changed  that 
glass,  saying  they  so  keep  it  as  a  memorial.  To  this  I 
remarked  :  *'  It  is  a  sad  memorial." 

254  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe.      [chap,  v. 

Well;  we  came  down  stairs  and  viewed  the  coining 
maohinery.  It  is  worked  by  steam.  The  coins  they  were 
striking  were  of  silver,  each  of  five  francs,  a  very  large 
coin.  They  said  that  gold,  owing  to  the  simis  paid  to 
Prussia,  was  very  scarce.  Silver,  however,  was  plentiful, 
and  all  the  money  was  silver. 

Three  large  medals,  one  of  gold,  another  of  silver,  and 
the  third  of  copper,  were  struck,  then  and  there,  in  our 
presence,  in  commemoration  of  our  visit  to  the  Mint, 
with  Persian  inscriptions,  and  offered  to  us  as  a  present. 

We  now  went  forth,  and  mounting  a  small  steamer, 
went  up  the  river  against  the  stream,  passed  beyond  the 
fortifications  of  the  city,  and  arrived  at  the  spot  w^iere 
the  river  Marne  enters  the  Seine.  From  thence  we 
retm-ned.  The  banks  of  the  river  had  no  beauty.  The 
water  of  the  Seine  was  scant,  and  its  depth  about  twa 
ells  (7  feet).  At  a  short  distance  after  leaving  the  city, 
both  sides  of  the  river  are  occupied  \y^  ^^  Po^^  tene- 
ments of  peasants,  principally  washerwomen  or  bathing 
establishments.  These  are  all  built  of  wood  in  the 
stream  of  the  river,  as  we  saw.  The  baths  are  in  this 
wise  : — a  large  wooden  room  with  a  roof  is  constructed  in 
the  river,  through  the  middle  of  which  the  water  flows. 
Every  one  who  wishes  to  bathe  must  go  into  that  room 
and  there  wash  himself.  Clothes-washing-houses^  again, 
are  on  the  same  principle.  They  sit  in  them,  and  they 
wash  the  clothes  in  them.  The  clothes -washers  are  all 
women.  There  are  also  baths  heated  by  steam,  where 
a  man  may  really  wash  and  cleanse  his  body.  After  all 
this,  we  went  home. 

CHAP,  v.]  Prance,  Geneva.  255 

The  establishment  of  the  Gobelins  was  the  object  of 
another  day's  excursion,  and  far  enough  off  it  was.  It 
is  a  very  ancient  manufactory  where  they  weave  car- 
pets, rugs,  and  similar  things,  which  they  sell  and  buy 
for  fabulous  prices.  The  manufactory  belongs  to  the 
State.  The  heads  of  the  manufactory,  as  also  the  work- 
men, are  salaried  and  paid  by  the  Government.  These 
rugs  and  tapestries  are  to  such  a  degree  beautiful  and 
choice,  that  they  are  hung  in  the  halls  and  apartments  of 
monarchs  in  lieu  of  paintings,  simply  as  ornaments.  In 
Prussia,  in  Belgium,  in  England,  and  in  France  itself, 
I  saw  that  they  are  kept  in  mansions  with  the  utmost 
consideration.  A  tapestry  was  in  progress  of  manufac- 
ture, being  woven  for  a  hall  in  the  palace  of  Fontaine- 
bleau,  a  town  of  the  towiis  of  France.  But  they  told  me 
that  over  each  tapestry  of  that  size  they  had  to  work 
eight  years.  Very  long  are  they  in  completing  such. 
And  then  again,  a  defect  they  have  is  that  the  sun  causes 
the  dyes  of  the  tissues  to  fade ;  whereas  the  dyes  of 
Persian  carpets  are  not  easily  deteriorated  by  the  sun. 

They  weave  these  tapestries  according  to  any  portrait 
or  painting  of  celebrity  that  may  be  desired.  They  place 
the  copy  of  that  painting  before  them :  if  the  copy  b.e 
small,  they  enlarge  it ;  if  it  be  too  large,  they  reduce  it  in 
weaving  the  tapestry.  In  short,  just  as  they  please,  they 
manage  it.  It  is  also  a  very  perfection  of  art,  that  by 
merely  looking  at  the  copy,  they  weave  its  fac-simile. 

There  were  several  beautiful  pieces  of  tapestry  half 
woven  for  the  great  theatre,  that  Napoleon  III.  had  or- 
dered, and  are  still  in  hand ;  but  I  know  not  when  that 

256  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Ett^^ope.      [chap.  v. 

theatre  and  those  tapestries  will  be  finished.  It  is  an 
extensive  establishment,  and  the  workmen  are  numerous. 
The  Director's  name  is  M.  Darsela. 

From  the  Gobelins  we  went  to  the  National  Printing- 
office,  where  they  print  books  and  the  like.  Some  by 
hand,  some  by  steam,  in  whatever  way  they  wish,  they 
can  print  with  celerity  and  despatch. 

Turning  our  steps  from  thence,  we  went  to  the  palace 
of  the  Louvre,  and  on  our  road  viewed  several  places 
burnt  and  ruined  by  the  men  of  the  Commune.  More 
especially,  one  great  storehouse,  the  Halle  au  Ble,  a  very 
large  and  imposing  structure  where  the  Government 
stores  of  wheat  were  kept,  and  wlfech  was  utterly  de- 
stroyed.    They  likewise  ruined  several. bridges. 

We  also  passed  through  the  Place  de  la  Bastille,  where 
there  is  a  column  known  as  the  Colonne  de  Juillet, — one 
of  the  structures  of  Louis-Philippe,  and  Very  lofty,  with 
the  statue  of  an  angel  in  gilt  brass  upon  it.  The  column 
itself,  too,  is  of  cast  metal. 

Well ;  we  reached  the  Louvre,  which  is  a  noble  edifice, 
and,  as  to  sculptures,  paintings,  and  the  like,  has  no 
equal.  There  was  a  long  hall,  of  very  pleasing  arrange- 
ment, and  named  the  Galerie  d'Apollon,  i.e.,  of  the 
Specific  deity  of  beauty,  poetry,  and  singing.  Here  were 
large  numbers  of  vases  in  jasper,  and  jewelled,  in  rock- 
crystal,  and  the  like,  of  ancient  goldsmiths'  and  silver- 
smiths' work,  of  articles  of  gold  and  silver  dug  up  out  of 
the  earth,  and  •  of  curiosities  and  gems  of  art  of  the 
whole  world, — the  whole  in  cases  or  under  glass.  There 
is  also,  in  a  case,  an  arm-bone  of  Charlemagne,  who  was 

CHAP,  v.]  France,  Geneva.  257 

EmiDeror  of  the  whole  of  Firangistan.  A  gold  casket^ 
antique,  in  most  exquisite  goldsmiths'  work,  was  the 
property  of  Anne  of  Austria,  mother  of  Louis  XIV.  This 
hall  is  itself  one  of  the  huildings  of  the  last-named 
monarch.  They  have  made  a  copy  of  the  Crown  of  Louis^ 
XV.,  with  false  jewels,  and  have  placed  it  there.  The 
sword  and  sceptre  of  Charlemagne  are  there  also. 

AVe  then  visited  the  whole  of  the  halls  where  the 
paintings  are  hung.  These  are  all  works  of  artists  of 
celebrity,  and  one  would  have  to  sit  under  each  of  them 
all  day  to  understand  the  subtleties  of  the  master's  art ; 
whereas  I,  being  hurried  in  my  survey,  have  necessarily 
not  been  able  to  seize  those  niceties.  There  were  some 
works  by  Raphael,  a  renowned  painter,  though  I  mj^self 
gave  a  preference  over  all  others  to  the  productions  of 
the  pencil  of  Albani,  who  was  a  master  of  great  taste. 
Murillo,  too,  was  very  good.  There  were  also  many  pic- 
tures by  other  artists ;  for  instance,  there  was  one  valued 
at  more  than  thirty  thousand  tumans  (12,0002.). 

Having  completed  this  survey,  we  went  into'  the  gar- 
dens of  the  Tuileries,  and  had  a  thorough  view  of  the 
burnt  ruins  of  the  palace.  It  was  an  edifice  without  an 
equal  in  the  world,  and  is  now  an  utter  wreck.  To 
rebuild  it  as  it  was  would  be  difficult,  as  the  expense 
would  be  enormous.  They  burnt  this  palace,  with  aU  it 
contained ;  thereby  causing  damage  to  the  extent  of  at 
least  a  hundred  crores  of  tumans  (20^000,0002.) .  I  was 
grieved  beyond  measure.  The  garden  of  the  Tuileries, 
too,  by  reason  of  the  ruin  of  the  palace  and  a  lack  of 
constant  care,  has  fallen  from  its  beauty.     A  band  plays 

528  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Ettrope.       [chap.  v. 

there  of  afternoons.  We  walked  down  to  the  very  end  of 
the  gardens,  thereby  greatly  fatiguing  ourself ;  and  thence, 
mounting  the  carriage,  drove  home. 

Napoleon  III.  built  a  theatre  better  and  more  magni- 
:ficent  than  all  the  other  theatres  of  Firangistan,  spending 
upon  it  five  crores,  although  it  is  not  yet  completed.  To 
finish  it  will  require  two  crores  more.  It  remains  as  he 
left  it.    I  did  not  go  to  see  it,  but  I  heard  much  about  it. 

Again  another  daj^  we  went  to  Versailles,  taking  the 
Porcelain  Manufactory  of  Sevres  on  our  way.  This  is  an 
ancient  and  very  famous  manufactory,  and  is  situated  on 
an  eminence.  There  was  a  very  extensive  collection  in 
the  rooms  of  ancient  and  modern  porcelains,  among 
which  some  eminently  beautiful  articles  were  observed. 
There  were  some  that  were  painted  from  works  by  the 
great  artists  of  antiquity,  such  as  Eaphael  and  others, 
and  the  estimation  in  which  each  of  these  works  is  held 
is  equal  to  that  of  the  finest  and  grandest  pictures.  I 
should  have  wished  to  buy  the  whole  for  any  price  they 
might  have  named ;  but  these  specimens  are  never  parted 
with,  are  sold  to  no  one,  and  never  leave  the  works. 
The  establishment  belongs  to  the  State ;  and  any  order 
thence  given,  is  executed.  In  the  same  manner  as  at  the 
manufactory  of  tapestry,  the  workmen  receive  wages,  and 
the  chiefs  are  salaried.  They  told  me  that  a  new  manu- 
factory has  been  prepared,  that  the  present  site  will 
be  abandoned,  and  the  works  transferred  to  the  new 

We  went  about  for  a  long  time  from  one  department  to 
another,   until  we  arrived  at  a  place  where  they  were 

<  HAP.  v.]  France,  Geneva.  259 

manufacturing,  painting,  and  baking  the  porcelain,  which 
we  went  and  inspected  also.  From  thence  we  returned 
through  all  the  places  we  had  seen,  and  they  presented 
io  us,  as  a  souvenir  of  our  visit,  two  large  and  most  mag- 
nificent vases,*  together  with  two  cases,  each  containing  a 
very  choice  service  of  tea  things. 

Proceeding  from  thence,  we  reached  Versailles.  At  his 
residence,  M.  Buffet,  President  (of  the  Assembly),  met  us, 
and  we  went  mto  the  Chamber  of  the  (National)  Council 
of  Deputies.  We  j)assed  through  a  gallery  where  were 
arranged  most  beautiful  statues  in  marble  of  ancient  kings, 
ministers,  magnates,  commanders,  and  the  like,  all  carved 
by  the  old  masters;  and  so  reached  the  Assembly  itself; 
taking  our  seat  in  a  chamber.  Seven  hundred  deputies 
were  present  at  that  sitting,  and  on  the  upper  tiers  of 
benches  a  great  company  of  women  and  men  were  lookmg 
on.  This  hall  in  which  the  Assembl}^  now  sits  was 
formerly  the  theatre  of  (the  palace  of)  Versailles,  and  was 
built  by  Louis  XIV. 

As  the  President,  M.  Buffet,  had  been  away  at  his  own 
house  for  the  purpose  of  our  reception,  his  substitute  was 
acting  as  President  in  his  stead.  The  two  sons  of  Louis- 
Philippe,  d'Aumale  and  Joinville,  were  also  present.     The 

*  Of  the  two  vases,  each  in  the  Etruscan  stjde  and  of  tlie  value  of 
aloout  two  hundred  guineas,  one  was  ornamented  with  a  view  of  the 
Chateau  of  Pierrefonds,  the  other  with  one  of  the  Chateau  of  Pau,  both 
by  Jules  Andre.  Of  the  tea-services,  one  for  four  persons,  with  its  tray, 
painted  by  F,  Rolard  and  representing  a  hunt  and  view  of  Fontainebleau, 
was  of  the  value  of  about  six  hundred,  and  the  other,  for  six  persons,  also 
with  its  tray,  painted  by  Devilly,  and  representing  the  ceramic  art,  of 
about  three  hundred  and  fifty  pounds. 

26o  Diary  of  a   Totir  in  Europe.        [chai'.  t, 

deputies  of  the  Left  and  of  the  Eight  were  all  in  their 
places.  Those  of  the  Left  are  in  opposition  to  the  present 
administration.  Several  generals  and  others  spoke, 
among  them  being  General  Noisel.  His  voice  was  very 
slender  and  weak ;  no  one  could  hear  what  he  said.  In- 
cessantly did  the  deputies  of  the  Left  call  out  for  him  to 
speak  louder.  It  was  a  strange  wrangle.  The  President- 
substitute  continually  rang  a  beU  to  induce  silence.  It  is 
a  difficult  matter  for  any  one  to  speak  in  this  Assembly. 
It  was  very  interesting  to  witness,  and  we  sat  there  an 

Rising  at  length,  we  returned  by  the  same  waj^ve  came.. 
Marshal  MacMahon  had  then  arrived.  We  now  went 
over  all  the  rooms,  halls,  and  galleries  of  (the  palace  of) 
Yersailles  with  the  Marshal,  M.  Buffet,  and  others. 
These  apartments  are  extremely  handsome.  There  were 
so  many  pictures,  statues  of  marble,  and  other  objects, 
that  one  forgets  them.  There  were  some  grand  pictures y 
the  works  of  Horace  Vernet  the  painter,  very  beautifully 
drawn,  pictures  of  battles  with  the  Arabs  of  Algeria  in  the 
days  of  Louis-Philippe,  &c.,  of  the  battles  of  Napoleon 
III.  in  Italy  with  the  Austrians,  &c.,  of  those  of  Napoleon 
I.,  &c.,  and  also  many  of  older  masters.  So  that,  should 
one  wish  to  survey  them  all  carefully,  he  would  not  finish 
them  in  a  year.  The  greater  part  of  these  rooms  are 
now  converted  into  offices  for  the  deputies,  ministers,  and 
others.  By  reason  of  the  great  traffic  of  feet,  and  the 
scattering  of  papers,  the  heaping  of  registers,  the  placing 
of  chairs  and  tables  for  the  ministers,  their  secretaries- 
and  clerks,  the  halls  are  degraded  from  their  majesty. 

«HAP.  v.]  France,   Geneva,  261 

I  was  much  fatigued.  I  came  down  and  drove  about 
tlie  gardens  for  a  while  in  a  carriage.  They  had  opened 
the  source  of  the  fountains  of  a  part  of  the  garden. 
These  were  therefore  playing,  and  produced  a  very 
;agreeable  eifect. 

We  now  returned  home,  passing  by  the  village  of  Ville 
d'Avray,  St.  Cloud,  Boulogne,  the  Bois  de  Boulogne, 
and  so  to  our  quarters.  At  St.  Cloud  several  battalions 
of  troops  were  encamped  in  tents,  and  at  Boulogne  there 
was  a  good  market  where  all  kinds  of  commodities  were 

To-day  at  Versailles,  among  the  statues  I  saw  one  of 
Joan  of  Arc  that  the  princess  Marie,  daughter  of  Louis- 
PhiliiDpe,  had  executed,  and  was  extremelj^  beautiful. 
The  princess  died  young,  unmarried. 

I  one  day  went  to  see  the  Zoological  and  Botanical 
•Gardens  (the  Jardin  des  Plantes),  which  was  a  long 
distance  from  our  residence.  The  Director  of  the  es- 
tablishment, named  M.  Blanchard,  of  whose  days  seventy 
iind  five  years  had  passed  away,  came  to  meet  us,  with 
his  assistant  and  others.  A  large  company  was  present, 
from  the  quarters  in  the  outskirts  of  Paris,  generally 
peasants  and  artizans,  who  had  come  with  their  wives  to 
see  the  sight. 

These  gardens  are  of  great  extent.  In  the  botanical  sec- 
tion, most  beautiful  flowers  were  planted  out  in  great  taste. 
Every  flower  and  plant  in  this  part  is  numbered  and 
ticketed,  and  all  plants  and  medicmal  herbs  that  are  em- 
ployed in  the  curative  art  are  here  raised  and  propagated. 
Professors  of  botany  and  zoology  are  constantly  at  work 

262  Diary  of  a  Tottr  in  Ettrope.       [chap,  y, 

there  investigating  and  teaching  the  qualities  and  proper- 
ties of  each  vegetable  product. 

We  first  visited  the  hothouses,  where  they  raise,  gi'ow, 
and  multiply  tropical  plants,  and  thence  proceeded  to 
view  the  animals.  Here  they  keep,  shut  uj^  in  cages,  all 
kinds  of  animals,  whether  birds,  or  carnivorous  or 
herbivorous  beasts.  Birds  great  and  small,  of  all 
colours,  and  beautiful,  beasts  of  prey  and  others,  of 
every  sort  were  seen.  The  establishment  is  of  greater 
extent  than  the  zoological  gardens  of  other  countries  ; 
but  every  animal  that  I  saw  here,  I  had  seen  elsewhere, 
with  the  exception  of  a  few  I  had  not  yet  obseiTed: 

One  of  these  was  a  large  and  strongly  built  bird,  called 
the  Cassow^ar}^,.  that  is  brought  from  Australia.  It  is  a, 
very  singular  creature,  about  the  size  of  an  ostrich,  which 
it  also  somewhat  resembles ;  but  it  is  of -a  different  si)ecies- 
Another  was  a  quadruped,  called  the  Tapir,  from  South 
America,  very  much  resembling  the  rhinoceros,  but 
smaller,  being  an  animal  half  way  between  a  rhinoceros, 
a  pig,  and  a  calf.  There  w^ere  some  savage,  ferocious 
tigers,  and  some  curious  leoi)ards  ;  also  a  si)ecies  of  brute 
between  a  tiger  and  a  leopard,  called  the  Jaguar;  but 
more  approaching  the  leopard.  It  is  a  very  ferocious, 
bloodthirsty  creature.  The  leopards  had  given  birth  to 
two  young  cubs,  very  graceful.  There  were  some  African 
maned-lions,  together  with  lions  of  other  kinds,  and  one 
elephant.  In  one  large  cage  there  were  about  fifty 
monkeys;  and  there  were  also  various  kinds  of  ante- 
lopes, &c. 

A  soiu'ce  of  the  greatest  interest  was  a  collection  of 

CHAP,  v.]  France,  Geneva.  263. 

dead  animals,  kept  in  the  museum  of  the  establishment,, 
which  I  had  not  seen  in  any  of  the  countries  hitherto 
visited.  We  here  saw  animals  of  every  class,  fishes  from 
all  seas,  and  other  creatures,  such  as  snakes,  crabs,  croco- 
diles, tortoises,  and  all  kinds  of  birds,  which  afforded 
much  pleasui-e  and  gratification.  For  instance,  the 
fishes,  small  or  lai-ge,  up  to  the  crocodile,  are  arranged  in 
such  fashion  that  one  cannot  say  whether  they  are  alive 
or  dead.  Every  bird,  again,  small  or  large,  that  is  on 
earth,  from  the  little  humming-birds  of  the  New  World, 
up  to  the  ostrich,  all  are  there.  The  humming-bird  {^d. 
fly-bird,  bee-bii'd)  is  a  bird  of  the  most  beautifully-coloured 
plumage,  and  small — no  larger  than  large  bees  (wasps,  or 
hornets) ;  but  all  its  parts  are  those  of  a  bird.  There  is. 
no  bird  in  the  world  prettier  than  these,  and  they  are 
found  nowhere  else,  but  in  the  New  World  only. 

The  whole  of  these  dead  birds  have  been  procured  in 
l^airs,  male  and  female,  with  their  eggs,  and  with  the  very 
nests  they  had  constructed  for  themselves;  and  are 
arranged  in  glass  cases.  They  are  placed  in  the  postures 
they  assume  when  they  sit  on  their  eggs  in  their  nests, 
and  in  such  a  manner  that  they  cannot  be  distinguished 
from  live  birds.  Beginning  with  the  eggs  of  the  humming- 
birds, than  which  no  others  are  smaller,  being  less  in  size 
than  a  pistachio -nut,  up  to  the  egg  of  the  rukh  and  the 
ostrich,  the  largest  of  all  eggs,  have  they  collected  in  one 
room.  But  I  there  saw  four  bird's-eggs,  each  of  which 
was  of  the  size  of  a  large  melon,  and  they  informed  me 
that  the  kind  of  bird  to  which  they  belonged  is  no  longer 
in  existence  in  the  world.     These  four  eggs  have  been 

:264  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Eicrope.       [chap.  ,v. 

found  and  ultimately  brought  from  Africa  and  the  New 
World  after  great  research  and  much  travel  in  every 
region  of  the  earth.  They  lifted  these  eggs  ;  they  were 
Tery  heavy.  According  to  analogy,  the  chick  that  would 
•come  out  of  one  of  those  eggs  Avould  be  of  the  size  of  a 
very  large  domestic  cock.  The  birds  called  Simurg  and 
Eukh,  that  w^e  read  of  in  books,  must  have  been  the  pro- 
duce of  eggs  such  as  these.  At  present,  they  would  not 
sell  one  of  those  eggs  for  a  thousand  tumans  (400Z.). 

Strange  and  marvellous  fishes  w^ere  seen,  which,  in 
respect  of  immensity  of  bulk  and  singularity  of  form,  • 
admit  of  no  description.  Monkeys,  too,  of  curious  or 
uncouth  forms,  were  there  of  various  classes  ;  one  kind 
Toeing  of  the  bulk  of  a  horse,  another  no  larger  than  a  rat. 
According  to  their  varjing  sizes,  these  were  also  arranged 
in  like  manner,  as  though  alive.  Among  them  was  one 
species  called  the  Gorilla,  that  is  found  in  Africa,  bigger 
and  taller  than  a  tiger,  with  its  bulk  and  size,  its  strength 
and  muscular  limbs,  its  claws,  feet,  and  teeth.  Its  stature 
was  twice  that  of  a  man,  or  even  more.  There  were  a 
pair  of  them,  male  and  female ;  the  latter  being  the 

Another  of  the  monkey  tribe,  a  native  of  the  islands  of 
Borneo,  Sumatra,  and  Timor,  is  the  Orang-outang, 
smaller  than  the  gorilla,  but  still  well  worthy  of  remark. 
It  is  very  large  and  fierce. 

They  had  placed  a  tortoise  upon  a  table,  which  was  of 
the  size  of  a  donkej-, — extremely  large.  That,  too,  was  a 
w^ondrous  thing,  that  required  to  be  seen  in  order  to  be 

THAP.  v.]  France,   Geneva.  265 

•  There  were  some  enormous  snakes,  wliicli,  in  realitj-, 
are  the  dragons  of  which  one  hears.  They  had  arranged 
an  artificial  tree,  and  aromid  it  had  coiled  the  folds  of  one 
of  those  large  snakes,  in  a  manner  to  he  mistaken  for  a 
live  reptile.  It  was  wonderful  to  look  at.  Not  that  they 
have  increased  or  diminished  hy  one  hau-'s  breadth  the 
size  of  these  creatures  with  a  \dew  to  deceive  people  by 
artifice  ;  but,  whether  large  or  small,  every  thing  in  that 
museum  is  a  real  animal,  such  as  the  Lord  of  the  universe 
-created  it ;  and  the  Franks  have  really,  with  great  trouble 
and  at  a  fabulous  expense,  brought  them  together  from 
the  uttermost  parts  of  the  earth,  for  the  advancement  of 
knowledge,  the  increase  of  observation,  and  the  display  to 
the  people  of  God's  power  in  His  wondrous  works  of 
creation  ;  the  same  unceasing  care  being  bestowed  upon  * 
their  safe-keeping.  Truly  have  they  incurred  great 
trouble  therein.  Were  a  man  actually  to  sit  for  five 
months  in  the  contemplation  of  these  dead  animals,  bones, 
and  birds,  he  might  then  come  to  understand  something 
:about  them  ;  but  what  can  I  learn  in  a  quarter  of  an  hour? 
We  came  down ;  and  although  I  had  no  time  to  spare 
for  the  view,  I  w^ent  to  the  cages  of  the  live  animals, 
looked  at  them  all,  and  then  returned  home. 

The  Director,  whose  age  was  seventy-five  or  perhaps 
eighty,  went  about  everywhere  with  me,  and  walked  a 
good  league.  As  often  as  I  requested  him  to  turn  back, 
so  often  did  he  come  again.  He  said  that  in  his  life  he 
had  never  taken  intoxicating  liquors,  and  had  always 
cautioned  others  against  their  use.  There  is  in  Firan- 
gistan  a  special  society,  with  many  members,  who  are 

266  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe.       [chap,  v, 

continually  engaged  in  furthering  the  cause  of  a  total 
abandonment  of  drink  ;  but  this  is  a  very  difficult  under- 
taking, and  especially  in  Fkangistan. 

The  megatherium  is  (the  name  of)  an  animal  that 
lived  on  the  earth  before  Noah's  flood,  of  the  same  family 
as  the  elephant,  but  larger,  and  without  a  trunk.  They 
have  discovered  its  bones,  and  have  placed  them  in  (the 
museum  of)  the  zoological  gardens. 

Paris  has  many  theatres.  One  evening  we,  too,  went 
to  a  large  theatre.  The  whole  of  the  Diplomatic  Body, 
with  their  wives.  Marshal  MacMahon,  M.  Buffet,  the 
whole  of  the  officials,  and  others,  as  well  as  those  of  our 
suite,  were  present.  It  was  a  very  large  theatre  of  great 
estimation,  with  five  tiers  of  seats,  and  many  chandeliers. 
The  audience  was  very  numerous.  Dancers  danced,  and 
singers  sang,  beautifully ;  more  especially  in  a  scene  laid 
beneath  the  sea,  when  the  sea-nymphs  danced. 

We  one  night  visited  the  Elysee  for  an  evening  party. 
All  the  ladies  of  celebrity  of  the  capital,  the  Foreign 
Representatives  and  their  wives,  the  officials  of  France, 
and  the  Persians,  were  invited.  They  gave  a  magni- 
ficent exliibition  of  fireworks  and  an  illumination  in  the 
grounds  of  the  palace,  which  are  laid  out  as  a  very 
beautiful  garden,  with  basins  of  water,  fountains,  lawns, 
and  trees.  The  middle  of  the  garden  was  hghted  up  like 
moonlight  by  means  of  electric  lamps  worked  from  the 
roof  of  the  palace,  which  threw  their  light  on  to  the 
ground.  The  men,  and  women  who  walked  about  in  this 
artificial  Hght,  wore  an  aspect  and  acquired  a  charm  that 
were  very  peculiar. 

CHAP.  A'.]  France^  Geneva.  267 

AVe  went  up  to  tlie  first  floor  and  took  a  turn  through 
the  apai*tments.  It  is  a  magnificent  place,  and  has  some 
handsome  Gohehns  tapestries.  It  was  built  by  the  Comte 
d'Evreux  a  hundred  and  fifty  years  ago.  After  his  death 
the  mistress  of  Louis  XY.,  Pompadour,  bought  it  and 
greatly  extended  it.  When  she  died,  it  reverted  to  the 
King.  Subsequently  it  was  purchased  by  Murat,  the 
brother-in-law  of  Napoleon  I.  Well ;  after  a  stroll,  we 
retui'ned  home. 

On  another  evening  De  Broglie — the  Foreign  Minister, 
gave  an  evening-party  and  hiiffet  at  the  Ministry  of 
Foreign  Aifaii's,  which  is  near  to  the  Corps  Legislatif,  our 
residence.  In  the  evening,  although  the  distance  from 
our  quarters  to  the  Ministry  was  very  short,  we  were 
conducted  with  all  honours  in  a  carriage  escorted  by 
cavahy,  &c.,  and  taken  round  the  circuit  of  the  i)alace  to^ 
the  Minister's  Teception.  Feasts  and  receptions  had. 
always  been  accustomed  to  be  given  at  the  Ministry ;  but, 
since  the  Prussian  war,  and  the  emigration  of  the  Govern- 
ment to  Versailles,  up  to  this  evening,  the  edifice  had 
been  closed.  Marshal  MacMahon,  M.  Buffet,  the  whole 
of  the  officials,  generals,  and  Foreign  Representatives, 
besides  others  of  the  nobility  and  magnates,  women  and 
men,  were  present.  As  the  bride  of  the  Minister  of 
Foreign  Affairs  was  the  mistress  of  the  house,  we  gave 
her  our  hand,  and  strolled  about  the  garden  and  apart- 
ments. In  the  garden  there  were  beautiful  fireworks  and 
an  illumination.  All  went  off  pleasantly.  After  an 
interval  we  returned  home. 

On  one  occasion  we  went  for  a   turn   to  Vincemies, 

^68  Diary  of  a  Toiu^  in  Europe.      [chap.  v. 

which  is  outside  of  Paris,  to  the  south.  It  is  a  plain 
with  meadows  and  woods.  Napoleon  III.  caused  avenues, 
lakes,  and  pleasant  places  to  be  arranged  there.  We 
passed  through  the  Boulevard  Prince  Eugene,  the  Place 
du  Chatelet,  and  the  Place  de  la  Bastille,  and  then 
through  one  of  the  gates  of  the  city.  These  citj^-gates  of 
Paris  do  not  resemble  the  gates  of  Persian  towns,  which 
really  have  doors.  Here  the  gates  (barrieres)  are  merely 
iron  railings. 

AVeU ;  we  alighted  from  our  carriage  and  went  to  view 
the  fortifications  and  ditch  of  Paris.  The  parapet  of  the 
fortification,  which  is  really  the  scarp  of  the  ditch  of  the 
.^it}^,  has  an  elevation  of  nine  ells  (31  feet  6  inches), 
besides  one  ell  (42  inches)  of  earthwork  upon  the  wall, 
maldng  ten  ells  altogether  (35  feet).  Nine  ells  are  of 
liewn  stone,  of  the  size  of  (Roman)  tiles ;  one  ell  of 
earth,  and  on  that  a  coping  of  large  hewn  stones.  At 
the  angles  of  the  wall,  also,  they  have  used  large  hewn 
rstones.  But  the  counterscarp  of  the  ditch — the  bank 
next  the  country,  has  not  so  great  a  height,  and  is  so 
.greatly  sloped  that  one  can  walk  down  it  into  the  ditch. 
The  width  of  the  ditch  is  also  ten  ells  (35  feet).  The 
whole  city  of  Paris  is  surrounded  in  this  fashion,  and 
these  works  were  constructed  in  the  time  of  Louis- 
Philippe  about  thirty  years  ago. 

Eeturning,  we  again  mounted,  and  arrived  at  a  lake  on 
the  border  of  a  river  (the  Marne)  with  very  excellent 
water.  This  was  a  charming  spot,  with  abundance  of 
flowers  and  verdure.  We  crossed  a  bridge  and  went  on 
to  an  island  in  a   lake,   where  they  had   constructed  a 

CHAP,  v.]  France,   Geneva,  269 

small  pavilion  with  stone  columns,  &c.,  upon  a  pavement 
of  flags ;  and  beneath  this  they  had  dug  a  cavern,  where 
stones  (stalactites)  were  pendent  as  though  in  a  cavern  of 
snow.  From  above,  a  hole  was  opened  with  a  small  tube 
inserted,  from  which  a  thread  of  water  trickled  on  to  the 
stones  and  fell  in  drops  as  though  it  had  been  a  natural 
phenomenon.  It  was  a  very  pleasant  sight.  We  sat 
there  awhile.  There  were  several  Franks  there  and  some 
women,  with  w^hom  we  conversed.     We  then  walked  on. 

On  this  island  there  was  an  hotel,  where  they  had  built 
a  prett}'  pavilion  from  which  a  band  should  play.  They 
brought  us  two  boats,  into  which  we  got,  and,  pulling 
about  awhile,  we  went  to  a  place  where  our  carriages  w^ere 
waiting.  We  came  up  out  of  the  boats,  mounted  om* 
carriages,  and  i)roceeding  to  another  gate  (of  the  city), 
we  drove  along  the  Boulevard  Dumesnil  towards  om^ 

In  a  street  near  to  a  public  building  we  observed  a 
large  concourse  of  peoi)le  standing  and  waiting  for  us. 
It  became  evident  that  General  Pajol  had  given  notice  to 
the  Sisters  of  Charity.  We  alighted  and  entered  theii*^ 
school.  One  of  the  priests  spoke  Persian  well.  He  had 
been  for  some  time  a  teacher  of  the  local  Romanist 
children  in  the  school  at  Khusraw-abad,  neai*  Urumiyya 
in  Azarba^jan.  A  considerable  number  of  women  who 
have  renounced  the  world  and  who  dress  in  black,  with 
wliite  bonnets  of  a  curious  shape,  like  the  ears  of 
elephants,  were  there,  and  give  themselves  up,  in  a  meri- 
torious way,  to  the  instruction  of  their  pupils.  Their- 
scholars   are   in  six   classes ;    the   school,   too,   has   six 

2  JO  Diary  of  a  Tottr  in  Europe.      [chap.  v. 

stories,  each  being  appropriated  to  one  class  of  the  pupils. 
Beginning  with  children  of  three  and  four  years  old,  up 
to  girls  and  boys  of  twenty  study  there,  there  being  a 
thousand  of  them  maintamed.  The  most  part  have  been 
brought  there  as  orphans  ;  they  (the  sisters)  act  as  servants 
and  give  them  instruction  in  every  science, — in  mathe- 
matics, m  geogi-aphy,  languages,  sewing,  flower-making, 
&c.  The  girls  make  very  pretty  flowers,  and  gave  us  a 
beautiful  bouquet  of  them  as  a  souvenir.  About  two 
hundred  children  of  four  years  old  were  ranged  very 
nicely  and  orderly  on  the  stages  of  the  gallery  in  the 
■class-room,  who  had  been  taught  by  an  aged  religious 
woman,  their  preceptress,  a  song  or  hymn  in  French 
verse  commemorative  of  om*  arrival,  which  they  had 
learnt  by  heart,  and  which  they  now  sang  in  a  strain  of 
perfect  melody.  Grown  up  girls,  too,  on  the  upper  stages 
sang  songs  and  poetry  very  sweetty.  The  manners,  the 
way  in  which  the  children  and  pupils  were  there  attended 
to,  gave  me  great  pleasure. 

We  then  returned,  and  m  the  evening  went  to  the 
circus.  We  there  saw  such  feats  of  horsemanship  and 
the  like,  as  surpassed  imagination.  For  instance,  one 
horse  sat  down  at  table  and  ate  food,  while  another  horse 
went,  took  with  his  mouth  a  napkm,  a  basket,  some  wine, 
&c.,  and  brought  them,  performing  the  office  of  a  servant. 
Another  horse  turned  (or  spun)  a  large  jar  with  his 
fore-foot.  The  trainer  said :  "  Be  lame,"  and  mstantly 
the  horse  limped;  he  said:  "Be  dead,"  and  the  horse 
lay  down  (as  though)  dead.     And  thus  of  other  feats. 

A  sculptor,  who  makes  marble  statues,  came  each  day 

cHAr.  v.]  France,   Geneva,  271 

to  our  quarters  to  make  our  statue  of  clay.  He  exercised 
wonderful  patience,  working  from  early  morn  till  dusk, 
and  i^roduced  an  excellent  likeness  of  us  in  claj^  which 
he  will  reproduce  in  marble.  The  first  is  made  of  a  kind 
■of  clay  special  to  this  artistic  work,  and  with  which  they 
prepare  the  hkeness  correctly  of  the  subject  in  hand ; 
next  they  prepare  it  in  plaster  ;  and  after  that  cut  it  out  • 
•of  the  marble.  According  to  what  he  said,  he  will,  God 
willing,  send  our  statue  to  Tehran  in  four  months'  time. 

In  Paris  there  are  numerous  coffee-shops ;  but,  accord- 
ing to  what  was  told  me,  there  are  two  coffee-shops  more 
especially  held  in  very  high  repute,  where  there  are 
music,  dancing,  and  singing,  and  which  are  called  "  Cafes 
Chantants."  They  are  places  like  theatres,  within  the 
•city,  and  near  to  one  another.  There  are  there  many 
trees  and  beautiful  avenues ;  every  evening  they  are 
lighted  up  with  many  lamps,  and  they  begin,  as  soon  as 
the  sun  goes  down,  to  i)lay  music.  Numerous  chaii's  are 
placed  ;  and  opposite  to  where  the  public  sit,  is  the  edifice 
of  the  coffee-shop.  Mimics,  singers,  dancers,  rope- 
dancers,  acrobats,  and  others,  play  and  perform  or  sing 
within  the  building  in  the  presence  of  the  public. 

The  acrobat's  performance  is  a  curious  sight.  He  is  a 
young  man,  a  gpnnast ;  he  wears  a  dress  of  the  colour  of 
the  skin,  tight  and  close-fitting,  so  that  he  appears  to  be 
naked.  He  takes  a  child  of  four  or  five  years  of  age, — 
the  ugUest  little  urchin  imaginable,  and  also  a  lad  of 
twelve  or  thuteen,  whom  he  plays  upon  his  hands  or  feet, 
or  throws  up  into  the  air,  in  a  manner  similar  to  what 
one  might  do  with  a  little  mouse.     In  whatsoever  way  he 


Diary  of  a   Toicr  in  Europe.       [chap.  t. 

may  throw  them  up,  they  alight  on  the  gromid  on  then- 
feet ;  and  in  an  instant,  placing  the  child,  or  the  lad,  on 
the  top  of  his  head,  or  the  tip  of  a  finger,  he  spins  him 
round,  tosses  him  up.  catches  him  again ;  and  they,  too, 
on  their  part  also,  while  on  his  head,  or  hand,  or  foot, 
tm-n  summersaults  in  a  way  impossible  to  describe.  When 
he  tosses  the  child  up,  he  certainly  sends  him  five  or  six 
ells  high  (17|  to  21  feet),  the  child  turns  a  summersault 
in  the  air,  and  alights  on  the  ground  on  his  feet. 

True,  I  did  not  myself  go  to  these  coffee-shops ;  but 
such  is  what  I  heard,  and  such  is  what  I  witnessed  at  the 

This  circus  is  open  in  the  summer-time ;  but  there  is  a 
winter  circus  also,  at  a  considerable  distance  from  our 

There  are  many  handsome  hotels  in  Paris.  The- 
"  Grand  Hotel,"  which  is  the  largest  and  best  of  ally 
being  like  a  magnificent  royal  palace,  contains  all  the 
articles  of  splendour  one  can  desire,  while  every  kind  of 
food  and  drink  are  always  ready. 

A  garden  exists  in  Paris,  called  the  *'  Jardin  Mabille," 
which  is  a  very  fine  garden  and  is  open  every  evening.  It 
has  a  strong  iron  gate,  where,  from  each  individual  who 
enters  they  take  five  shillings  Persian  {As.  English). 
Every  evening  about  two  thousand  visitors  come  there. 
The  garden  is  lighted  up  with  lamps  innumerable  ;  there 
are  beautiful  avenues,  basins  of  water,  places  like  natural 
hills  with  cascades  or  waterfalls ;  and  in  the  middle  of 
the  garden  a  pavilion  where  an  orchestra  performs.  It 
also   has   coffee-shops    and    handsome   apartments   well 

CHAP,  v.]  France,   Geneva.  273 

lighted  with  lamps.  Beautiful  women  of  every  de- 
scription frequent  this  place,  which  is  a  curiosity  in  its 
way.  There  is  a  garden  like  it  in  London  also  ;  but 
neither  of  them  came  under  our  observation. 

It  is  said  that  the  population  of  Paris  is  about  four 
crores  (two  millions). 

While  at  Paris,  intelligence  came  from  Teln:an  that 
the  Fakhru-'d-Dawla,  our  aunt,  daughter  of  the  (former) 
Prince  Regent  (the  Shah's  grandfather,  'Abbas  Mirza, 
son  of  Fath-'Ali  Shah),  and  a  most  venerable  woman, 
had  passed  to  another  world.  It  was  a  source  of  grief, 
sorrow,  and  sadness. 

In  Paris,  England,  and  Germany,  there  are  some 
wonderful  horses,  of  strong  frame,  with  legs,  feet,  and 
hoofs  like  those  of  elephants,  that  draw  very  heavy  loads. 
I  saw  many  of  them,  harnessed  to  carts  and  waggons. 

A  custom  prevails  in  Firangistan  for  each  family  to  be 
dressed  all  in  clothes  of  the  same  colom\  For  instance, 
four  sisters  must  be  all  attired  alike.  It  is  a  pretty 

Saturday,  2Srd  {Idth  July), — Left  Paris  for  the  town 
of  Dijon,  one  of  the  cities  of  France. 

We  rose  early,  and  found  Marshal  MacMahon,  the 
Minister  of  Foreign  Affairs,  the  Austrian  Ambassador, 
the  President  of  the  Assembly — M.  Buffet,  together  with 
other  French  magnates,  generals,  and  civilians,  in  attend- 
ance. We  mounted  a  carriage  and  drove  off,  the  Marshal, 
the  Minister,  and  the  Grand- Vazir  being  seated  with 
us.  We  passed  along  the  Boulevards  des  Italiens,  the 
Boulevard  Montmartre,  the  Boulevard  du  Chateau-d'Eau, 

2  74  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Eiirope.       [chap.  v. 

the  Place  de  la  Bastille,  &c.,  where  great  crowds  were 
collected,  the  weather,  too,  being  sultry,  and  so  arrived 
at  the  Gare  du  Midi. 

We  alighted  and  sat  awhile  in  one  of  the  rooms  of  the 
station,  where  great  numbers  of  women  and  men  of  im- 
portance, and  others,  had  assembled.  The  Marshal  pre- 
sented M.  Vitry,  who,  in  the  time  of  the  third  Napoleon 
had  been  in  the  ministry  and  President  of  the  Conseil 
d'Etat,  being  now  the  chairman  of  the  southern  railroad 
to  Lyons  and  Dijon.  The  Prefet  of  Dijon  accom- 
panies us. 

Well;  after  a  quarter  of  an  hour's  stay,  we  entered 
the  train, — the  same,  to  all  appearance,  that  had  brought 
us  from  Cherbourg.  We  started,  and  Paris  faded  from 
our  sight,  as  we  travelled  towards  Dijon.  The  condition 
and  appearance  of  the  country  were  like  those  in  other 
parts,  everywhere  cultivation,  green  fields,  meadows, 
trees,  population,  in  uninterrupted  succession;  rivers, 
large  and  small,  with  valleys  and  hills,  also,  were  seen 
now  and  then.  The  following  are  the  names  of  the 
towns  and  stations  passed  on  the  road  from  Paris  to 
Dijon ;  viz. :  Montereau,  Laroche,  Tonnerre,  Arcy, 

Well ;  we  travelled  over  the  distance  in  six  hours  and 
a  half  to  seven  hours,  the  train  going  at  its  utmost 
speed — ten  leagues  per  hour.  We  reached  Dijon  at 
sunset.  The  governor  of  the  town,  who  is  the  prefect 
of  the  Cote-d'Or,  is  named  L^on  de  Nassau.  He  and 
his  deputy,  with  the  magnates  of  the  town,  and  others, 
were  at  the  station,  waiting.     This  magistrate  was  ap- 

<jHAP.  v.]  France,  Geneva.  275 

pointed   to   his  post   about   a  month   ago   by  Marshal 

The  whole  of  these  parts  of  the  country  is  named 
Bargundy,  and  one  section  of  Burgundy  is  the  Cote-d'Or, 
of  which  Dijon  is  the  chief  town.  The  crop  of  grapes 
is  beyond  all  computation  hereabouts,  and  the  wines  are 
<jelebrated,  being  carried  to  all  parts  of  the  world.  Who- 
ever beholds  the  vineyards  of  these  plains  and  hiljs 
becomes  puzzled  to  know  how  they  can  all  be  consumed. 

We  reached  the  town,  and  passed  through  some 
narrow  streets.  In  the  late  war  this  place  was  twice 
occupied  by  the  troops  of  Prussia,  and  they  exercised 
various  kinds  of  molestation  towards  its  inhabitants. 
They  extracted  a  large  ransom,  and  took  heavy  con- 
tributions in  kind.  We  saw  several  women  whom  they 
wounded,  the  poor  creatures  having  thence  become 

A  large  building  was  observed,  erected  in  days  of  yore ; 
i.e.,  it  was  reared  by  the  Lords — the  Dukes  of  Burgundy. 
It  has,  further,  a  high  tower,  like  those  of  the  public 
edifices  in  Persia.  As  this  country  was  in  ancient  days 
a  separate  State,  with  an  independent  sovereign,  they 
had  made  the  structures  of  the  city  of  great  strength. 
Afterwards  France  incorporated  it  with  her  own 
dominions,  of  which  it  now  forms  an  integral  part. 

We  noticed  several  very  ancient  churches — imposing 
old  structures.  One  had  become  dilapidated,  and  was  in 
course  of  repair.  There  was  one  theatre,  closed  at  that 

We  went  to  the  residence  of  the  governor, — a  hand- 

i  T  2 

276  Diary  of  a   Toitr  in  Europe.       [chap.  v. 

some  house,  recently  constructed  and  renovated,  with  a 
small  garden  in  front.  Well ;  we  retired  to  rest  early.. 
They  manufacture  a  good  mustard  in  this  city. 

Sunday,  24^/i  (20^/?  July). — This  day  proceeded  from 
Dijon  to  Geneva.  In  the  morning  the  magnates  of 
the  town  came  to  an  audience,  after  which  we  drove  to 
the  station,  the  Grand- Vazir  and  the  Prefect  heing 
seated  opposite  to  us  in  the  carriage,  and  crowds 
collected  everywhere.  The  population  of  this  town  is 
forty  thousand  souls. 

To-day's  journe}^  to  Geneva  is  of  seven  hours'  dura- 
tion, the  towns  along  the  road  heing  as  follows  :  Chagn}^^ 
Macon,  Bourg,  Ambrieux,  Culoz,  Bellegarde — the  last 
j)lace  in  France  on  our  road.  As  far  as  Ambrieux  the 
whole  distance  was  across  plains  or  small  hills  and 
vales ;  but  from  that  station  onwards  we  met  with  high 
mountains  and  deep  valleys,  the  river  Ehone  flowing  on 
our  right  in  a  valley,  after  issuing  from  the  Lake  of 
Geneva.  It  goes  on  to  Lyons  and  other  places,  and 
flows  into  the  Mediterranean  near  to  Marseilles.  Its 
source  is  in  Mount  Saint-Gothard,  in  the  Alps.  The 
same  quantity  of  water  that  flows  into  the  lake  (of 
Geneva)  leaves  it  again,  being  then  called  the  Ehone. 

Well ;  we  breakfasted  in  the  train,  which  travelled  at  a 
very  rapid  rate.  When  we  had  passed  the  station  at 
Ambrieux,  the  whole  country  became  hill  and  dale,  huge 
mountains  on  both  sides  of  the  road,  villages,  and  many 
beautifully-pleasant  streams  of  water.  By  degrees,  as 
we  proceeded,  we  successively  passed  through  several 
*'  holes,"  one  being  of  great  length,  and  occupying  five 

CHAP,  v.]  I^rance,  Geneva.  277 

minutes  in  the  transit.  When  we  had  traversed  these 
mountains  and  valleys,  a  small  quantity  of  level  countiy 
came  in  sight,  and  then  again  all  was  mountainous  in 
general.  These  mountains  have  snow  on  them,  the 
Alps,  Mont  Blanc,  and  peaks  of  the  mountains  of  Savoy 
and  Italy  coming  now  into  view. 

We  arrived  at  Geneva  at  sunset.  The  President  of 
the  Canton  of  Geneva  is  named  M.  Ceresol,  the  Presi- 
dent of  the  Council  of  Geneva  is  M.  Eugene  Bopel. 
These,  with  the  Swiss  Envoy  who  was  in  Paris,  the 
magnates  of  the  town,  and  General  Dufour — a  man 
ninety  years  of  age,  who  served  in  the  armies  of  the 
first  Napoleon,  who  is  greatly  esteemed  in  Switzerland, 
and  is  celebrated  as  a  geographical  cartographer,  were 
awaiting  us.  There,  the  territory  of  France  being  at  an 
end,  the  French  officials  in  attendance  upon  us  took 
leave  and  returned.  Their  names  were  as  follows : 
General  Pajol,  General  Arture,  Colonel  Chevron,  M. 

We  stopped  in  a  room  at  the  station ;  the  President 

made  a  speech,  and  we  gave  a  reply.     We  then  mounted 

an  open  carriage   with  the   Grand- Vazir   and   the   two 

Presidents,   and   drove    off.      Our  quarters   are   in   the 

Hotel  de  Berg.     This  hotel  was  at  no  great  distance  ;  but 

there  was  no  possibility  to  get  through  the  streets,  by 

reason  of  the  dense  crowds.     Although  several  policemen 

.    were  on  dut}^,  they  could  not  repress  and  drive  back  the 

1   people.     Women,  men,  old  and  young,  as  also  children, 

were  all  mixed   up  together  indiscriminately;   and  the 

/   horses  exerted  themselves   in   such   a  manner  that  it 

278  Diary  of  a   Totir  in  Etirope,      [chap.  v. 

wanted  but  little  for  an  accident  to  happen  to  the 
carriage.  The  horses  and  the  people  were  so  jammed 
together,  that  the  latter  were  near  being  drawn  under 
the  wheels.  Children  wept ;  girls  and  boys  shrieked 
from  the  great  pressure. 

At  length,  after  a  thousand  perils,  we  reached  our 
quarters,  a  very  imposing  edifice.  Above  and  below  it 
contains  numerous  apartments,  and  resembles  a  kingly 
palace.  The  greater  part  of  the  larger  buildings  seen  in 
Europe,  and  especially  in  this  city,  are  hotels.  The 
Ehone  flows  by  the  front  of  the  hotel ;  its  water  is  very 
light  of  digestion  and  very  sweet.  Owing  to  its  clearness 
it  assumes  an  azure  colour.  In  the  middle  of  the  river 
opposite  to  the  hotel  there  is  a  small  island  with  trees, 
and  around  it  a  railing.  It  communicates  with  the  shores 
by  several  bridges ;  but  there  are  two  long  wooden 
bridges  on  stout  piers  that  are  very  important,  and  that 
lead  to  the  hotel. 

The  city  is  on'  both  sides  of  the  river,  and  it  possesses- 
many  very  great  buildings,  excellent  colleges,  and  spa- 
cious streets  beautifully  paved  with  stone.  The  whole 
of  its  buildings  are  of  five  and  six  stories  ;  but,  in  spite 
of  this  height,  the  city  is  handsome  and  captivating. 
It  has  a  hospitable  population,  and  the  manufactories  of 
watches  and  musical  boxes  of  this  city  are  well  known. 
AU  musical  instruments  in  boxes,  aU  singing  nightingales 
and  crowing  cocks,  that  act  by  mechanism,  are  made  here 
and  exported  to  other  countries. 

The  whole  of  our  suite  is  lodged  in  this  same  hotel. 
The  method  of  government  in  the  Swiss  Confederation 

CHAP,  v.]  France,  Geneva.  279 

is  a  thing  unique  in  its  species,  and  their  customs  are 
different.  They  have  no  house  or  place  specially  ap- 
pointed for  government ;  and  for  this  reason  our  quarters 
were  at  an  hotel.  Other  sovereigns  and  people  of  import- 
;  ance  that  come  to  this  city  can  have  no  other  quarters 
\  than  at  an  hotel. 

The  Alp  mountains  and  Mont  Blanc*  are  seen  from 
^  the  outlook  of  the  hotel.  They  are  much  covered  with 
snow;  but  the  Persian  mountain  of  Damawand  is  con- 
'  siderably  more  lofty  than  these,  and  more  picturesque. 

Dr.  Tholozan,  who  had  gone  to  the  town  of  St.  Etienne, 
in  France,  has  not  yet  rejoined  us. 

Monday,  25th  {21st  July). — Remained  at  Geneva.  To- 
day we  went  on  board  a  Swiss  steamship,  and  proceeded 
on  a  jaunt  round  the  Lake  of  Geneva.  The  whole  of 
our  suite,  two  of  the  head  men  of  Switzerland,  the  Swiss 
and  the  Italian  Envoys  to  France,  M.  Dubeski — Austrian 
Envoy  to  Tehran,  and  recently  arrived  from  Austria, 
with  others  of  the  Franks,  were  present. 

The  right-hand  shore  of  the  lake  was  at  first,  for  a 
short  distance,  Swiss  territory ;  after  that  it  belongs  to 
the  province  of  Savoy,  dependent  on  France.     After  the 

*  Black's  Atlas  of  1856,  gives  the  height  of  Mont  Blanc  as  15,781  feet ; 
that  of  "Demawand"  at  15,000  feet;  of  Kazbek,  15,345  feet;  and  of 
Elburz,  17,796  feet — both  these  latter  being  in  the  Caucasus.  Mr.  Grove's 
letter  in  The  Times  of  26th  August,  1874,  gives  an  altitude  of  18,500  feet 
to  Elburz.  Mr.  Grove,  however,  places  the  Caucasus  in  Europe,  and 
dethrones  Mont  Blanc  from  its  supremacy  as  the  highest  in  our  quarter  of 
the  globe,  raising  Elburz  to  its  vacated  pre-eminence.  General  Monteith, 
in  the  map  to  his  '*Kars  and  Erzeroum,"  published  in  1856,  gives  the 

.    same  height  to  Elburz,  18,514  feet,  but  assigns  to  Kazbek  an  altitude  of 

\   16,618  feet. -J.  W.  E. 

28o  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Europe.       [chap.  v. 

war  that  Napoleon  III.  waged  against  Austria,  in  whicli 
he  defeated  her  and  took  from  her  the  province  of 
Lombardy, — a  part  of  Italy  that  the  Austrians  had 
occupied  for  several  years,  restoring  the  same  to  the 
Italians,  Italy,  in  acknowledgment  of  the  toil  of  France, 
ceded  the  two  provinces  of  Nice  and  Savoy  to  the  French 
Government,  the  territory  of  Savoy  reaching  to  the 
shore  of  the  Lake  of  Geneva,  and  actually  held  by 
France.  Again,  on  the  other  hand,  the  river  Ehone, 
after  passing  the  city  of  Geneva  by  a  very  few  feet, 
enters  the  territory  of  France. 

Well ;  when  we  first  moved  away  from  the  port  of 
Geneva,  the  width  of  the  lake  was  inconsiderable, 
widening  out  by  degrees,  so  that  the  greatest  breadth  of 
the  lake  is  more  than  two  leagues,  while  its  depth  is  from 
fifty  to  a  hundred  ells  (175  to  350  feet).  They  said  that 
everywhere  in  it  the  largest  steamers  can  navigate,  while 
there  is  not  one  large  rock  or  island  in  the  middle  or 
along  the  shore  of  the  lake.  At  whatsoever  time  a 
storm  may  arise,  great  waves  are  thrown  up.  The 
length  of  the  lake  is  twelve  leagues,  and  we  compassed 
it  with  our  steamer  in  six  hours.  The  ship  ran  three 
leagues  an  hour.  The  circuit  of  the  lake  by  land,  how- 
ever, must  be  thirty  leagues.  There  are  three  or  four 
steamboats  belonging  to  a  Swiss  company,  mider  Swiss 
colours,  that  perform  voyages  every  day,  carrying  pas- 
sengers and  goods;  and  there  are  also  two  or  three 
steamers  under  French  colours.  Many  sailing  vessels 
also  are  in  use.  The  population  of  the  shores  belonging 
to  France  is  less  than  that  on  the  Swiss  parts.      All 

CHAP,  v.]  France,  Geneva.  281 

round  the  lake  are  lofty  mountains,  with  the  Alps  visible 
in  the  distance,  snowy  and  picturesque. 

We  partook  of  a  frugal  breakfast  on  board  the 
steamer,  and  then  started.  We  passed  the  further  end 
of  the  French  shore,  the  valley  by  which  the  Khone  falls 
into  the  lake,  and  arrived  before  the  town  of  Vevay. 
This  is  a  very  pretty  town  on  the  shore  of  the  lake, 
with  a  western  aspect.  On  the  shores  of  the  lake  and  on 
the  skirts  of  the  mountains  detached  residences  were 
seen.  The  whole  of  the  produce  hereabouts  is  grapes. 
In  whatever  direction  we  looked,  from  the  foot  to  the 
•very  summit  of  the  peaks  of  the  mountains,  wherever  it 
was  practicable,  and  the  soil  was  capable  of  being 
worked,  there  were  grapevines.  In  the  middle  of  the 
town  there  were  many  fountains,  the  sources  of  which  were 
in  the  higher  parts  of  the  mountains ;  so  that,  these  being 
at  great  elevations,  the  fountains  threw  their  jets  to  con- 
siderable heights,  and  produced  a  very  good  effect. 
There  were  some  very  grand  hotels. 

M.  Ceresol,  the  President,  whose  native  place  was 
Vevay,  had  invited  us  to  a  breakfast,  and  had  caused  the 
repast  to  be  prepared  at  an  hotel  named  *'  Les  Trois 
Couronnes;"  i.e.,  the  Three  Crowns.  We  went  ashore 
from  the  vessel  and  mounted  a  carriage.  We  noticed 
some  most  beautiful  women.  Great  numbers  of  Ameri- 
cans, English,  and  others,  come  to  travel  in  these  parts. 
Citizens  of  the  town  and  foreigners  crowded  the  streets 
in  great  numbers.  We  entered  the  hotel,  which  is  a 
magnificent  edifice.  The  King  of  Holland,  William  or 
Wilhelm,  who  has  been  some  time  travelling  here,  was 

282  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe.      [chap.  v. 

standing  in  a  liall  of  the  hotel,  waiting  for  us.  On 
arriving  we  shook  hands  with  him,  and  entered  into  con- 
versation, after  which  we  went  to  table  and  sat  down. 
There  was  a  most  elaborate  breakfast,  at  which  musicians 
played.  The  whole  of  our  suite  were  at  table,  and  the 
King  of  Holland  sat  opposite  to  us,  so  that  we  conversed 
at  great  length. 

Breakfast  finished,  we  rose  and  went  for  a  stroll  in  a 
garden  in  front  of  the  hotel  on  the  shore  of  the  lake. 
Great  numbers  of  women  and  maidens,  as  also  of  all 
classes  of  men,  were  there.  As  we  were  yet  strolling 
about,  the  King  of  Holland  came  and  said  :  "  I  wish  to 
take  leave."     We  shook  hands. 

Going  now  to  a  shop,  we  purchased  some  very  beautiful 
panoramic  views  of  the  Alps  and  other  places;  thence, 
mounting  a  carriage,  we  returned  by  the  way  we  had 
come,  went  on  board  our  ship,  and  again  got  under  way. 
We  passed  several  towns  and  cities  of  note  on  the  Swiss 
shore  of  the  lake ;  among  these  were  Lausanne,  Nyon, 
RoUe,  Morges,  and  Cully,  arriving  at  Geneva  after  dark, 
where  they  had  arranged  a  beautiful  illumination  and 
exhibition  of  fireworks,  both  on  the  shore  and  on  board 
the  vessels.     After  these  we  went  home. 

From  the  shores  of  the  lake  they  have  laid  down  two 
lines  of  railway  on  the  Swiss  territory  to  the  valley  and 
town  of  Sion.  On  the  right-hand  side  of  the  lake  is  the 
mountain  chain  of  the  Alps;  on  the  left,  that  of  the 

Tuesday,  26i/t  {^2ncl  July). — In-  the  morning  after 
breakfasting,  we  mounted  a  carriage,  crossed  the  Rhone, 

CHAP,  v.]  France,  Geneva.  283, 

and  went  for  a  drive  in  tlie  direction  of  the  mountains  of 
Savoy,  which  are  French  territory.  On  our  route  the 
Sani'u-'d-Dawla  received  his  conge  to  proceed  to  the  city 
of  Turin  and  make  arrangements  for  quartering  our 

This  day,  also,  the  'I'tizadu-'s-Saltana,  the  *Imadu-'d^ 
Dawla,  the  *Ala'u-'d-Dawla,  Mirza  Malkam  Khan,  the 
Hakimu-'l-MamaHk,  and  M.  Eichard  also  set  out  for  the 
city  of  Vienna. 

Well ;  we  drove  on  and  passed  beyond  the  environs, 
of  Geneva.  Oiu'  carriage-road  was  all  uphill,  tortuous^ 
and  lop-sided.  The  weather,  too,  was  excessively  sultry. 
As  one  passes  beyond  the  city  of  Geneva,  one  comes- 
on  to  the  territory  of  Savoy  and  France,  the  territories 
of  France  and  Switzerland  being  intermixed.  There 
were  some  small  and  picturesque  villages  along  the  road,, 
perched  on  eminences  and  at  the  foot  of  hills.  We 
crossed  a  considerable  stream  that  comes  down  from  the- 
mountains  and  valleys  of  Savoy  and  ultimately  flows  into- 
the  Ehone.  We  drove  up  an  ascending  road  which 
terminates  at  a  handsome  hotel ;  but  before  reaching  the 
hotel  I  mounted  the  horse  of  the  Yaminu-'d-Dawla,  and 
Ibrahim  Khan  moimted  that  of  the  Husamu-'d-Dawla. 
Other  horses  were  also  procured  from  the  Franks,  on 
which  the  rest  of  our  suite  mounted.  The  Mu*tamadu-'l-^ 
Mulk  went  on  in  the  carriage  to  the  hotel. 

We  now  pushed  on  for  the  summit  of  a  hill  that  over- 
hung the  hotel,  the  others  following  us.  One  Frank, 
proprietor  of  the  horses,  who  was  a  man  of  a  certain, 
position  and  kept  good  steeds,  was  also  of  the  party ;  but 

284  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe.      [chap.  v. 

lie  could  not  climb  up  with  us  to  the  mountain-top  on 
horseback.  He  followed  us  everywhere  on  foot.  The 
road  was  bad,  and  lay  through  a  tangled  thicket,  so  as 
not  to  be  at  all  distinguishable.  We  made  our  way, 
however,  somehow  or  other,  through  the  bushes  and 
trees,  arriving  ultimately  at  the  hill- top.  Here  the  Lake 
of  Geneva,  the  whole  of  the  snow-clad  peaks  of  the  Alps 
of  Savoy,  with  Mont  Blanc  and  others  burst  into  view. 
After  admiring  this  spectacle  for  a  time,  we  retreated 
from  the  intense  heat  to  the  shade  of  a  wood,  and  there 
sat  down.  Again  mounting,  we  descended  by  a  very  bad 
path  and  went  to  the  hotel.  Great  numbers  of  women 
and  men,  travellers  and  others,  were  seen  on  our  road 
and  in  the  hotel,  where  we  found  no  other  refreshment 
than  iced  water.  We  sat  down  a  while  in  the  small 
garden  of  the  hotel,  and  washed  our  hands  and  face.  At 
this  juncture,  with  all  our  fatigue,  and  in  spite  of  the 
heat,  the  Mu'tamadu-'l-Mulk  came  to  say  that  the  priest, 
with  the  local  substitute  of  the  district,  a  portion  of 
France,  desired  to  have  an  audience.  I  gave  permission, 
and  they  came.  The  substitute  made  a  speech  as  though 
I  had  arrived  in  the  city  of  Paris,  and  to  it  we  gave  an 
answer.  After  that,  we  returned  home  by  the  same  road 
followed  in  our  ascent.  As  the  carriage  had  to  go  gently 
downhill,  we  got  home  late,  i.e.,  it  was  dark  before  we 
reached  our  quarters. 

Wednesday,  27th  (2drd  July). — To-day  we  are  invited 
to  breakfast  at  the  Hotel  de  la  Paix  by  the  Swiss  Con- 
federation, of  which  the  Presidents  are  come. 

We  mounted  our  carriage  and  went.     The  distance 


CHAP,  v.]  France,  Geneva.  285 

was  very  little.  Alighting,  we  went  upstaii's.  We  re- 
mained a  short  time  in  a  room,  and  the  Italian  Envo}^  to 
Switzerland,  the  Swiss  Envoy  to  Paris,  whose  name  is 
Dr.  Kerk,  the  Prussian  Envoy  to  Switzerland — a  son  of 
Prince  Gortchakoff,  the  Prime  Minister  of  Kussia,  who 
had  come  here  from  Berne,  were  received  in  audience,, 
together  with  the  others. 

After  an  interval  we  went  to  table  and  took  our  seats. 
The  princes,  Grand-Vazir,  and  the  rest,  were  all  present. 
A  beautiful  gold  box,  enamelled,  including  a  watch  and  a 
singing  bird,  and  also  a  musket,  as  used  by  the  troops  of 
Switzerland,  with  a  thousand  balls,  were  presented  011 
the  part  of  the  citizens  of  Geneva, 

The  breakfast  was  very  protracted.  There  was  a  band 
playing.  Crowds  of  women  and  men  were  in  the  streets, 
on  the  stairs,  and  in  the  rooms.  Breakfast  over,  we 
returned  home. 

Two  hours  later  the  President  and  others  came  again. 
We  mounted  a  carriage  and  went  to  see  some  localities.- 
The  whole  of  those  who  sat  down  to  the  breakfast  were 
present,  excepting  our  princes. 

We  first  went  to  a  building  where  are  collected  sets  of 
philosophical  apparatus  and  some  other  things,  such  as  a 
museum,  dead  animals  and  the  bones  of  these,  just  like 
those  seen  in  Paris ;  only  that  the  collection  here,  in  com- 
parison with  those  of  Paris  and  elsewhere,  were  very  much 
less  in  number,  and  contemptible.  The  professor  ol 
physics  made  a  room  dark  and  showed  us  some  experi- 
ments and  interesting  sights  produced  by  the  power  of 
electricity  in  coloured  glass  vessels ;  but  as,  during  this 

:286  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Etcrope.      [chap.  v. 

exhibition,  the  curtains  were  let  down  and  the  windows 
closed,  the  room  was  very  dark  and  hot.  We  then  walked 
through  some  other  rooms,  and  from  hence  proceeded  to 
another  building. 

This  was  an  Exhibition  of  paintings  by  Swiss  and  other 
artists,  of  which  I  purchased  six  or  seven  very  beautiful. 
In  one  room  there  was  also  a  plan  of  the  whole  Swiss 
territory,  which  General  Dufour  has  prepared  with  the 
labour  of  many  years.  To  say  the  truth,  so  beautiful  a 
plan  had  never  been  seen  before.  Village  by  village, 
valley  by  valley,  the  mountains  and  the  rivers  are  all  laid 
down  in  relief. 

After  admiring  this  plan  for  a  time  we  descended,  got 
into  our  carriage,  and  went  for  a  drive.  We  were  also 
engaged  to  a  party  in  the  afternoon  at  the  gardens  and 
summer-residence  of  M.  Favre,  one  of  the  wealthy  nobles 
of  Switzerland. 

Those  gardens  were  outside  the  town  on  the  shore  of 
the  Lake  of  Geneva,  in  the  direction  of  the  territories  of 
Switzerland,  and  a  good  distance  awa3^  We  passed  near 
to  the  mansion  and  summer-residence  of  the  famous 
Eothschild,  and  so  reached  the  house  of  M.  Favre,  which 
is  very  handsome.  Many  beautiful  ladies,  of  the  nobility 
and  otherwise,  were  there  present.  We  sat  a  little, 
strolled  about  a  little,  and  conversed.  The  lawns  and 
the  view  over  the  lake  and  its  surroundings  were  superb. 
We  returned  at  sunset ;  but  the  President  and  the  others 

We  came  home ;  but  we  passed  a  most  uncomfortable 
night  from  the  noise  of  the  carriages,  the  roar  of  thunder? 

CHAP,  v.]  '        France,  Geneva.  287 

the  plashing  of  rain,  the  striking  of  clocks,  and  the 
jangling  of  bells  in  the  various  hotels. 

The  State  of  the  Swiss  Confederation  is  a  republic, 
and  they  have  very  strange  customs  of  administration. 
It  has  altogether  a  population  of  five  crores  (2|  millions), 
and  is  subdivided  iuto  twenty-two  cantons.  Each  canton 
has  a  President,  a  Government,  and  an  exchequer  apart. 
There  is  a  Supreme  Council  of  seven  members,  which 
has  its  President,  and  he  is  superior  to  the  others ;  but 
one  by  one  these  can  give  no  orders  concerning  public 
affairs  of  importance  or  otherwise.  The  twenty-two 
(Cantonal  Presidents)  report  to  this  (Council  of)  seven, 
and  these,  acting  in  concert,  and  each  appending  his 
signature,  issue  the  necessary  decrees.  In  reality,  they 
have  no  President-General  or  Absolute  Ruler  in  any  one 
of  the  cantons  or  towns ;  but,  whenever  the  whole  agree 
together  as  to  any  matter,  it  is  put  in  force ;  otherwise, 
not.  This  is  a  state  of  affairs  the  exposition  and  eluci- 
dation of  which  is  extremely  difficult,  and  our  Diary  is 
not  sufficiently  voluminous  to  embrace  a  commentary  on 
the  laws  of  the  government  and  details  of  the  regulations 
of  the  Swiss  State.  More  than  we  have  given  is  unneces- 
sary also.  They  have  no  standing  army  at  alt.  When- 
ever a  war  breaks  out,  they  arm  and  drill  the  peasantry, 
and  lead  them  to  battle.  In  time  of  war  they  can 
assemble  an  army  of  a  hundred  thousand  men.  The 
seven  regents  of  the  State  reside  in  the  City  of  Berne. 

There  are  four  rivers  which  have  their  fountain  head 
in  the  mountain  of  St.  Gothard,  one  of  the  Alps,  and 
belonging  to  Switzerland.     Two  of  these  are  very  large  ; 

288  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe.      [chap,  v, 

one,  the  Bliine,  falls  into  the  Lake  of  Constance ;  the 
other,  the  Rhone,  flows  into  the  Lake  of  Geneva.  Both 
issue  again  from  those  lakes. 

Thursday,  28i/i  (24i/i  July). — We  proceeded  this  day 
from  Geneva  to  Turin,  the  ancient  capital  of  the  kingdom 
of  Sardinia  and  Piedmont,  which  now,  after  wars  with 
Austria,  the  conquest  of  the  provinces  of  Lombardy  and 
Yenetia,  the  four  strong  fortresses  of  the  Quadrilateral, 
the  annexation  of  Naples  with  the  island  of  Sicily,  and 
the  occupation  of  the  city  of  Rome,  has  become  one 
united  kingdom  of  importance,  the  kingdom  of  Italy,  the 
capital  of  which  is  the  city  of  Rome,  the  ancient  capital 
of  the  Caesars,  as  afterwards  of  the  Popes, — the  chiefs  of 
the  (Roman)  Catholic  sect,  who  seized  upon  sovereign 
130wer,  which  has  been  totally  taken  away  from  them  in 
the  days  of  the  present  king,  and  the  capital  restored  to 
the  united  kingdom. 

Well ;  we  rose  early  in  the  morning  and  took  our  seat 
in  a  carriage  together  with  the  President  and  the  Grand- 
Vazir.  We  entered  a  train  and  went  as  far  as  Bellegarde, 
the  first  French  station,  by  the  road  passed  over  in 
coming.  Thence  we  diverged  to  the  road  that  leads  to 
Turin  and  Italy.  We  passed  over  the  valleys  and  the 
territories  of  Savoy,  where  all  around  were  extensive 
vales  filled  with  streams  and  trees,  most  charming.  On 
both  sides  of  our  road  were  huge  lofty  mountains  covered 
with  snow,  from  which  waterfalls  innumerable  leaped. 
In  these  localities  they  have  constructed  the  iron  way 
most  scientifically,  with  immense  labour,  and  at  enormous 
cost.     Everywhere  is  rock  and  mountain,  acclivity  or 

.]  France,  Geneva.  289 

declivity ;  and  across  the  rivers  enormous  bridges  of  iron 
have  been  thi'own. 

The  country  was  ^picturesque  and  populous  until  we 
reached  the  city  of  Chambery.  Before  arriving  there, 
however,  we  passed  the  districts  of  Aix  les  Bains,  which 
rare  a  part  of  Savoy,  and  where  there  was  a  clear  and 
beautiful  lake,  long,  deep,  and  narrow.  At  Chambery, 
the  chief  town  of  Savoy,  the  train  stopped.  The  whole 
of  the  military  officers  and  generals  of  the  forces  in 
garrison,  the  magistrates  and  civil  functionaries,  with  a 
regiment  of  infantry,  another  of  cavalry,  and  their  bands, 
were  in  readiness  to  receive  us.  We  alighted,  passed 
down  in  front  of  the  troops,  rejoined  our  train,  and 

All  was  now  stupendous  mountains,  covered  with 
forests  or  with  snow.  Waterfalls  gushed  from  the  heights 
incessantly  on  both  sides;  and  so  we  reached  Modane, 
the  last  station  in  France.  Here  the  Italian  officials 
rand  generals  sent  to  meet  us  were  admitted  to  an  audience. 
But  the  frontier  between  ^France  and  Italy  is  in  the  middle 
of  the  "hole"  through  Mont  Cenis,  the  half  of  this 
belonging  to  Italy,  and  the  other  half  to  France. 

Leaving  Modane,  we  reached  the  *'  hole,"  and  twenty- 
eight  minutes  elapsed  ere  we  again  issued  therefrom,  two 
leagues  and  a  half,  or  thereabouts,  being  the  length  of 
this  "  hole."  It  is  as  though  a  hole  were  pierced  from 
Manzariyya  in  the  Alburz  Mountains,  coming  out  again 
at  Shahristanak.     It  is  a  most  wonderful  work. 

At  first  I  closed  all  the  windows  of  the  carriage,  in 
order  to  prevent  the   entry  of  the  smoke.     After  a  few 

290  Diary  of  a   Toicr  in  Europe.       [chap.  v. 

minutes  we  experienced  a  difficulty  of  breathing,  and  I 
let  down  several  windows,  when  a  slight  air  came  in.  At 
times  strange  sounds  arose  as  though  a  dragon  were 
I)assing  swiftlj^  by  and  roaring;  at  other  times,  in  the 
.midst  of  the  darkness  another  train  would  pass  us,  making 
a  wonderful  noise.  On  either  side  of  the  road  now  and 
then  a  lamp  and  a  roadsman  were  seen,  and  we  could  not 
imagine  how  they  could  live  in  these  places.  At  length, 
towards  the  end  of  the  tunnel,  as  the  height  and  diameter 
of  the  mountain  begin  gradually  to  decrease,  some  mndows 
have  been  opened  and  light  admitted  into  the  "hole," 
those  on  the  left  hand  being  larger  and  those  to  the  right 
smaller.  Before  we  came  to  these  windows,  there  was 
another  long  hole  opened  up  on  the  left-hand  side  from 
the  tunnel  to  the  mountain  side,  for  the  purpose  of  venti- 
lating the  (principal)  "hole;"  and  through  it  light  and 
air  are  both  admitted.  But  the  whole  of  this  tunnel,  of 
two  and  a  half  leagues  in  length,  is  very  dark  and  terrific. 
For  nearly  twenty  years  the  ablest  engineers  of  Europe 
worked  at  opening  out  this  tunnel  at  an  enormous 
expense;  and  before  the  hole  was  pierced,  the  road 
from  France  to  Italy  lay  over  the  surface  of  the  moun- 
tain, and  was  travelled  in  carriages,  on  horseback,  or  on 

At  length  we  emerged  from  the  "  hole  "  and  entered 
the  territory  of  Piedmont,  of  which  the  city  of  Turin  is 
the  capital.  Again  were  lofty  mountains,  covered  with 
snows  and  forests,  and  waterfalls  without  number,  seen 
on  both  sides  of  the  road ;  and  again  did  the  train  pass 
through  two  very  long  "  holes,"  and  after  a  space,  through 

CHAP,  v.]  France,   Geneva.  291 

several  others;  so  that  altogether  we  must  have  passed 
to-day  through  at  least  eighty  **  holes." 

On  the  Italian  territory  the  railway  passes  by  strange 
and  jperilous  places,  such  as  mountain-slopes,  precipices, 
deep  gulHes,  large  streams,  and  torrents,  over  which 
bridges  have  been  made.  In  the  construction  of  these 
roads  many  a  marvellous  piece  of  work  has  been  carried 
out,  that  squares  not  with  one's  (previous)  conceptions ; 
and  so  strongly  have  they  built  the  roads  and  the  bridges,, 
that  for  a  thousand  years  they  wiU  show  no  defect. 

The  river  that  flows  from  these  mountains  in  the 
direction  of  Italy  is  the  Po ; — a  mighty  stream,  but  its 
water  is  black  and  unsavomy.  It  passes  by  the  side  of 
the  city  of  Turin ;  and  lower  down,  by  that  of  Venice, 
flowing  ultimately  into  the  Adriatic  Sea. 

As  we  went  on,  the  vaUey  became  more  spacious,  open- 
ing out  at  length  into  a  broad  and  level  plain,  a  vast 
expanse  covered  with  trees.  But,  before  we  reached  the 
station  at  Turin,  the  sun  had  set  and  the  atmosphere 
had  darkened. 

On  alighting  from  the  train.  His  Most  Exalted 
Majesty  Victor  Emmanuel  II., — the  Sovereign  of  Italy,, 
the  Nawwab  Prince  Humbert — the  Heir-Apparent, 
Prince  Amadeo — second  son  of  the  Sovereign,  who  for 
two  years  exercised  sovereignty  in  Spain,  and  then  abdi- 
cated, M.  Mmghetti — the  Prime  Minister,  M.  Visconti- 
Venosta — the  Minister  of  Foreign  Afl^airs,  the  Prince  of 
Carignano — son  of  the  Sovereign's  paternal  uncle  and  a 
man  held  in  great  estimation  for  nobleness  of  character, 
Commander-in-Chief  of  the  Italian  Army,  and  also  hold- 

292  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Etcrope.       [chap.  v. 

ing  a  post  in  the  Navy,  who,  whenever  the  Sovereign 
goes  forth  on  a  campaign  and  the  Heir- Apparent  is  also 
absent,  is  always  appointed  Eegent,  the  Sanru-'d-Dawla 
— who  had  come  on  beforehand,  together  with  other 
officials,  governors,  and  notables  of  the  city,  were  at  the 
station  ready  to  meet  us. 

We  shook  hands  with  the  Sovereign  and  the  princes, 
with  mutual  salutations ;  after  which,  we  and  the  Sove- 
reign took  our  seats  in  an  open  carriage  and  drove  off. 
It  was  night,  and  they  had  prepared  a  beautiful  illumi- 
nation. Great  crowds  of  women  and  men  were  in  the 
streets  and  at  the  windows.  The  town  has  spacious 
streets  and  lofty  buildings  of  five  and  six  stories.  The 
street  through  which  we  passed  is  called  the  Street  of 

The  fii'st  open  space  we  came  to  was  St.  Charles's 
Square,  in  the  middle  of  which  was  an  equestrian  statue  in 
bronze  of  one  of  the  Sovereign's  ancestors.  After  that  we 
reached  the  square  in  which  is  the  royal  palace.  This  is 
a  spacious  arena,  in  the  middle  of  which  there  is  a 
marble  statue  of  a  soldier  with  a  flag,  which  the  people 
of  Lombardy,  after  their  emancipation  from  the  hands  of 
Austria,  presented  to  the  city  of  Turin. 

We  arrived  at  the  palace,  alighted,  and,  with  the 
Sovereign,  went  up  staks.  The  steps,  walls,  and  cor- 
ridors were  all  of  marble;  the  ceilings  were  lofty  and 
highly  ornamented  with  figm-es  and  gildings.  On  the 
balustrades  were  placed  vases  of  marble,  out  of  each  of 
which  sprang  gas-fittings  with  several  branches  of  great 
beauty.     We  passed  through  many  rooms,  all  intercom- 


CHAP,  v.]  France,   Geneva.  293 

mimicating,  all  ornamented  with  ancient  gildings,  some 
with  decorative  miiTors,  and  all  full  of  objects  of  great 
splendour,  such  as  magnificent  oil-paintings,  sofas,  tables, 
chairs,  and  the  like. 

After  the  Sovereign  had  thus  pointed  out  the  whole  of 
the  apartments  of  our  quarters,  he  took  leave  and  went 
away.  We  waited  a  few  minutes,  and  then  went  to  the 
apartments  of  the  Sovereign,  which  were  in  the  same 
palace,  and  returned  his  visit.  We  remained  there  a 
shoii;  time,  returned,  took  off  our  state  costume,  and 
made  oui'selves  at  home. 

The  air  of  this  city  is  extremely  sultry.  The  Sovereign 
was  out  in  tents  at  hunting-grounds  high  on  the  moun- 
tains, and  came  into  town  merely  on  account  of  our 
arrival;  otherwise,  he  has  no  liking  ever  to  remain  in 
town ;  winter  and  summer  he  is  always  out  in  hunting- 
places.  He  told  me  that  he  held  the  town  and  palace  in 
detestation,  that  he  always  wished  to  be  in  the  hunting- 
gromids  on  the  mountains.* 

The  age  of  the  Sovereign  is  near  upon  sixty  years ;  but 
he  is  very  hale  and  robust,  so  that  he  does  not  appear 
aged.  The  Heir-Apparent  is  thii'ty  years  of  age ;  Prince 
Amadeo,  twenty-eight.  Of  his  two  daughters,  one,  the 
wife  of  the  Sovereign  of  Portugal,  is  named  Marie ;  the 
other,  the  wife  of  Prince  Napoleon,  is  named  the 
Princess  Clotilde.  The  wife  of  the  Duke  of  Aosta — 
that  same  Prince  Amadeo,  has  been   extremely   imwell 

*  "  It  is  whispered  that  the  King  of  Italy  prefers  shooting  in  Piedmont  to 
all  the  pleasures  of  a  palace."  Leader  m  **  Times,"  27th  August,  1874, 
The  paragraph  in  the  text  was  first  read  by  me  on  that  day— a  singular 
coincidence. — J.  W.  E. 

294  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe.      [chap.  v. 

these  last  few  days  ;  and  his  apartments  also  are  in  the 
lower  story  of  the  palace  in  which  we  are  quartered.  He 
has  three  sons ;  one,  an  infant  at  the  breast,  the  other 
two  being  three  or  four  years  old,  whom  their  nurses 
bring  out  every  day  into  the  garden  in  front  of  the  palace, 
and  give  them  a  turn  about. 

In  one  of  the  squares  of  the  city  is  a  very  large  and 
lofty  fountain,  the  water  of  which  springs  up  with  great 

The  river  Po  comes  from  the  uttermost  right-hand 
outskirts  of  the  city,  and  on  the  further  side  of  the  river 
all  is  mountain  and  forest,  with  beautiful  isolated  houses 
here  and  there  in  the  valleys.  The  river  and  the  moun- 
tain are  contiguous  to  the  city.  On  the  summit  of  one 
of  the  peaks,  the  highest  of  the  whole,  a  beautiful  church 
is  built,  named  the  Superga,  where  are  the  tombs  of  the 
Sovereign's  ancestors.  To  the  left  of  the  city,  as  far  as 
the  range  of  the  Alps,  is  a  level  plain. 

A  synagogue  is  being  constructed  by  the  Jews  in  this 
city — a  very  stately  edifice ;  that  is  to  say,  the  w^ealthy 
Jews  of  Italy  have  united  together  and  are  building  it  in 
common.     It  is  not  as  yet  completed. 


ITALY  ;    AUSTRIA  ;    19  DAYS. 

RIDAY,  29th  {25th  July). — Remained  at  home. 
After  breakfast  the  Sovereign  came  and  we 
went  together  to  the  armoury  that  is  in  the 
palace.  There  were  large  numbers  of  weapons, 
ancient  and  modern,  such  as  Persian  swords  on  which 
were  inscribed  verses  of  Persian  poetry  in  letters  of  gold; 
of  which  we  saw  several,  and  also  Persian  coats  of  mail 
and  helmets.  There  were  also  some  dead  horses,  made 
to  stand  up  as  though  alive,  and  men,  clothed  in  ancient 
Frankish  armour,  made  to  ride  upon  them.  There 
were  some  arms  of  the  ancestors  and  forefathers  of 
this  very  Sovereign,  such  as  swords  and  the  like. 
A  sword  that  the  first  Napoleon,  on  the  occasion  of 
his  adieu  at  Fontamebleau,  gave  to  an  Italian  general 
who  was  m  his  service,  was  there  and  was  examined. 
There  was  a  sword,  long  and  pointed,  like  a  spear. 
We  went  up  and  down  for  a  long  time,  saw  the 
whole  of  the  arms,  and  then  returned  to  our  own  apart- 

In  the  afternoon  there  was  a  dinner-party  in  this  same 

296  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Etcrope.      [chap,  vi, 

palace.  The  Sovereign  came.  We  went.  In  a  most 
magnificent  hall  a  large  table  was  spread.  There 
were  one  hundred  persons  around  it.  We  sat  down.. 
A  most  splendid  dinner  was  served,  and  music  also 
was  played.  The  Sovereign  himself  partook  of  wo 
food.  I  asked  the  reason.  He  replied:  "My  custom 
is  to  dine  at  midnight  and  immediately  to  go  to  sleep." 
In  like  manner,  the  Sovereign's  cousin  paternally^ 
by  reason  of  this  same  habit,  took  no  food,  and 
also  said  that  he  had  never  drunk  wine,  preferring  iced 

The  beard  of  the  Sovereign's  cousin  is  long  and  white  ; 
his  face  is  ruddy  and  fair,  his  age  appears  to  be  about 
sixty-five  ;  but  he  is  very  robust. 

The  whole  of  our  suite,  excepting  those  who  had  gone 
to  Vienna,  were  of  the  party. 

To-day  the  Sovereign  had  sent  some  most  beautiful 
and  costly  objects  as  souvenirs  to  be  presented  to  us;  such 
as  portraits  in  mosaic,  the  work  of  Italy,  each  one  being 
of  fabulous  value.  This  art  is  special  to  Italy,  and  has 
no  connexion  with  the  inlaid  work  made  in  Persia.  That 
of  Persia  is  made  of  bone  ;  here  it  is  done  with  mineral 
stones  of  various  colour's,  is  most  beautiful,  and  is  very 
rare.  A  very  large  table  in  mosaic,  very  handsome 
fowling-pieces,  a  painted  oil  portrait  of  the  Sovereign 
himself  and  strikingly  like  him,  besides  being  well 
executed,  some  models  of  buildings  executed  in  marble, 
some  figures  of  bronze,  and  a  casket  in  mosaic.  In 
short,   many  beautiful    objects.      To   the    Grand- Vazir 

CHAP.  Yi.]"  Italy,  Attstria.  297 

and  to  the  princes,  as  well  as  the  others,  also,  had  he 
ftiven  decorations.* 

In  the  evening,  in  company  with  the  Sovereign,  we 
went  to  the  theatre  which  is  in  this  very  palace,  but  at  a 
great  distance.  We  passed  through  sundry  apartments 
and  that  selfsame  armoury,  arrived  at  a  beautiful  and 
far  extending  corridor,  lighted  up  as  in  an  illumination,, 
and  so  reached  the  theatre.  We  sat  in  the  first  box. 
It  was  a  very  pretty  theatre,  not  very  large,  and  not  too 
small,  with  five  tiers  of  seats,  and  many  gaslamps.  The 
audience  was  numerous.  They  sang  ;  they  danced  ;  the 
curtain  went  up.  As  the  weather  was  very  sultry,  we 
did  not  sit  out  more  than  two  acts,  that  is,  two  scenes. 
There  was  a  singer,  Urbin  by  name,  who  was  very  beau- 
tiful and  young,  with  a  good  voice,  from  the  New  World. 

*  The  following  is  a  list  of  these  presents  :— 

1.  Roman  Mosaics. 
A  large  view  of  the  Colosseum. 
A  large  view  of  a  Lion  Hunt. 

Four  smaller  views  in  Rome.  ^1 

2.  Florentine  Mosaic. 
One  casket  of  gilt  bronze. 

3.  Bronze  Figures. 

Csesar  Augustus. 

An  Athlete. 

The  Faunus  of  Praxiteles. 

4.  Marbles. 

Three  giallo  antico  models  of  monuments  in  the  Forum  of 

One  goblet  of  rosso  antico. 

5.  Painting. 

One  large  portrait  of  His  Majesty  the  King. 

6.  Arms. 
Five  rifles. 

298  Diary  of  a   Toitr  in  Europe,     [chap.  vi. 

They  said  she  had  a  husband,  and  in  two  daj's'  time  was 
to  go  to  (St.)  Peter(sburg)  as  a  vocalist.  Kising,  we 
•came  home. 

The  city  of  Tmin  has  a  population  of  two  hundred 
-thousand.  The  uniforms  of  the  officers,  and  the  horses 
of  the  regular  cavalry  were  beautiful. 

Saturday,  SOth  {26th  July). — On  rising  in  the  morning 
the  weather  was  very  sultry.  We  breakfasted,  and  then 
went  for  a  tour  through  the  apartments  of  the  palace, 
viewing  the  very  beautiful  pictures,  and  then  the  library 
-of  the  Sovereign,  which  is  in  the  lower  story  of  the 
building.  There  were  many  books.  The  arrangement 
of  the  library  was  that  of  a  long  corridor. 

We  then  went  upstairs  and  strolled  in  the  palace 
.garden,  passing  thence  to  the  animals  that  belong  to  the 
Sovereign,  which  we  viewed  in  this  garden  in  their 
cages.  There  were  many  lions,  one  black  leopard, 
wolves,  foxes,  jackals,  hyaenas,  a  pair  of  elephants,  a  pair 
of  giraffes,  tigers,  leopards,  black  bears  of  Tibet — which 
are  strange  beasts.  In  one  cage  were  many  monkeys. 
There  were  various  kinds  of  antelopes,  a  zebra,  and 
other  things.  Two  curious  animals  were  seen  there, 
that  were  not  in  any  other  of  the  zoological  gardens. 
•One  was  the  "  lion-yiiz,"  (puma,  felis  concolor).  I  had 
seen  a  **  leopard-yuz  "  (the  Youze,  Chetah,  Hunting- Cat, 
gueparda  jubata) ;  but  had  never  even  heard  of  a  '*  lion- 
yiiz."  It  resembles  a  lion,  though  it  is  like  a  leopard, 
and  very  engaging.  The  other  was  a  monkey  of  very 
perverse  disposition  and  savage,  that  was  kept  by  itself. 
Man  could  not  pass  in  front  of  it.     Its  teeth  were  like 

cHAr.  VI.]  Italy^  Austria.  299 

those  of  a  tiger,  and  its  head  enormously  large.  It  had 
a  yellow  beard,  a  nose  all  red,  blue  cheeks  marked  with 
streaks.  It  is  called  the  Mandrill,  and  was  brought 
from  Africa. 

We  returned  home ;  that  is  to  say,  that,  since  it  is 
only  with  much  trouble  that  a  great  number  of  stairs 
€an  be  mounted,  they  have  arranged  a  curious  ap- 
paratus, with  a  chaii"  resembling  a  carriage,  and  in 
this  we  seated  ourselves ;  they  worked  it  by  winding, 
and  we  were  slowly  lifted,  with  the  greatest  comfort, 
to  the  upper  story  of  the  palace  where  our  quarters 

After  a  few  moments  they  announced  the  arrival  of  the 
rSovereign,  who  was  waiting  in  one  of  the  chambers. 
We  went  together  in  a  carriage  for  a  drive  through  all 
parts  of  the  city,  which  was  beautifully  illuminated.  The 
women  and  men  were  very  numerous.  It  possesses  very 
•beautiful  women.  At  length  we  went  to  the  parade- 
ground,  around  which  are  large  oak-trees  and  beautiful 
avenues.  These  we  traversed,  as  well  as  some  streets. 
There  was  one  long  street,  exceedingly  handsome,  which 
•they  had  illuminated,  and  which  extends  to  the  river 
Po.  On  the  other  side  of  the  river,  on  the  tops  of  the 
mountains  and  hills,  they  exhibited  some  fine  fireworks, 
which  produced  a  very  pleasing  eifect.  These  ended, 
Ave  returned  home.  I  was  in  the  carriage  with  the 
Sovereign,  the  Grand-Vazir,  and  M.  Bertoleniani  (il 
Cavaliere  Ettore  Bertole  Viale,  Major- General),  the 
Sovereign's  Grand  Huntsman,  aide-de-camp,  and  com- 
panion ;  we  thus  reached  our  quarters. 

300  Diary  of  a   Tott^^  in  Ettrope.     [chap.  vi. 

It  is  some  time  since  the  death  of  the  Sovereign's  royal 
consort  that  he  once  had,  and  he  has  not  again  married 
a  royally  contracted  state  wife,  having  taken  a  pri- 
vately-wedded consort,  in  like  way  with  myself.  His  wife 
was  not  here,  having  gone  to  the  coast  for  the  purpose 
of  sea-bathing.  I  sent  her  a  courteous  message  of  atten-^ 
tions,  and  received  a  corresponding  answer,  through  the 
medium  of  M.  Aghemo,  private  secretary  to  the  Sove- 
reign, who  is  the  son  of  the  paternal  uncle  (i.e.,  a  cousin) 
of  this  consort.  The  Sovereigij  said :  "  My  present 
wife  has  been  with  me  in  my  campaigns,  and  is  with  me 
in  my  hunting  excursions.  She  has  even  shot  two  deer 
herself."  By  this  wife  (the  Contessa  di  Mirafiori)  he  has 
a  son,  who  is  an  officer  of  the  cavahy;  also  a  daughter, 
who  was  married  to  a  colonel  in  the  army  (the  Marquis 
Spinola) ;  but  he  having  died,  she  is  now  a  widow. 

Sunday y  1st  Jurnddd'H-Ukhrd  {Latter  Jumdda ;  27th 
Jidy), — We  have  to  go  from  Turin  to  the  city  of  Milan* 
By  rail  this  is  a  distance  of  four  hours.  Eising  in  the 
morning  and  dressing,  we  received  the  Sovereign,  wha 
came  to  visit  us,  sat  down,  and  had  some  conversation* 
Prince  Amadeo,  the  Sovereign's  second  son,  also  came* 
His  wife  was  still  unwell,  as  before.  The  Heir-Apparent 
set  out  yesterday  for  a  summer  residence  {sic ;  probably 
a  typographical  error  for  Milan)  in  order  to  our  recep-^ 
tion.  The  Sovereign  told  me  he  had  shot  a  deer,  which 
was  in  the  corridor,  as  he  wished  me  to  see  it,  and  to  say 
whether  that  species  exists  in  Persia  or  not.  I  rose  and 
went.  They  had  placed  the  dead  deer  in  the  hall.  I 
saw  it.     It  was  of  the  same  species  as  those  deer  which 

•CHAP.  VI.]  Italy,  Austria.  301 

I  had  seen  in  the  parks  in  England.  It  is  a  kind  of 
•stag,  hut  is  smaller. 

We  descended  and  mounted  a  carriage,  the  Sovereign 
heing  also  present,  and  we  drove  to  the  station.  From 
ihis  place  we  made  use  of  an  Austrian  train  of  cars,  which 
were  very  beautiful.  They  have  put  the  whole  party, 
with  the  luggage,  &c.,  into  this  one  train  ;  and  the  whole 
of  the  carriages  communicate  with  one  another,  like 
those  of  the  train  we  used  in  Russia. 

The  Sovereign,  with  ,all  the  magnates  and  notables  of 
the  State,  were  standing  on  the  platform  at  the  station 
until  the  train  was  put  in  motion.  Saluting  each  other, 
we  passed  on. 

The  right  hand  side  of  the  city  is  all  hills.  They 
have  built  here  and  there  on  the  hills  and  in  the  valleys, 
which  are  clothed  with  forest,  very  pretty  summer-resi- 
dences. After  the  train  had  proceeded  a  certain 
distance,  the  hills  on  the  right  hand  side  receded  to  a 
distance,  and  all  became  a  level  Open  plain,  teeming  with 
man  and  his  works.  A  large  proportion  of  the  crops 
was  Indian  corn,  and  this  was  newly  ripe.  A  diiference  in 
the  Indian  corn  of  these  parts  from  that  of  Persia  is,  in 
the  first  place,  that  the  stems  of  it  here  are  very  tall,  and 
secondly,  that  while  the  (ears  of  the)  middle  of  the  stems 
are  the  same  as  in  Persia,  being  edible,  the  tops  of  the 
stems  are  of  another  sort,  bearing  ears  like  wheat,  and 
pendulous,  which  they  also  make  into  flour  and  eat ;  * 
two  kinds  of  Indian  corn  being  thus  jDroduced  on 
one  stem. 

•  Probably  a  mistaken  idea  of  corn-fiour.  — J.  W.  E. 

Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Eu7^ope,     [chap.  vi. 

The  wheat  and  barle}^  were  harvested.  Many  mul- 
berry trees  for  silkworms  were  noticed  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Milan.  The  silk  of  Italy  is  renowned  for 
its  good  quality  ;  but  for  several  years  past,  it  has  not  suc- 
ceeded well.    The  whole  plain  was  full  of  trees  and  crops.. 

We  passed  several  rivers,  large  and  small.  The  name 
of  one  of  the  large  rivers  is  the  Dona  (Dora  Eipaira,  or, 
Dora  Baltea?),  another  is  the  Stura,  and  the  Sicia 
(Sesia),  and  the  Gicino  (Ticino).  Well ;  we  pursued 
our  journe}^,  and  stopped  awhile  at  Santhia,  which  is  a 
small  town.  At  every  town  where  the  train  stopped,  the 
mhabitants,  such  as  soldiers,  military  officers,  civilians, 
the  governor,  and  the  like,  came  to  meet  us.  We  then 
reached  Novara,  which  is  on  the  skirts  of  a  mountain, 
the  greater  part  of  the  houses  being  on  the  hills  and  up 
in  valleys,  so  that  it  is  very  picturesque  and  striking. 
From  Turin  to  this  place  the  whole  road  has  been 
through  a  plain ;  here  mountains  again  make  their 
appearance;  that  is,  on  the  left,  where  the  town  is,, 
there  are  mountains,  but  on  the  right,  a  plain.  On  these 
mountains,  again,  verdure  and  forest  are  scarce ;  but 
everywhere  they  have  built  for  themselves  isolated 
houses  and  mansions  for  summer  residences  and  other 
purposes,  in  very  good  taste. 

When  we  had  left  Novara  a  few  leagues  behind  us,  we 
arrived  at  the  village  of  Magenta,  celebrated  ever  since 
the  battle  fought  there  and  on  its  fields  against  the 
Austrians  in  the  time  of  the  third  Napoleon,  when  the 
Austrian  forces  were  utterly  routed  and  put  to  flight  in 
these  fields  by  the  French  and  Italians.     A  tall  column 

CHAP.  Yi.]  Italy,  AiLstria.  303 

was  noticed  that  has  been  erected  by  Napoleon  in  com- 
memoration, and  as  a  tombstone  for  those  killed  in  that 
battle  who  were  French. 

We  arrived  at  Milan  while  it  yet  wanted  two  horn's- 
and  a  half  to  smiset.  It  has  a  magnificent  and  very 
large  terminus,  constructed  by  the  Austrian  Government 
at  the  tune  when  they  possessed  this  city.  We  had 
seen  but  few  stations  with  such  beautiful  and  extensive 

We  alighted  from  the  train ;  the  Heir- Apparent  of 
Italy,  who  had  come  here  yesterday,  who  is  also  hunself 
the  special  Governor  of  the  place,  where  he  always 
resides,  was  awaiting  us,  with  the  magistrates,  military 
officers,  and  civilians.  After  mutual  salutations  with  the 
Heir- Apparent,  we  mounted  a  carriage.  Immense  crowds 
were  in  the  streets  and  at  the  windows.  The  atmosphere 
was  intensely  hot ;  hotter  than  at  Tehran.  We  passed 
through  beautiful  streets.  It  is  a  very  handsome  city, 
and  possesses  very  lovely  women.  We  drove  a  long  way,, 
and  at  length  reached  the  square  of  the  Government 
Palace,  and  of  the  famous  church  (the  Duomo),  renowned 
in  all  the  earth,  which  they  have  there  erected.  Such  a 
church  and  such  an  edifice  is  in  no  other  spot  in  the  world.. 

WeU ;  we  reached  the  palace.  It  is  a  very  imposing 
structure,  and  full  of  effects,  such  as  tables,  chairs,  bed- 
steads, looking-glasses,  and  the  like.  The  whole  of  the 
rooms,  halls,  and  doors,  are  ornamented  with  gildings 
and  paintings ;  in  each  of  them  beautiful  stuffs  and  oil 
paintings  of  merit  are  hung  against  the  walls,  numerous 
chandeliers  being  suspended  from  the   ceilings.      This^ 

304  Diary  of  a   Totcr  in  Europe,      [chap.  vi. 

palace  was  built  in  days  of  old.  When  the  first  Napo- 
leon conquered  Italy  and  this  city,  he  thoroughly 
restored  and  redecorated  the  palace,  and  it  remained 
long  in  his  possession ;  for  Prince  Eugene  for  eight 
years  ruled  in  this  city  as  viceroy  of  Napoleon.  After 
that,  the  country  and  the  palace  fell  into  the  hands  of 
Austria,  and  for  years  she  reigned  over  them.  Prince 
Maximilian,  brother  of  the  present  Emperor  of  Austria, 
who  afterwards  became  Emperor  of  Mexico  in  the  New 
"World,  where  they  put  him  to  death,  was  viceroy?-  for  the 
Emperor  of  Austria  over  this  city  and  province.  Since 
the  defeat  of  the  Austrians,  they  have  formed  a  part  of 
the  kingdom  of  Italy. 

Well ;  after  a  short  rest,  we  felt  an  inclination  to  go 
to  the  top  of  the  church  that  is  opposite  the  palace.  We 
rose,  and  in  the  first  place  went  into  the  church.  Being 
Sunday,  we  found  there  a  great  concourse  of  men  and 
women.  We  walked  about  a  while.  From  the  interior 
of  the  church  there  is  a  way,  up  steps,  that  ascends  to 
the  top.  With  the  Heir- Apparent  we  went  up.  There 
are  five  hundred  and  seventy  steps  to  the  very  summit, 
and  by  degrees  we  mounted.  For  the  first  two  hundred 
steps,  the  way  was  narrow,  dark,  and  winding ;  after 
that,  there  are  spacious  terraces  and  roofs,  from  whence 
upwards  the  steps  are  easy. 

From  the  summit,  the  ranges  of  the  Alps  and  of 
Mount  St.  Bernard  were  visible;  over  which  the  first 
Napoleon  led  the  French  forces  into  Italy.  The  railway 
trains,  emitting  their  smoke,  and  either  entering  the  city 
from  every  quarter,  or  departing  therefrom,  were  very 

CHAP.  VI.]  Italy,  Atcstria,  305 

interesting  as  seen  from  that  elevation.  Two  triumphal 
arches  erected  outside  the  city  hy  Napoleon  on  his  first 
conquest  of  Italy,  and  a  canal,  a  very  large  stream,  that 
he  caused  to  be  constructed  to  convey  water  to  the  city 
of  Pavia,  were  also  in  sight.  From  the  great  height  of 
the  building,  the  people  below  appeared  like  pismires. 

The  whole  of  the  church  is  of  white  marble,  and  it 
lias  four  thousand  marble  statues  in  various  forms,  the 
utmost  of  the  sculptor's  art  having  been  expended  in 
their  production.  The  greater  part  of  these  statues  are 
outside  the  building,  standing,  sitting,  and  carved  back 
and  front.  Some  spring  out  from  the  walls  or  building 
(in  alto-relievo),  and  others  are  attached  to  the  walls  (in 
basso-relievo).  Above,  below,  the  outside  and  the  inside 
of  the  church  is  nothing  but  marble.  The  edifice  has 
been  built  by  degrees  as  time  has  rolled  on,  and  they  are 
even  now  still  at  work  upon  it,  executing  sculptures. 
From  five  hundred  years  ago,  until  now,  every  day  have 
they  laboured  in  edifying,  repairing,  or  adding  to  it  new 
works,  and  they  say  it  will  not  be  completed  for  another 
hundred  years.  The  interior  of  the  church  contains 
some  wondrously  large  columns  of  marble  ;  the  roof  is 
also  of  marble  so  carved  as  to  make  one  marvel.  And 
so  high  is  the  roof  that  when  one  stands  up  there,  he 
cannot  bear  to  look  straight  down.  It  has  beautiful 
altars,  pulpits,  and  figures  of  all  kinds.  If  a  talented 
sculptor  were  to  work  at  all  hours  the  whole  of  his  life, 
exerting  the  whole  of  his  art  in  the  production  of  one 
small  casket  in  marble,  still  he  would  not  equal  the  feats 
of  sculpture  that  are  in  this  church.     It  is  so  great  a 

3o6  Dic^ry  of  a  Toiler  in  Ettrope.      [chap.  vi. 

production  of  genius  that  if  a  person  were  to  come,  say^ 
from  the  New  World,  and  after  specially  inspecting  this 
church,  were  to  return,  he  would  he  independent  of 
seeing  an}^  other  work  of  art. 

Upon  the  sm^faces  of  the  roofs,  in  the  passages,  and 
on  the  steps,  ten  thousand  persons  and  more  could  walk 
ahout  or  sit  down  without  feeling  a  want  of  space.  The 
outer  surfaces  of  the  roofs  are  all  in  large  slahs  of 
marhle.  There  are  many  sculptured  spires  of  marble,, 
each  with  the  marble  statue  of  a  man  on  its  summit,  and 
one  large  central  spire,  taller  than  all  the  others,  which 
has  a  brass  statue  upon  it,  with  a  flag  in  its  hand.. 
From  the  top  of  this  statue  to  the  ground  or  floor  of  the 
church  is  a  distance  of  one  hundred  and  fourteen  ells  (399 
feet) ;  and  there  are  steps  up  to  the  front  of  this  statue. 

We  now  descended,  passed  through  the  interior  of  the 
church,  and  went  to  a  market,  resembling  an  (eastern) 
bazaar,  and  covered  in  with  glass,  having  been  newly 
constructed.  It  is  not  very  long  or  broad ;  but  it  is  a 
very  pretty  bazaar,  and  we  strolled  about  there  a  wliile. 
Great  crowds  were  there ;  so  we  returned  home. 

In  the  evening  dinner  was  taken  in  a  very  sumptuous 
hall  at  an  enormous  table,  where  we  were  the  guest  of 
the  Heir-Apparent.  All  the  Persian  and  Frankisk 
grandees  were  of  the  party.  They  gave  an  excellent 
dinner,  that  was  spread  out  over  a  great  space  of  time.. 
The  Governor  of  the  city  of  Milan,  a  very  fat  man,  was 
also  present. 

Dinner  being  concluded,  we  went  to  a  window  that 
faced  the  chm-ch  and  the  square.     At  least  twenty  thou- 

CHAP.  VI.]  Italy,  Austria.  307 

sand  individuals  were  congi-egated  in  this  space.  They 
had  illuminated  the  whole  church  with  Bengal  lights,. 
which  produce  different  colours.  At  one  moment  the 
entire  building  from  summit  to  foot  was  red  ;  at  another 
moment,  green,  yellow,  or  some  other  colour.  The 
white  pigeons  that  have  their  nests  in  the  upper  parts  of 
the  towers  took  fright  and  flew  about.  In  the  darkness 
of  the  night  they  flashed  like  lightnings  in  the  air  from  the 
glare  of  the  lights,  and  produced  a  very  pleasing  effect. 

Monday,  2nd  {2Sth  July). — We  must  go  to  Saltzburg, 
a  place  in  the  dominions  of  Austria.  In  the  morning 
we  early  mounted  a  carriage,  the  Heir-Apparent,  his 
officers,  and  the  authorities  of  the  city  being  present. 
We  drove  along  the  street  by  which  we  had  arrived  the 
day  before,  reached  the  station,  took  our  seat  in  the 
train,  and  started.  We  passed  by  numerous  cities,  in 
the  following  order ;  first,  Treviglio ;  secondly,  Ber^ 
gamo  ;  thirdly,  Brescia ;  fourthly,  Desenzano  ;  fifthly,. 
Verona,  which  is  a  fortress  of  importance.  As  far  as 
Bergamo  the  country  was  flat,  and  everywhere  sown 
with  Indian  corn  or  planted  with  mulberry-trees  for  silk. 
We  also  crossed  several  rivers,  the  largest  of  them  all 
being  the  Adige,  which  passes  by  Verona.  Its  waters 
were  turbid.  When  we  had  passed  Bergamo,  mountains 
again  appeared  on  our  left  hand,  the  town  itself  being 
on  the  skirts  of  a  hiU.  Detached  houses  are  here  and 
there  built  on  the  hillside,  which  are  very  handsome. 
The  hill  was  verdant,  and  had  a  small  show  of  forest. 

In  every  city  where  our  train  stopped,  the  inhabitants. 
in  crowds,   together  with  troops,  infantry  and  cavalry,. 

3o8  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe,      [chap.  vi. 

magistrates,  and  officers,  came  to  meet  us.  To  our 
left  the  mountains  continued  in  the  same  manner,  while 
to  our  right,  as  far  as  the  eye  could  see,  all  was  plain, 
full  of  trees,  full  of  produce.  The  mountains  on  our 
left  gradually  became  loftier ;  but  in  the  greater  part  of 
them,  up  to  the  very  peaks,  the  people  had  built  for 
themselves  beautiful  summer-residences. 

And  so  we  went  on  till  we  came  to  a  lake,  very  large 
and  picturesque,  inclosed  on  three  sides  by  lofty  moun- 
tains, and  the  water  of  which  was  pellucid  and  extremely 
pleasant  to  see.  It  is  smaller  than  the  Lake  of  Geneva, 
but  still  of  good  size,  and  had  a  very  charming  island  in 
its  midst.  Many  edifices  are  constructed  on  that  island, 
which  had  a  bridge-like  communication  with  the  main- 
land. It  is  called  the  Lake  of  Garda.  All  around  it  is 
Italian  territory,  excepting  a  small  portion  of  the  upper 
end,  which  belongs  to  Austria.  The  fortress  of  Pes- 
chiera,  one  of  the  strongholds  of  Italy,  is  on  the  shore  of 
this  lake,  and  its  ditch  is  always  full  of  water  from  the 
lake.  There  is  always  a  garrison  with  artillery  sta- 
tioned, there  by  the  Government.  They  fired  a  salute  of 
cannon  fi'om  the  fortress. 

Leaving  Peschiera,  we  reached  the  city  and  fortress  of 
Yerona.  This  city  is  in  the  midst  between  the  plains 
and  the  mountains.  All  round  the  city  is  a  fortification, 
with  a  ditch,  and  with  powerful  batteries,  in  which  are 
many  cannon.  Around  the  mountains,  also,  they  have 
constructed  towers  and  batteries.  The  great  river  Adige, 
which  flows  in  front  of  the  fortress,  has  added  to  its 
strength.     They  fired  many  salutes. 

CHAP.  VI.]  Italy,  Austria,  309 

We  arrived  at  a  station  somewhat  above  the  fortress, 
and  there  we  stopped.     The  Governor  of  the  town,  and 
the  Commander  of  the  troops  of  the  fortress,  with  in- 
fantry, cavaby,  and  people  of  the  city,  were  there  waiting. 
Afterwards  the  train,  returning  by  the  road  over  which 
we  had  come,  and  passing  by  the  fortress  and  town  of 
Verona,  turned  into  the  road  to  Saltzburg  and  Innsbruck. 
We  entered  a  narrow  valley,  through  which  a  mighty 
stream  flowed.     On  both  sides  were  high  mountains  and 
a   few  forests.     The  name   of    the   river  was  Aisache 
(German  for  the  Adige).     Our  road  led  continuously 
through  the  banks  of  the  river,  valleys,  and  high  moun- 
tains.    The  valley  was  sometimes  spacious,   sometimes 
constricted.      The    mountains  became    gradually  more 
lofty,  more  precipitous,  and  more  clothed  with  forests. 
Sometimes  the  mother  stream  was  lost,  and  secondary 
waters    were    met    with,    coming    from    other    valleys. 
Numerous  are  the  bridges  which  they  have  built  over 
these  streams.     The  beginnings  of  the  valley  were  little 
inhabited  or  cultivated;  but,  the  farther  we  went,  the  more 
of  these  were  seen.     Numerous  vineyards  were  planted. 

After  having  traversed  this  valley  for  a  certain  dis- 
tance, we  came  to  a  place  named  Ala,  which  is  a  frontier 
between  the  territories  of  Italy  and  Austria.  At  the 
station  of  this  place  the  train  stopped,  and  the  Austrian 
officials  who  were  to  be  in  attendance  upon  us  were 
received  in  audience.  The  chiefs  of  these  were  a  per-" 
sonage  of  note  and  Principal  Chamberlain  of  the  Em- 
peror. He  was  also  a  military  officer,  his  name  being 
the  Coimt  de  Grenneville,  and  M.  Barb,  an  Assistant 

3IO  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Etirope.     [chap.  vi. 

Master  of  Ceremonies,  who  spoke  Persian  fluently.  We 
liad  some  conversation  with  these ;  after  which  the 
Italian  ofiicials  in  waiting,  the  chief  of  whom  was  Count 
Pianelli,  received  their  conge.  One  half  of  this  station  be- 
longs to  Italy,  the  other  half  being  the  property  of  Austria, 
.and  garrisons  from  both  States  are  quartered  there. 

Well ;  after  a  delay  of  ten  minutes  we  resumed  our 
jom-ney,  and  travelled  at  a  rapid  rate.  On  all  sides  were 
lofty  mountains,  valleys,  and  immense  rivers.  The 
higher  we  ascended  the  valley,  the  more  lofty  were  the 
mountains,  the  denser  the  forests.  In  the  valley  itself 
all  was  one  vijieyard,  vines  supported  by  trellises,  beneath 
which  was  a  very  grateful  shade.  Along  the  skirts  of 
ihe  mountains  were  pretty  picturesque  villages  and  works 
of  man. 

At  the  entrance,  in  the  jaws  of  this  valley,  the  Austrian 
Government  has  constructed  two  strong  forts,  so  that  it 
is  impossible  for  the  troops  of  an  enemy  to  penetrate 
through  this  pass.  They  have  placed  many  a  cannon  on 
ihe  summit  of  the  forts  and  batteries,  and  always  are 
ihere  ofiicers  of  trust  and  garrisons  in  these  two  forts. 
The  name  of  the  fortress  is  Franzansvest.  Here  it  was 
made  known  that  it  is  a  great  distance  to  Saltzburg,  our 
•destination,  so  that,  if  we  travel  continuously,  we  shall 
reach  there  to-morrow  afternoon. 

At  sunset  we  arrived  at  a  station  where  the  train  was 
■stopped  for  an  hour,  and  where  a  dinner  was  prepared  in 
a  room  for  our  attendants.  I,  too,  alighted,  and  in- 
spected the  troops  that  were  drawn  out.  The  generals 
and  officers  in  the  place  were  presented.     M.  Gersich,  a 

CHAP.  VI.]  Italy,  Austria,  311 

professor  of  the  science  of  artillery,  wlio  was  formerly  a 
professor  in  the  College  of  Science  at  Tehran,  and  of 
whom  Muhammad-Hasan  Khan,  son  of  the  Commander- 
in-Chief,  with  Muhammad- Sadiq  Khan  Qajar,  are  two  of 
the  best  pupils,  was  there  received.  His  beard  had 
become  somewhat  grizzled,  but  his  frame  was  in  first-rate 

We  again  took  our  seat  in  the  train.  I  had  not  yet 
dined ;  but  our  suite  returned  from  dinner,  and  we  con- 
tinued our  journey.  Although  it  was  dark,  still  we  were 
aware  that  there  were  many  rivers,  and  that  we  crossed 
over  bridges.  On  either  side  were  lofty  mountains, 
covered  with  forest,  and  narrow  valleys ;  the  road,  too, 
was  all  uphill.  A  violent  storm  of  thunder  and  lightning 
occmTed,  accompanied  by  heavy  rain.  We  dined  and  lay 

Once  we  were  awakened  and  heard  numerous  voices 
;and  sounds,  from  which  we  gathered  that  the  train  had 
arrived  and  stopped  at  Innsbruck.  The  inliabitants  of 
the  town,  women  and  men,  the  governor  and  officers, 
were  all  in  attendance,  creating  a  marvellous  hubbub. 
When  we  were  again  left  alone,  we  slept,  and  on  awaking 
in  the  morning,  again  was  there  discussion  and  con- 
troversy. The  train  went  on,  and  anew  did  sleep  obtain 
the  mastery.  Two  hours  later,  we  arose  and  dressed. 
We  were  now  in  the  German  territory  of  the  kingdom  of 
Bavaria.  I  looked  out  upon  the  open  country,  which 
was  like  a  paradise — huge  mountains  full  of  forests,  trees 
of  fir  and  yews  of  the  forest  in  great  numbers,  lands  all 
verdant,  meadows,  numerous   flowers  of  every  colour; 

312  Diary  of  a  Toici^  in  Europe,      [chap,  vi- 

and although  it  was  the  middle  of  the  hot  season,  the 
plain  and  the  mountains  [were  as  in  opening  spring. 
There  were  numhers  of  rivers,  branches  of  the  Danube, 
flowing  into  the  Danube,  and  everywhere  crops,  which  here 
were  not  yet  reaped.    The  air  was  cool  as  in  a  hill-station. 

And  thus  we  reached  the  town  of  Eosenheim,  one  of 
the  cities  of  Bavaria.  From  hence  to  the  Bavarian 
capital,  Munich,  or  to  Saltzburg,  our  destination,  is  an 
equal  distance,  about  one  hour  and  a  half's  journey. 
The  train  stopped  here  a  short  time,  and  then  we  agam 
set  off  with  our  faces  towards  Saltzburg. 

We  everywhere  passed  through  charming  sites  and 
forests  of  larch,  and  by  a  pretty  little  lake,  arriving  thus 
at  the  station  of  the  city  of  Trauenstein,  where  there 
was  a  great  concourse.  We  held  a  long  chat  with  one  of 
these  inhabitants  of  Germany  who  knew  French;  and 
one  of  the  i)eople  of  the  town  who  had  made  a  pipe  out 
of  the  stem  of  a  tree,  in  an  artistic  manner,  presented  it 
to  us  as  a  souvenir  of  the  place,  and  we  accepted  it. 
The  population  of  this  city  is  about  four  or  five  thousand* 

Well;  we  arrived  at  the  river  Saltza,  which  is  the 
boundary  between  the  states  of  Austria  and  Bavaria,  and 
flows  past  Saltzburg.  We  crossed  a  bridge  and  reached 
the  station,  where  the  inhabitants  of  the  town,  and  the^ 
troops  were  waiting. 

It  is  a  handsome  city,  with  a  pleasant  climate,  and 
situated  by  the  side  of  a  wooded  mountain,  having  a 
population  of  fourteen  thousand  souls.  Tliis  is  the  place 
where  the  thii-d  Napoleon  had  a  meeting  with  the  present 
Emperor  of  Austria.     It  has  a  famous  salt-mine. 

CHAP.  VI.]  Italy,  Austria,  313 

We  mounted  a  carriage  and  drove  to  the  palace.  It  is 
a  handsome  palace,  very  ancient,  with  a  small  square  in 
front,  a  stone  basin  of  water,  with  a  large  fountain,  the 
water  pouring  from  the  mouths  of  two  horses  and  men 
of  stone  also.  Around  the  square  are  a  church  and  a 

The  greater  part  of  our  journey  to-day  and  yesterday 
was  through  the  Tyrol,  Austrian  territory.  The  moun- 
tains thereof  are  styled  the  Tyrolean  Alps.  From  Milan 
to  Saltzburg  the  distance  is  more  than  two  hundred  and 
fifty  leagues,  which  we  traversed  in  twenty-three  hours. 

This  city  and  province  were  formerly  in  the  hands  of 
the  priests,  who  exercised  sovereignty  here  ;  and  this 
very  palace  in  which  are  our  quarters,  is  one  of  their 
buildings.  A  hill,  covered  with  forest  and  verdure  is  in 
the  middle  of  the  town,  on  the  summit  of  which  the 
priests,  in  the  days  of  their  rule,  constructed  the  palace 
and  a  strong  castle  for  the  defence  of  the  place.  They 
led  a  wall  along  the  middle  of  the  hill;  i.e.,  there  is  at 
great  vein  of  rock,  upon  which  they  built  the  wall. 
There  are  some  handsome  hotels  in  the  town,  especially 
one  called  the  Hotel  d'Europe. 

To-day,  on  the  frontier  of  Bavaria  and  Austria,  we 
saw  a  castle,  from  whence  they  fired  guns,  and  named 
Hofstein,  to  which  they  send  political  prisoners. 

Tuesday,  Brd  {2dth  Jidy), — God  willing,  we  have  to  go 
to  the  city  of  Vienna,  the  capital  of  Austria. 

We  rose  in  the  morning.  In  the  neighbourhood  of 
the  town  there  is  a  place  known  by  the  name  of  Schon- 
bruun,   at  the   distance   of  half   an  hour's  drive,  con- 

314  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe,     [chap.  vi. 

structed  in  the  da3^s  of  the  sovereignt}^  of  the  priests. 
The  word  "  Schonbrunn  "  in  the  German  tongue  has  the 
meaning  of  "clear  spring"  {read:  "  beautiful  spring  "). 
We  mounted  a  carriage  and  drove  out,  the  princes  and 
others  following  us.  The  weather  was  a  little  warm. 
Leaving  the  city,  there  was  an  avenue  that  afforded  a 
shade.  Everywhere  the  carriage  drove  along  avenues, 
amtil  we  reached  a  park  and  a  palace.  In  this  place,  and 
in  a  few  others,  I  saw  many  plane-trees,  differing  some- 
what, however,  from  those  of  Persia,  as  the  trunks  and 
branches  of  those  seen  here  are  darker,  blacker  than 
those  in  Persia  ;  but  the  leaves  show  no  difference. 

Well ;  we  reached  the  park,  which  was  laid  out  with 
flower-beds  and  grass.  There  were  numbers  of  women 
«and  men,  travellers  or  spectators.  This  park,  together 
with  certain  other  establishments,  and  buildings  with 
hasins  of  water,  of  old  construction,  is  situated  at  the 
foot  of  a  hill  covered  with  forest  and  verdure.  Numerous 
springs  of  clear  water  issue  forth  from  the  skirts  of  the 
hills,  and  over  each  of  these  springs  thay  have  erected  a 
pavilion  or  a  place  like  a  basin  or  like  a  waterfall,  into 
which  the  water  flows  from  the  spring,  and  passes  thence 
by  broad  channels.  The  water  was  cool  and  pleasant  to 
drink ;  and  there  were  a  great  many  trout,  the  "  red- 
spotted  trout "  of  Persia,  seen  in  the  water  there.  Going 
xiown  along  the  bank  of  the  stream  for  a  stroll,  we  came 
to  some  very  pretty  places,  where  again  many  springs 
and  basins  of  water  were  seen ;  also  some  places  where 
establishments  for  basins  of  water,  as  it  were,  were  con- 
structed of  rock.    Others  were  made  to  resemble  cabinets. 

€HAP.  VI.]  Italy,  Austria.  315 

the  summits  being  uioreared,  and  six  or  seven  cocks, 
called  in  French  "robinet"  (and  in  Persian  *'lion"), 
were  visible.  Upon  turning  any  one  of  these  cocks, 
water  springs  forth  from  some  fountain,  or  from  the 
earth,  or  from  the  roof  of  a  chamber.  For  instance, 
there  was  seen  one  place  with  a  basin  of  water,  in  the 
middle  of  which  was  a  small  fountain,  with  a  crown  of 
brass  over  the  fountain.  Upon  gently  opening  a  cock, 
the  water  filled  the  under  part  of  the  crown,  and  gradually 
lifted  the  crown  until  it  touched  the  roof  of  the  chamber, 
which  was  then  gradually  made  to  descend  again.  This 
is  at  the  discretion  of  a  man;  should  he  wish  it,  the 
crown  could  be  raised  to  a  height  of  twenty  ells  (70 
feet)  and  again  made  to  descend.  Another  thing  in 
which  there  was  much  to  laugh  at,  and  which  was  a 
novelty,  was  this :  As  people  or  spectators  were  uncon- 
cernedly amusing  themselves  by  walking  about  in  the 
gravelled  avenues  and  environs  of  the  corridors,  without 
knowing  that  the  earth  beneath  their  feet  among  the 
.gravel  of  the  avenues  was  full  of  fountains  and  small 
holes,  so  as  not  to  be  noticeable,  they  suddenly  opened 
the  cock  that  shut  off  the  source  from  these  fountains, 
upon  which  the  water  spouted  forth  from  all  sides,  from 
the  soil,  from  the  avenues,  from  above,  and  from  below, 
wetting  all  the  people,  who  thereupon  took  to  flight. 
This  was  rare  fun ;  and  in  justice  it  may  be  said  that 
herein  great  cleverness  has  been  displayed,  the  whole 
having  been  so  well  kept  from  the  days  of  yore  till  now. 

The  air  here  was  cool  and  resembling  that  of  a  hill- 


31 6  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Etcrope.      [chap.  vi. 

Another  sight  was  this :  They  have  made  a  town  of 
pasteboard  or  of  wood,  replete  with  all  manner  of  objects, 
and  placed  it  on  the  other  side  of  the  stream  opposite  to 
the  spring.  Every  one  of  the  people  of  this  to^vn  is 
busy  at  some  kind  of  occupation,  one  dancing,  another 
making  a  bear  dance,  one  riding  in  a  carriage,  another 
drinking  water  beneath  a  spring  and  a  tree ;  and  so  on,  in 
many  other  waj^s.  This  piece  of  mechanism  is  also  set  in 
motion  by  the  water  power  of  the  springs.  It  has  a  screw,  or 
a  cock,  or  a  small  apparatus,  the  which,  on  being  handled,. 
sets  the  people  of  the  town  in  motion,  who  then  per- 
form strange  and  marvellous  things.    It  was  very  amusing. 

Again ;  there  was  a  water- channel,  and  on  either  side 
of  this  a  tortoise  was  set,  with  their  mouths  so  exactly 
opposite  to  one  another  that  the  water  which  spouted 
with  great  force  from  the  one,  poured  into  the  other,  and 
one  could  not  distinguish  whether  it  was  water  or  a  tube 
of  crystal  passed  from  the  mouth  of  the  one  tortoise  into- 
that  of  the  other ;  but  on  interposing  the  hand,  and  so 
interrupting  the  communication,  one  ascertained  that  it 
was  water ;  and  when  the  hand  was  removed,  the  crystal 
rod  was  re-established.  This  was  a  very  curious  con- 

Furthermore ;  within  the  channels  of  water  they  had 
arranged,  as  a  specimen,  a  spectacle,  and  an  amusement, 
a  manufactory  of  earthenware,  a  cotton-carding  engine, 
a  knife-grinding  wheel,  and  other  similar  things, — the 
workmen  being  all  small,  the  wheels  and  machines  all 
toys,  but  so  arranged  that  there  was  no  dissimilarity 
from  real  workshops  and  real  workmen. 

CHAP.  VI.]  Italy^  Austria,  317 

The  whole  of  these  things  were  made  and  arranged  a 
hundred  and  twenty  years  ago,  merely  for  the  display  of 

Well ;  we  strolled  ahout  a  long  time ;  hut,  as  it  was 
necessary  to  he  in  the  train  by  a  certain  given  hour,  in 
order  to  proceed  to  Vienna,  we  could  not  spend  more 
time  in  sight- seeing.  We  therefore  returned  to  the  city, 
driving  straight  to  the  station ;  we  there  waited  a  space 
in  one  of  the  rooms,  and  then  took  our  seat  in  the  train. 

By  railway  it  is  a  distance  of  seven  hours  from  here  to 
Vienna.  The  Grand-Vazir  sent  a  message  to  say  that 
the  Governor  of  Saltzburg  wished  to  take  leave  and 
return.  We  arose,  stood  by  the  side  of  the  railway  car- 
riages, and  exchanged  salutes  with  the  Governor ;  upon 
which  he  took  his  departure,  and  we  at  length  started. 

This  Kne  has  no  high  mountains ;  but  on  both  sides  of 
the  way  we  saw  pretty  little  hills, — green  and  cheerful, 
and  forests — full  of  firs  and  yews.  Some  cultivated 
places  were  newly  reaped,  showing  the  yellow  colour  of 
the  crops  in  the  midst  of  the  green  meadows  and  grand 
forests.  But,  on  our  right  hand,  at  a  great  distance  off, 
the  high  mountains  were  reached ;  while  on  both  sides  of 
the  Hne  all  was  gentle  hill  and  dale,  populous,  teeming 
with  crops,  and  abounding  with  woods,  most  beauteous. 
It  was  a  charming  journey.  The  weather,  too,  was 
moderate ;  at  times,  even  cloudy,  with  a  cool  breeze.  At 
every  station  where  we  made  a  stop,  there  were  people 
to  receive  us,  with  troops  of  the  line  and  bands. 

At  the  city  of  Lintz,  where  the  train  stopped,  multi- 
tudes of  women  and  men  were  collected  in  front  of  the 

3i8  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe,      [chap,  vi, 

station.  "VVe  alighted,  and  inspected  the  troops.  We 
then  retreated  to  a  room  assigned  to  our  use,  where  they 
had  prepared  a  breakfast.  This  place  possessed  some 
most  beautiful  women.  Austria,  in  point  of  beauty  and 
engagingness,  is  the  queen  of  all  lands. 

Well ;  when  our  party  had  breakfasted,  we  returned  to 

our  train  and  again  proceeded.     The  appearance  of  the 

country  was  still  the  same  with  that  above  described ; 

perhaps  more   beautiful   even.      We  then  arrived  at  a 

small  town  called  Hammelbach,  and  shortly  after  passing 

it,  we  saw  the  mighty  river  Danube  on  our  left  hand.. 

Our  road  lay  for  a  short  distance  along  its  bank,  and 

then  swerved  to  a  distance.     Next  we  reached  the  town 

of  St.  Polten,  where,   on  the  summit  of  a  hill  in  the 

middle  of  the  town,  we  noticed  a  palace,  a  church,  and  a 

college,  of  very  imposing  structure,  and  belonging  to  the 

priests.     That  must  be  a  very  charming  place,  with  a 

beautiful  view.    As  we  approached  more  and  more  towards 

the  city  of  Vienna,  the  more  did  we  see  beautiful  towns,. 

populous  places,    sumptuous  summer-residences  in  the 

valleys  and  at  the  foot  of  the  hills  covered  with  forests, 

together  with  most  charming  sites.     The  houses  were  of 

a  most   pleasing  aspect,    and  lovely   streams   of  water 

occurred  on  our  road. 

At  about  sunset  we  arrived  at  the  station  of  Penzing, 
where  the  train  stopped,  His  Most  Exalted  Majesty 
the  Emperor  of  Austria  being  on  the  platform  awaiting 
us,  with  the  Nawwab  the  Heir- Apparent  and  the  Princes, 
who  had  come  out  two  (probably  ten)  leagues  from  town 
to  meet  us.    Alighting,  I  gave  my  hand.     The  Emperor's 

CHAP.  Yi.]  Italy,  Austria,  319 

name  is  Francis- Joseph,  who  is  of  the  House  of  Habsburg, 
and  his  father  is  still  alive,  bearing  the  name  of  Francis- 
Charles  and  being  of  the  age  of  sixty-five.  Of  the 
persons  who  were  with  the  Emperor  were  the  Comit  de- 
Bellegarde  and  Baron  Schlechta,  the  Persian  interpreter, 
who  spoke  extremely  well ;  besides  many  other  officers, 
and  officials,  high  and  low,  with  others  also. 

After  salutation  we  entered  the  railway  carriage,  where 
I  was  with  the  Emperor,  the  Grand- Vazir,  Mirza  Malkam 
Khan,  Baron  Schlechta,  Count  Dubeski — the  Austrian 
Envoy  to  Tehran,  and  Count  Grenneville — in  attendance- 
upon  us.     We  proceeded. 

Our  quarters  are  in  the  Chateau  of  Laxenburg,  built 
by  Maria- Theresa,  a  former  Queen  of  Austria,  at  a 
distance  of  five  leagues  from  the  city  of  Vienna.  The 
Emperor's  quarters  were  at  Schonbrunn,  which  is  nearer 
to  town.  As  the  air  of  the  city  was  sultry,  we  did  not 
make  it  our  residence. 

Well ;  we  arrived  at  the  Chateau  of  Laxenburg.  There 
were  a  few  households  in  the  environs,  which  gave  it  the 
appearance  of  a  town.  The  Chateau  itself  is  a  square 
building  of  two  stories,  with  a  court  in  the  middle,  and  a 
small  square.  All  the  rooms  communicate  with  one 
another.  The  princes,  the  *Ala*u-'d-Dawla,  and  Hasan 
Ali  Khan — Minister  of  PubHc  Works,  are  quartered  in  a 
mansion  at  some  little  distance  from  here.  In  front  of 
om*  palace  there  is  a  very  extensive  i)ark,  with  beautiful 
avenues,  a  lake,  and  a  small  river. 

Well ;  we  reached  the  palace  with  the  Emperor  and 
others.     The  Emperor  presented  his  grand  functionaries' 

320  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Etcrope.     [chaf.  vi. 

of  state,  his  princes,  and  others.  First,  the  Heir- 
Apparent  of  the  Empire,  who  is  fourteen  years  of 
age,  and  who  is  the  only  son.  He  is  a  very  polished, 
courteous,  engaging,  handsome  youth,  and  his  name  is 
Eudolf;  also  Charles-Louis  and  Louis-Victor,  hoth  of 
them  princes.  Count  Andrassi — the  Prime  Minister  of 
Austria,  and  the  other  Ministers,  military  and  civil. 
After  which,  we  also  presented  the  Grand- Vazir,  the 
princes,  and  the  others.  The  Emperor  then  withdrew, 
and  we  received  the  princes  and  others  who  had  preceded 
us  to  Vienna.  In  the  evening  we  dined  and  retired  to 

Wednesday,  4th  {dOth  July), — This  day  we  went  to  the 
palace  of  Schonhrunn,  to  return  the  Emperor's  visit.  By 
rail  it  is  at  a  distance  of  half  an  hour.  After  sitting  and 
conversing  for  a  short  time,  we  returned  to  our  own 

Thursday,  5th  {dlstJuly). — Eose  in  the  morning  and 
breakfasted.  The  weather  was  sultry  to  such  a  degree 
that  it  was  impossible  to  go  out  of  doors.  Dr.  Polack, 
who  was  formerly  Professor  of  Medicine  at  Tehran,  and 
for  several  years  was  also  our  own  Chief  Physician,  was 
received  in  audience.  I  was  extremely  gratified  at  seeing 
the  Doctor.  He  is  a  nice  man,  has  grown  somewhat 
aged,  has  taken  a  wife,  had  been  for  a  time  in  Egypt,  and 
is  now  in  Vienna. 

In  the  afternoon  we  mounted  a  carriage  and  went  for  a 
drive  about  the  park  of  the  palace.  We  noticed  a  large 
canal,  like  a  river,  that  j)asses  through  the  park,  and  it  has 
some  handsome  bridges  over  it.     There  was  a  pond  with 

€HAP.  Yi.]  Italy,  Austria. 

multitudes  of  fish  in  it.  They  scattered  some  crumbs  of 
bread,  when  some  good  large  fishes  made  their  appearance. 
They  informed  me  that  these  fishes  have  been  here  in  the 
pond  these  two  hundred  years.  The  park  and  its  avenues 
are  of  great  extent ;  and  there  was  a  large  lake  in  it,  with 
trees  and  lawns  surrounding  it,  and  with  some  pretty 
islands  in  it.  We  noticed  many  wild  geese  in  one  of  the 
islands,  and  there  were  multitudes  of  women  and  men  on 
the  shores  of  the  lake,  who  had  come  out  sightseeing. 
Here  we  ahghted  from  the  carriage  and  took  our  seat  in 
a  boat  for  a  promenade  on  the  water. 

There  is  an  old  edifice  on  the  shore  of  this  lake,  built 
in  times  gone  by,  that  has  a  threatening  keep  of  great 
strength,  and  is  called  the  *'  Knight's  Castle."  It  has 
some  columns,  and  upon  the  summits  of  these  are  the 
figures  of  men,  cocks,  and  the  like,  in  cast  metal.  Its 
gates  are  of  iron  and  very  strong.  This  palace  and  castle 
are  exactly  like  the  palaces  of  the  demons,  magicians, 
wizards,  and  genii,  of  which  one  has  read  in  story-books 
and  legendary  tales.  We  passed  through  several  doors, 
and  arrived  at  strange-looking  apartments  and  passages. 
Each  room  and.  each  corridor  has  also  its  iron  door. 
There  was  one  dark  place,  very  frightful,  in  which  they 
have  placed  a  dead  wolf  upon  a  platform,  arranged  with 
its  skin  and  its  hair  to  look  like  life.  A  dreadful-looking 
man,  made  of  pasteboard,  was  set  up,  and  chained  with 
chains  as  prisoners  are  secured.  Beneath  this  room  are 
secret  appliances,  the  which,  being  put  in  motion,  cause 
the  hands  and  feet  of  that  captive  to  move  about.  Should 
any  one  uninformed  and  alone  happen  to  enter  that  dark 

32  2  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Etc7^Qpe.     [cha.p.  vi, 

place  and  witness  those  movements  of  the  imprisoned 
man,  he  would  doubtless  feel  alarmed. 

There  was  also  another  place  seen,'  circular  in  form 
and  roofed  over,  in  which  they  have  set  up  large  marble 
statues  of  the  ancestors  of  this  (present)  Emperor,  and  of 
the  Sovereigns  of  the  province  of  Austria,  which  are  finely 

After  that,  .all  that  was  viewed  of  the  apartments,  small 
or  large,  above  or  below,  was  altogether  frightful,  harrow- 
ing, and  suffocating ;  which  is  as  much  as  to  say  that  a 
castle  of  knights  must  be  in  this  manner.  There  was, 
however,  one  other  room  in  which  w^ere  pasteboard  figures 
of  olden  knights  clothed  in  their  iron  armour,  while  other 
ancient  weapons  were  suspended  to  the  roofs  and  walls. 
There  were  many  awe-inspiring  apartments  communicat- 
ing with  one  another.  It  was  like  the  talisman  of 
Zangiila ;  and  we  also  saw  there  the  drum  and  Pandean 
pipe  of  the  wizards  spoken  of  in  tales. 

After  this  stroll  we  returned  home.  The  Grand- Vazir 
and  others  who  had  been  into  towoi  to  visit  the  Exhibition 
gave  a  description  of  the  heat  and  unwholesomeness  of 
the  atmosphere. 

We  also  went  to-day  to  the  quarters  of  the  Heir- 
Apparent,  sitting  and  conversing  there  a  certain  time. 
The  Heir-Apparent,  although  young  in  years,  is  well 
instructed  and  an  attractive  youth.  In  the  empire  of 
Austria  he  is  (fitted  to  become)  an  excellent  souvenir  of 
the  Emperor. 

Friday,  Qth  {1st  August). — To-day,  after  breakfast, 
some  German  princes  came  to  visit  us.     Their  names 

CHAP.  Yi.]  Italy,  Atcstria.  323 

are  as  follows  :  the  son  of  the  ex- King  of  Hanover,  who 
now  resides  with  his  father  in  Austria,  Prussia  having 
taken  possession  of  his  kingdom,  is  named  Ernest- 
Augustus  ;  one  of  the  Bavarian  princes,  named  Arnulf ; 
one  of  the  princes  of  Wurtemhurg,  named  Maximihan  ;  a 
prince  of  Saxe-Weimar,  'named  Hermann. 

After  these,  the  Prime  Minister  of  Austria,  Count 
Andrassy,  came  to  an  audience,  and  a  long  conversation 
ensued.  Then,  the  Ambassador  oi\  England,  named 
Buchanan  (the  Eight  Hon.  Sir  Andrew  Buchanan, 
G.C.B.) ;  and  next  the  Ambassador  of  the  Ottoman  State, 
Qabiili  Pasha,  came  also. 

We  now  left  and  proceeded  by  train  to  the  palace  of 
Schonbrunn,  where  we  were  to  be  the  guest  at  the  table  of 
the  Emperor  at  dinner.  We  arrived  at  the  station, 
mounted  a  great  number  of  steps,  found  a  carriage  wait- 
ing, took  our  seats  therein,  and  drove  (to  the  palace). 

Schonbrunn  is  a  town,  the  houses  of  which  are  in  con- 
tinuation with  those  of  the  suburbs  of  the  city  of  Vienna, 
so  that  it  is  not  very  distant  from  Vienna  itself.  The 
number  of  the  population  and  of  the  houses  in  the  town 
of  Schonbrunn  is  less  than  those  of  Versailles  and  of 
Potsdam  near  Berlin. 

In  front  of  the  Emperor's  palace  there  is  a  square.  The 
carriage  drove  to  the  foot  of  a  staircase  within  a  corridor 
of  the  palace ;  and  there,  at  the  foot  of  the  staircase  the 
Emperor  was  awaiting  us.  Alighting,  we  gave  our  hand, 
went  upstairs,  and  entered  a  room,  where  the  princes  of 
Anuria  and  Germany,  the  Emperor's  brother,  and  others, 
were  assembled.     We  stayed  there  a  certain  time.     The 

Y  2 

324  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Etirope.     [chap,  vi, 

Emi)eror  offered  excuses  for  the  second  son  of  the 
Sovereign  of  Holland,  who  happened  to  be  at  Vienna, 
and  who  had  been  invited  to  the  dinner,  but  had  not 
arrived.  For  this  reason  we  went  late  to  the  dinner 
table.  After  a  little,  however,  the  son  of  the  Sovereign  of 
Holland  came,  whose  name  is  Alexander,  and  we  went  to 
table.  All  were  there.  This  saloon  is  all  in  white,  with 
a  few  plaster  ornaments  and  gildings.  The  ceiling  is 
painted,  as  though  with  designs  executed  on  the  plaster. 
All  the  rooms  and  halls  are  plain,  and  there  are  not  a 
great  many  objects  of  luxury,  such  as  pictures,  portraits, 
and  the  like;  though  a  few  pictures  were  noticed  of 
events  in  the  ■  life  of  the  present  Emperor,  of  Maria- 
Theresa,  and  others. 

In  front  of  this  saloon  there  is  a  park,  with  beautiful  beds 
of  flowers,  lawns,  and  avenues.  The  whole  of  the  leaves 
of  the  trees  on  both  sides  of  the  avenue  have  been  clipped 
with  shears,  and  the  resemblance  of  walls  of  verdure  has 
been  thus  produced.  At  the  further  end  of  the  garden  was 
a  lofty  green  mound,  and  on  the  summit  of  this  a  small 
building  with  many  columns  overlooking  the  garden.  At 
the  foot  of  the  mound,  within  the  garden,  there  is  a  basin 
of  water  with  fountains  that  send  their  water  to  a  great 
height,  but  do  not  always  play.  When  it  is  wished,  their 
sources  are  opened  (and  the  fountains  play). 

At  the  conclusion  of  dinner  we  went  to  another  room, 
where  the  whole  of  the  guests  at  dinner  were  assembled 
and  conversed  with  one  another.  *  Prince  Hohenlohe,  one 
of  the  grandees  of  the  Emperor's  Court,  Minister  of.  the 
Palace  and  first  person  there,  a  handsome  young  man. 

CHAP.  VI.]  Italy,  AiLstria.  325 

was  also  present.  I  gave  to  the  Heir- Apparent  the  deco- 
ration of  my  own  Portrait  set  in  diamonds. 

We  then  went  to  the  station,  and  by  train  returned 
home  and  retired  to  rest.  During  the  night  a  violent 
wind  with  rain  set  in,  which  cooled  the  air  and  watered 
the  ground. 

Saturday,  7th  {2ncl  August). — This  day  we  have  to  go 
to  the  city  of  Vienna  and  visit  the  Exhibition. 

When  we  rose  in  the  morning,  the  air,  through  the  rain 
of  last  night  and  the  clouds,  which  were  a  real  godsend 
from  the  secret  providence  of  the  Lord  Most  High,  was 
very  cool  and  pleasant.  Had  it  been  otherwise,  it  ^\•ould 
have  been  an  extremely  irksome  task  to  go  to  town 
through  that  excessive  heat  and  with  the  dust  and  dii-t 
of  the  roads. 

We  offered  our  thanks  to  God,  dressed,  mounted,  and 
started,  the  whole  of  our  suite  being  of  the  cortege.  By 
rail,  the  distance  to  the  city  was  one  hour  or  less.  The 
country  was  most  charming,  the  air  pleasant,  the  fields 
green,  and  flowers  of  various  kinds  were  noticed.  There 
were  many  hares  among  the  crops.  • 

We  came  near  to  the  city.  As  the  town  of  Vienna  is 
situated  in  a  hollow,  no  trace  of  it  is  visible  until  one 
comes  close  upon  it.  On  one  side  of  it  is  a  mound  and 
the  hills  of  Schonbrunn,  the  city  being  at  the  foot  of  these 
in  an  extremely  low  spot.  From  this  cause,  its  atmo- 
sphere during  the  summer  season  is  hot  and  unhealthy. 
It  has  neither  a  citadel,  nor  fortifications,  nor  a  ditch. 
By  reason  of  the  lowness  of  the  central  parts  of  the  city, 
the  streets  are  all  downhill  to  one  who  enters   from  the 

326  Diary  of  a   Tour  ifi  Europe,     [chap.  vr. 

outskirts.  The  river  Danube  skirts  one  side  of  the  town, 
and  a  canal  therefrom,  dug  by  hand,  enters  the  city ;  but 
this  is  very  much  smaller  than  the  river  Seine  in  Paris. 
Very  small  steamers  ply  thereon.  The  water  of  this  river 
is  not  fit  to  drink.  In  bygone  days  the  inhabitants  of 
Vienna  had  no  (good)  water  to  drink,  and  through  the 
filthy  state  of  the  Danube  that  flows  by  the  city,  they 
were  much  exposed  to  sicknesses  from  using  it ;  but  now 
the  Emperor,  at  the  expense  of  the  inhabitants  of  the 
city,  has  dug  a  large  canal  for  the  snowy  waters  of  the 
mountain  streams  and  springs,  which  he  is  leading  into 
the  town.  Great  expense  has  been  incurred,  and  the 
work  is  not  yet  complete.  It  was  said  that  it  would  be 
finished  in  another  year.  The  population  of  the  city  of 
Vienna  is  six  hundred  thousand  souls. 

Well ;  the  Emperor,  with  all  his  officials,  and  others, 
were  on  the  platform  waiting.  We  alighted,  gave  our 
hand  to  the  Emperor,  and  together  mounted  a  carriage. 
We  drove  through  every  part  of  the  city  and  along  a 
boulevard  newly  constructed,  by  an  ancient  building 
called  the  Belvedere,  where  they  now  have  made  a  collec- 
tion of  paintings,  and  near  to  the  Arsenal — a  place  where 
arms  are  kept,  which  has  a  high  wall  and  towers,  crossed 
a  bridge  over  a  branch  of  the  river  Danube,  and  so 
arrived  at  a  long  avenue  with  large  trees  on  either  side, 
which  led  straight  to  the  building  of  the  Exhibition.  On 
both  sides  of  this  avenue  is  a  spacious  park  and  meadow. 
They  have  erected  some  elegant  coffee-shops  of  wood, 
with  numerous  chairs  and  gas-lamps,  the  whole  way  to 
the  vicinity  of  the  Exhibition.     From  the  first  place  of 

CHAP.  VI.]  Italy,  Aiistria.  327 

ouj:  entry  into  the  town  until  we  reached  this  spot,  ever}'^- 
where  crowds  were  collected  ;  but,  by  reason  of  the  noto- 
riety of  the  cholera  sickness  and  of  the  unwholesomeness 
of  the  air  of  the  city,  the  whole  of  the  notables  thereof 
had  gone  away  to  their  summer  residences  in  hill- 

We  arrived  at  the  Emperor's  private  pavilion  outside 
the  Exhibition  building,  where  a  table  was  prepared  for 
breakfast.  We  sat  down  to  this  and  partook  of  the 
breakfast ;  after  which,  in  company  of  the  Emperor,  we 
went  to  the  Exhibition,  a  large  enclosure  like  an  Eastern 
bazaar.  In  the  centre  of  this  bazaar  a  very  spacious  and 
lofty  dome  of  a  globular  form  was  erected — a  very  mag- 
nificent structure  and  full  of  interest.  There  are  stairs 
and  a  way  by  which  people  go  to  the  top  thereof  to  enjoy 
the  sight.  The  w^hole  of  this  circular  apartment,  of  the 
bazaars,  and  of  the  rest,  are  of  iron,  common  glass,  and 
13late-glass.  The  bazaars  branch  off  from  this  large 
dome  in  every  direction,  the  contour  of  the  whole  build- 
ing being  also  circular.  It  has  two  passages  for  entry 
and  exit,  being  closed  elsewhere.  Beneath  the  great 
dome  they  had  arranged  a  very  beautiful  basin  of  water 
with  a  fountain  from  wliich  water  flowed.  Great  multi- 
tudes were  within  the  Exhibition.  They  had  apportioned 
special  sections  and  places  to  each  nation  and  State  that 
had  brought  its  effects  and  productions  there.  For 
instance,  the  French  nation  had  one  long  bazaar,  and 
two  other  bazaars  by  the  two  sides  of  that ;  in  which  the 
various  productions  of  their  own  country  were  arranged, 
even  to  the  stems  of  such  and  such  forest  trees  of  such 

328  Diary  of  a  To2ir  in  Ettrope.      [chap.  yi. 

and  such  a  province  of  France,  with  the  dried  leaves  of 
the  same ;  and  whatever  may  be  the  forms  of  the  cattle, 
wild  beasts,  or  birds  of  such  a  town  or  such  a  place  in 
France,  representations  thereof  were  exhibited  there. 
From  these  minor  particulars  an  inference  may  be  drawn 
as  to  the  princij^al  commodities  of  choice,  such  as  tissues 
of  wool  and  silk,  mirrors,  plate-glass,  warlike  implements, 
and  others,  all  of  which  were  sent  there  in  the  best 

Other  nations  also  in  like  manner,  i,e.,  some  great 
States  like  Russia,  England,  Germany,  and  even  Austria 
itself,  had  much  space,  and  vast  exhibits.  The  Ottoman 
State,  Egypt,  Greece,  Japan,  China,  and  others,  had 
sent  a  sufficiency  of  every  land  of  commodities. 

In  this  way  did  we  make  the  tour  of  the  bazaars  with 
the  Emperor,  until  we  reached  the  part  where  the  com- 
modities of  the  Persian  State  were  set  forth.  Although 
it  was  but  three  months  that  an  edict  had  been  promul- 
gated that  merchants  and  others  should  collect  commodi- 
ties and  send  them — which  was  much  too  late,  and  the 
gi'eater  part  had  not  yet  arrived, — still  we  saw  a  fair 
quantity  of  precious  stuffs  and  productions.  We  stayed 
there  some  little  while  ;  and  then  the  Emperor  expressed 
the  vdsh,  as  the  Emj^ress  was  indisposed  and  had  gone 
to  a  summer-residence,  to  go  there ;  we  bade  adieu,  and 
the  Emperor  left.  We,  on  our  part,  went  a  second  time 
round  all  the  bazaars,  and  in  one  of  them  lighted  upon 
the  Grand-Duke  Constantine,  brother  of  the  Emperor  of 
Russia,  and  a  very  charming  prince.  We  stopped  and 
exchanged  salutations  with  him,  which  resulted  in  a  long 

CHAP.  VI.]  Italy,  Attstria.  329' 

conversation.  He  was  somewhat  unwell,  and  looked 
pale.  On  my  asking  his  ailment,  he  told  me  that  on  his- 
return  from  Nicholaieff  to  (St.)  Peter (sbm-g),  he  had 
gone  to  Cronstadt,  and  there,  in  passing  from  one  ship  to 
another  he  had  wished  to  visit,  he  had  had  a  fall  and 
severely  injured  his  foot.  It  was  evident  that  he  had. 
been  much  hurt. 

Well;  after  leaving  the  Exhibition,  we  went  to  view 
the  specimens  that  had  been  put  up  of  the  buildings  of* 
various  countries.     There  was  one  very  beautiful  build- 
ing, and  a  grandiose  mosque  with  a  tall  minaret  from 
Eg}^pt ;  also,  a  mansion  and  a  coifee-shop  from  the  Otto- 
man State,   and  one  very  beautiful  house  built  by  the 
Persian  Government.     With  the  exception  of  these,  I  did 
not  examine  those  of  any  other  country.     We  went  to 
the  Persian  mansion,  to  which  were  several  steps  to  be- 
mounted.     Its   builder   was   a   certain   architect  of  the 
name  of  Isma'il,  together  with  one  carpenter.     Although 
it  was  but  three  months  that  they  had  been  commissioned 
to  build  this  house,  they  had  executed  their  task  with 
great  taste,  and  had  so  quickly  constructed   the  edifice 
as  to  elicit  wonder   and  applause.      The    carpenter  and 
the  builder  were  both  present,  the  latter  in  these  three- 
months'  space  having  learnt  the  German  language  well, 
which  was  a  subject  of  still  greater  astonishment.   We  sat 
down    there,  the   Archduke   Kegnier — President   of  the 
Exhibition — being  in  our  presence. 

Next  we  went  to  the  Ottoman  and  Egyptian  buildings, 
viewed  them,  and  then  drove  off  in  our  carriage  to  town, 
passing  through  its  remaining  districts,  by  its  buildings. 

.330  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe,     [chap.  vi. 

and  into  its  markets,  until  we  reached  the  i)alace  in- 
habited by  the  Emperor,  and  from  thence  arrived  at  the 
station,  took  our  seat  in  the  train,  and  went  home. 
Thanks  be  unto  God  that  all  has  gone  well. 

The  expense  of  this  Exhibition  is  at  the  charge  of  the 
Government,  which  has  incurred  an  outlay  of  seven 
crores  (1,120,000Z.)-  Three  months  hence,  when  it  shall 
have  been  removed,  there  will  have  been  realized,  from 
the  sale  of  materials  and  the  money  taken  at  the  doors 
from  visitors,  a  sum  of  three  and  a  half  crores  (560,000Z.), 
Tialf  of  the  outlay  being  so  much  loss  to  the  Government. 
They  say,  however,  that  from  the  traffic  (hereby  occa- 
sioned) there  will  be  large  sums  gained  in  other  ways  by 
the  inhabitants  and  by  the  State. 

This  Emperor  has  reigned  for  more  than  three-and- 
twenty  years.  Ferdinand  I.,  uncle  of  this  Sovereign, 
was  Emperor,  but  abdicated  the  Crown  and  is  still  living, 
being  eighty  years  of  age,  and  resides  at  Prague,  one  of 
the  great  cities  of  Austria.  The  Sovereignty  then  fell 
to  his  brother,  the  father  of  the  present  Emperor ;  he 
declined  it,  and  gave  it  to  his  son.  This  father  of  the 
Emperor  is  also  living  still.  He  is  in  Vienna  during  the 
winter,  but  goes  to  Ischl  in  the  summer  as  a  hill-station, 
where  he  now  is  at  the  present  time. 

Sunday,  Sth  {Srd  August). — This  day  we  had  no  en- 
gagement. In  the  afternoon  we  drove  in  the  park  and 
had  a  long  row  on  the  lake.  The  Grand- Vazir  and  MTrza 
Malkam  Khan  also  came  with  us  in  the  boat.  At  sunset 
•we  returned  home. 

The  Sani'u-'d-Dawla  and  the  Muhaqqiq  have  gone  to 

c'HAr.  VI.]  Italy,  A tt stria.  331 

tlie  town  of  Baden,  which  is  at  a)  distance  of  one  league 
from  this  palace.  There  are  hot  and  cold  mineral 
springs  at  that  place,  which  have  great  efficacy  in  certain 
maladies,  especially  in  the  affection  of  paralysis  and  the 
like.  At  the  present  season  invalids  repair  thither  to 
undergo  treatment. 

Monday,  9th  {4cth  August). — The  Emperor  has  invited 
lis  to  a  shooting  party  for  this  afternoon,  and  to  dinner  at 
Schonbrunn  for  the  evening.  Towards  the  afternoon, 
therefore,  we  took  our  seat  in  a  train,  went  to  the  palace 
and  town  of  Schonbrunn,  alighted  from  the  train,  and  got 
into  a  carriage.  The  Emperor  had  left  for  the  hunting- 
ground.  We  therefore  pushed  on,  drove  past  the^  suburbs 
of  the  city  of  Vienna,  where  are  the  summer-residences  of 
the  citizens,  as  follows  :  after  Schonbrumi  came  Stetzen- 
dorff,  next  Hitzing,  and  then  Laintz,  where  are  the 
shooting-grounds  of  the  Emperor.  The  road  was  long. 
There  are  man}^  mansions  and  hotels  in  these  villages. 

"We  drove  on  until  we  had  left  behind  us  all  traces  of 
human  habitations,  and  came  to  a  long  avenue  with  dense 
forest  on  either  side,  leading  to  a  spot  where  they  had 
surrounded  (a  part  of)  the  forest  with  screens  of  strong 
canvas,  white  in  colour,  and  high,  but  in  the  folds  of 
which  no  wood  was  used,  each  cloth,  instead  of  rope, 
having  a  wooden  frame  that  leant  against  the  screen. 
This  is  a  very  excellent  arrangement,  as  against  the 

Well;  aromid  the  forest  for  the  extent  of  about  two 
leagues  had  they  set  up  this  fence,  and  so  cut  off  the 
passage   of  annuals.      We   arrived  there,   and   saw  the 

332  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe,      [chap,  a-i. 

Emperor  waiting  on  foot  with  the  sportsmen,  and  dressed 
in  the  costume  of  a  hmitsman,  having  a  feather  stuck  in 
his  cap.  At  intervals,  ku'king-places  of  planks,  resem- 
hling  square  hoxes,  were  placed,  and  around  them  fir 
branches  with  their  leaves  masked  the  boxes,  which  were 
raised  from  the  ground  and  ascended  by  two  steps.  There 
were  about  a  hundred  of  these  huts  so  arranged,  and  in 
each  were  three  or  four  breech-loading  rifles  for  balls, 
with  a  supply  of  ball-cartridges,  and  also  two  or  three  of 
the  magnates  seated,  who  were  to  fire  the  shots. 

I  wished  to  descend  from  the  carriage  and  get  on  my 
feet ;  but  the  Emperor  opposed  this,  and  so  we  proceeded 
further  on  in  the  carriage,  the  Emperor,  with  the  others, 
walking  on  foot,  until  we  reached  a  hut,  higher  and  further 
forward  than  any  of  the  rest,  which  had  been  allotted  to 
us.  Here  we  alighted,  got  up  on  to  the  planks,  and  there 
took  our  station,  the  Emperor  going  to  another  hut  further 
down.  We  now  took  up  the  Emperor's  rifles  placed  in 
our  hut,  loaded  them,  and  made  ready. 

The  Emperor's  huntsman,  a  man  of  Bohemia,  and 
named  Count  Virbin,  a  person  seventy  years  old,  and  hard 
of  hearing  through  age,  besides  being  nearly  blind,  was 
present;  and  with  him  we  held  a  Httle  conversation  about 
the  chase  in  Persia  and  as  carried  out  by  the  Emperor, 
which  latter  is  as  follows  : 

We  have  already  explained  that  a  large  number  of 
screens  had  been  set  up.  These  screens  came  along  in 
like  manner,  so  that  there  were  screens  in  front,  opposite 
to  us,  and  screens  behind  us,  at  our  backs.  From  the 
place  where  we  were  seated,  to  the  screen  in  front,  was 

-CHAP.  VI.]  Italy,  AMstria.  333 

about  thirty  feet.  There  was  a  door  arranged  a  little 
above  the  spot  where  I  was,  for  the  entry  and  exit  of  the 
game;  and  there  was  no  other  passage  by  which  they 
could  come  or  go.  Forty  or  fifty  men  drove  the  deer 
from  the  forest,  and  caused  them  to  enter  by  that  door  in 
batches  of  twenty  or  thirty  each.  As  one  of  these  batches 
entered  and  came  along,  the  deer  passed  before  the  rifle- 
men at  a  distance  of  about  ten  feet,  and  they  began  to 
fire,  uninterruptedly  shooting  at  the  deer  with  bullets. 
If  they  did  not  hit  them  from  this  hut,  they  did  from  a 
second,  a  third,  or  so  on  to  the  last,  which  was  a  long 
way  off.  The  annuals  scampered  along  in  quest  of  a 
place  of  escape ;  but  no  means  of  flight  was  there,  and  at 
length  all  were  slain.  When  not  one  of  these  was  left 
breathmg,  a  fresh  batch  was  driven  within  the  screen,  and 
these  were  likewise  slaughtered  as  their  predecessors.  I 
also  fired  a  few  shots.  These  deer  are  of  the  species  of 
the  stag,  and  are  not  very  wild.  Two  or  three  batches 
were  thus  admitted  and  killed.  In  short,  it  was  capital 
sport,  and  passed  off  very  pleasantly. 

The  Emperor  now  came,  and  together  we  mounted  our 
carriage,  driving  by  the  road  along  which  we  had  arrived 
there,  back  to  the  Chateau  of  Schonbrunn,  in  the  park  of 
which  we  had  a  walk.  It  has  beautiful  avenues,  lofty 
trees,  with  marble  statues  along  the  avenues.  There  is  a 
mound  at  the  end  of  the  park,  with  a  building  on  its 
summit,  and  a  winding  path  to  go  up.  On  arriving  there, 
we  noticed  a  zoological  garden,  which  we  surveyed  in  a 
cursory  manner.  There  was  an  elephant,  a  rhinoceros, 
some  beautiful  paiTots,  and  some  other  animals.     This 

334  Diaiy  of  a   To2cr  in  Etirope.      [chap,  vi, 

park  and  the  zoological  garden  are  open  to  the  public, 
and  people  are  always  walking  about  in  them. 

Well ;  we  returned  to  the  palace,  went  to  the  dinner- 
table,  and  enjoyed  a  good  repast.  After  that  we  returned 
to  our  own  quarters  by  train. 

In  the  forenoon  to-day  the  Corps  Diplomatique  of 
Vienna  were  received  in  audience,  the  names  of  some  of 
the  members  of  wliich  may  be  here  mentioned  :  Novikoff, 
Envoy  from  Eussia;  the  Viscount  de  Jonghe,  Envoy 
from  Belgium ;  Mr.  Jay,  Envoy  from  the  United  States  ; 
Count  de  Kobilant,  Envoy  from  Italy. 

Tuesday,  10th  {5th  August), — To-day  a  photographer 
came  and  took  sevlVal  negatives  of  us.  We  strolled 
about  a  while  in  the  park.  An  individual  brought  a 
pump  and  apparatus  which  in  ten  minutes  time  bored  a 
hole  in  the  earth  to  the  depth  of  ten  ells  (35  feet),  and 
brought  up  water  from  thence,  pouring  out  of  the  pump. 
The  apparatus  is  made  of  steel  and  iron,  and  however 
hard  or  stony  the  ground  may  be,  it  pierces  it.  Each 
set  of  a^Dparatus  was  of  the  price  of  fifteen  tumans  (61.), 
I  ordered  several  sets  to  be  pui'chased  and  to  be  brought 
to  Persia. 

In  the  afternoon  w^e  went  by  train  to  the  city,  all  the 
princes,  and  the  greater  portion  of  our  household  officers, 
accompanying  us.  At  sunset  we  reached  the  city  station 
and  alighted.  The  Emperor  had  gone  to  the  theatre, 
and  thither  we  repaired  also.  It  was  the  Grand  Opera- 
house  of  Vienna,  and  perhaps  better  than  those  of  all 
other  places.  We  alighted  at  the  door  of  the  theatre, 
and  the  Emperor  was   awaiting  us  at  the   foot  of  the 

cuAP.  VI.]  Italy,  Aiistria.  2>ZS' 

staircase.  Giving  our  hand,  we  went  up  together.  The 
Emperor  presented  several  of  the  Lady-Princesses,  as 
follows :  The  Archduchess  Elisabeth,  wife  of  Charles 
Ferdinand ;  Marie-Eeniere,  Princess  de  Joinville,  wife  of 
the  son  of  Louis-Phihppe  and  daughter  of  the  Sovereign 
of  Brasil ;  Princess  Coburg,  daughter  of  Louis-Philippe 
and  wife  of  the  Prince  of  Coburg.  We  went  into  the  box, 
and  took  our  seat  in  the  middle,  these  Lady-Princesses 
being  to  our  right  and  left,  the  Grand-Vazir  behind  us. 
The  princes  of  Austria  and  Germany  were  all  present. 
In  justice,  it  is  a  very  noble  theatre.  The  present  Em- 
peror has  displayed  in  this  theatre  much  architectural 
talent.  It  has  five  tiers  of  seats,  and  a  lofty,  spacious, 
handsome  ceiling,  together  with  most  beautiful  branches 
for  gaslights,  chandeliers,  and  other  adornments.  The 
audience  was  numerous. 

The  curtain  rose.  So  beautiful  a  play  did  they  per- 
fonn,  with  dancing  and  music,  that  the  like  had  been 
witnessed  in  no  place  before.  The  costumes  of  the 
players  were  at  every  moment  of  a  different  shape  and 
colour,  all  of  rich  stuffs  and  delicate  tints.  This  evening- 
there  was  a  ballet.  Each  time  the  scene  changed  and 
the  dance  varied,  they  brought  out  apparatus  for  con- 
juring, with  demons,  genii,  and  fairies,  in  a  way  that  set 
one  beside  himself.  The  daughters  of  the  Fauy  of  the 
Night  were  in  a  green  and  most  charming  forest,  the 
moon  was  declining  to  its  setting,  so  that  its  sheen  was. 
reflected  in  the  water  of  a  stream, — the  moon,  the  ripples 
of  the  water,  and  the  forest,  being  all  exactly  like  real. 
A  stout  tree  had  been  blown  down  and  had  fallen  across- 

33^  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe,      [chap.  y\. 

the  stream  in  guise  of  a  bridge,  and  on  this  the  fairies 
danced.  Suddenly  demons  made  their  appearance,  and 
the  fairies  vanished ;  the  demons  danced,  and  genii  came 
forth.  Then  the  demons  disappeared  and  the  fairies  were 
seen  again.  Now  suddenly  this  green  forest  and  spring 
view  was  converted  into  a  north-polar  region  with  moun- 
tains of  ice ;  snow  fell ;  the  waters  of  the  sea  brought 
forward  pieces  of  ice  like  mountains,  and  again  washed 
them  away.  "White  polar  bears,  crocodiles,  walruses — 
sea-elephants  came  and  went  away  again  upon  the  ice. 
A  prince  was  held  prisoner  in  this  wintry  scene,  and  was 
about  to  die,  when  suddenly  the  daughters  of  the  pole 
and  the  fairies  of  the  regions  of  frost  came  forth  with 
dresses  and  hair  white  and  covered  with  snow.  They 
brought  forth  fire  from  the  earth,  warmed  the  prince,  and 
all  danced  together  in  pretty  costumes,  and  keeping  time 
to  the  music,  in  ever}^  air  played,  in  a  manner  truty 
wonderful.  The  prince,  with  his  Vazir,  had  been  made 
a  captive  in  the  house  of  a  sorcerer.  So  many  magical 
effects  did  they  represent  that  it  is  not  possible  to  describe 

Ultimately,  there  was  a  scene  that  represented  the 
bottom  of  the  ocean.  Fishes,  various  shells,  coral  flowers, 
seaweeds,  marine  flowers,  the  undulation  of  the  water  at 
the  bottom  of  the  sea,  n3rmphs  of  ocean — each  a  saucy, 
coquettish  child — flying  beneath  those  weeds  and  flowers, 
were  shown.  At  one  time,  from  within  the  shells  and 
flowers,  one  sea  nymph  would  come  forth,  most  lovely ; 
at  another,  the  angels  of  the  clouds  would  come  down 
and  dance;  sometimes  they  would  sink  into  the  earth, 

CFAP.  VI.]  Italy,  Austria,  337 

and  at  other  times  would  mount  into  the  air  in  a  balloon 
or  on  the  back  of  a  griffin,  and  again  come  down.  The 
correct  description  cannot  be  written.  Although  I  had 
not  dined,  I  did  not  desire  it  to  finish. 

At  length  all  was  concluded ;  we  rose  and  came  down. 
The  Emperor  accompanied  us  to  the  side  of  our  carriage, 
thence  departing.  We  came  to  the  station,  took  our 
seat  (in  the  train),  reached  home,  dined,  and  retired  to 
rest  late. 

Wednesday,  11th  {6th  August). — In  the  morning,  the 
Grand-Duke  Constantine,  brother  of  the  Emperor  of 
Russia,  came,  and  some  conversation  ensued.  On  ac- 
count of  the  pain  caused  by  his  foot,  he  had  a  stick  in 
his  hand.  To-day  we  have  to  go  to  Schonbrunn  in  the 
afternoon  to  see  a  review  of  troops.  At  that  time  we 
went  to  the  station  and  alighted  at  Schonbrunn,  there 
mounting  a  carriage  to  proceed  to  the  review.  We  passed 
through  streets  and  arrived  on  a  grassy  plain  with  short 
herbage  that  had  become  yellow.  The  Emperor,  sur- 
rounded by  his  staff,  was  waiting  on  horseback.  We, 
too,  mounted  a  horse,  the  Grand-Vazir,  the  Husamu-'s- 
Saltana,  and  our  Generals  being  also  mounted.  The 
I'tizadu-'s-Saltana,  the  Nusratu-'d-Dawla,  and  the  rest 
were  on  foot,  and  stood  in  front  of  a  small  room  that  had 
been  prepared  for  us,  and  furnished  with  a  chair. 

We  and  the  Emperor,  with  the  Austrian  and  Persian 
officers,  and  others,  rode  forward.  The  infantry  bat- 
tahons,  the  cavalry,  and  the  artillery,  were  drawn  up  in 
five  long  lines,  one  behind  the  other,  like  a  column.  We 
passed  with  the  Emperor  on  horseback  in  front  of  each 

22,^  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Europe,     [chap.  yi. 

of  these  five  lines,  composed  of  very  handsome  soldiers 
in  fine  uniforms ;  especially  the  regiments  of  Hungarian 
hussars  and  dragoons.  The  horses  of  the  cavalry  and 
artillery  were  all  strong  and  handsome ;  they  are  procured 
in  Hungary,  the  horses  of  that  country  being  good.  The 
dress  of  the  Austrian  infantry  has  been  of  white  cloth 
from  of  old,  as  it  still  is ;  but  according  to  what  people 
said,  the  Emperor  wishes  to  exchange  that  colour  for 
light  blue. 

Well;  after  a  long  stroll,  we  came  and  took  up  a 
position  in  front  of  that  same  wooden  hut,  and  the  troops, 
infantry,  cavalry,  and  artillery,  marched  past  in  our 
presence.  Altogether  they  amounted  to  fifteen  thousand 
men.  There  were  also  numerous  spectators.  Some  few 
individuals  of  distinction  among  the  Arabs  of  the  province 
of  Algiers,  a  portion  of  France,  had  come  to  the  Exhi- 
bition, and  were  all  there  (at  the  review)  on  horseback  in 
those  white  Arab  clothes  and  turbans.  The  Emperor 
went,  saluted  them,  and  returned.  The  names  of  those 
Arabs  were  as  follows  :  *Aliyyu-'sh-SharTfu  Farhan  ;  Mu- 
hammadu-'l-Hanafi ;  *Abdu-'d-Din  Mu'askar  ;  Hasanu- 
'bnu  -  Aqdi  -  'bni  -  Ahmada-'l  -  Jaza'iri ;  Muhammadu  -  'bnu  - 
Muhammadi-'s-Sayfi.     They  all  spoke  French  well. 

At  sunset,  when  the  review  was  over,  we  returned 
home.  The  Emperor  and  all  the  principal  officers  wore 
green  feathers  in  their  hats. 

Thursday f  l^th  (1th  August). — This  afternoon  we  have 
to  go  to  Schonbrunn  because,  the  Empress  having  come 
in  from  her  summer-residence,  there  is  a  party  there. 

After  breakfast,  -the  Emperor's  brother,  who  has  also 

CHAP.  Ti.]  Italy^  Austria.  339 

come  from  his  summer-residence,  and  whose  name  is 
Charles  Louis,  was  received.  We  gave  hands  and  mutually 
saluted.  He  was  a  very  pleasant-looking,  pleasant-spoken 
man.  It  was  about  fifteen  days  that  he  had  had  a  wed- 
ding, that  is,  he  had  married  two  wives  before,  and  both 
had  died ;  he  has  now  taken  a  fresh  wife  from  among  the 
Lady-Princesses  of  the  realm  of  Portugal,  but  born  and 
brought  up  in  the  land  of  Bavaria,  in  which  land  also 
the  Emperor's  brother  held  his  wedding.  After  a  long 
conversation  he  left. 

At  sunset  we  went  by  train  to  Schonbrunn,  arrived 
there,  and  were  met  by  the  Emperor  at  the  foot  of  the 
staircase.  We  took  one  another's  hands.  At  the  top  of 
the  stairs  the  Empress  was  waiting;  we  reached  her, 
mutually  saluted,  and  then,  giving  her  my  hand,  we  went 
into  the  first  room,  where  there  was  a  congregation  of 
the  Lady-Princesses  and  Princes  of  Austria  and  Germany, 
who  had  newly  come  in  from  their  summer-residences. 
The  Emperor  presented  the  men,  and  the  Empress  the 
women.  The  Empress  has  a  very  pleasant  face  and  a 
very  graceful  figure ;  she  is  kind  and  is  a  superior  person. 
In  health,  she  is  rather  delicate,  and  for  this  reason 
passes  the  most  part  of  her  time  at  aU  four  seasons  away 
from  the  capital.     She  is  thirty-six  years  of  age. 

WeU ;  taking  the  hand  of  the  Empress,  we  went  into 
a  large  hall,  where  the  members  of  the  Diplomatic  Corps, 
with  their  wives,  the  Princes  of  Austria  and  Germany, 
and  the  brothers  of  the  Emperor,  all  were  collected.  In 
the  haU  a  number  of  small  tables  were  laid  out  for 
supper.     The  Arabs  from  Algiers,  also,  were  all  here 

z  2 

340  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Europe,     [chap.  yi. 

this  evening.  After  a  good  deal  of  conversation,  a 
certain  number  of  individuals  took  their  seats  at  each 
table  for  supper.  Around  our  table  were  the  Empress, 
the  Grand-Vazir,  Qabuli  Pasha — ^the  Ottoman  Ambas- 
sador, Count  Andrassy — the  Austrian  Premier,  and  one 
other  elderly  woman  of  importance.  I  sat  a  long  while, 
and  had  much  conversation  with  the  Empress.  She 
expressed  great  regret  at  not  having  come  several  days 
earlier  and  at  having  come  this  evening  only  to  say 
adieu.  I,  too,  moved  by  her  demonstrations  of  kindness, 
expressed  my  friendship  at  great  length. 

When  supper  was  over,  all  rose,  and  the  Emperor 
came.  I  also  rose.  In  this  assembly  the  Emperor  had 
taken  a  seat  with  a  few  other  individuals  at  a  separate 
table,  and  had  there  supped.  We  now  went  out  on  to  a 
long  and  narrow  terrace  in  front  of  the  palace  and 
looking  on  to  the  garden,  for  the  purpose  of  witnessing 
some  fireworks.  Many  chairs  were  placed  there,  and  we 
sat  down  with  the  Empress  on  our  right  hand  and  the 
wife  of  the  Emperor's  brother  on  our  left.  The  other 
Lady-Princesses  and  women  also  took  their  places  to 
the  right  and  left.  The  Emperor  remained  on  foot,  the 
rest  of  the  company  being  some  on  foot  also,  and  some 
seated.  About  five  hundred  musicians  were  stationed 
in  the  park  and  performed  airs.  There  was  also  an 
immense  concourse  of  spectators.  The  fountains  of  the 
basins  played.  The  building  on  the  hill  opposite  to  the 
palace  where  we  were  sitting  was  illuminated  and  fitted 
with  fireworks.  The  air,  too,  was  clear,  and  the  moon 
was  shining  most  sp?endidly.     The  fireworks  were  superb. 

CHAP.  VI.]  Italy,  Austria.  341 

They  had  executed  the  Order  of  the  Lion  and  the  Sun 
m  fireworks  very  successfully.  This  was  followed  up  by 
another  display.  A  fortress  of  fire  appeared  on  the 
border  of  the  sea,  and  the  sea  itself  was  represented  by 
fire  to  the  very  life.  Ships  of  war  came  and  besieged 
this  fortress,  cannon  being  fired  from  the  ships  and  from 
the  fort ;  while  an  electric  light  was  thrown  from  the 
roof  of  the  palace  of  Schonbrunn  on  to  the  mound  and 
the  basins  of  water,  which  was  extremely  beautiful,  and 
resembled  sunshine  or  moonlight. 

At  the  termination  to  this  display  of  pyrotechny  we 
rose,  and  arm-in-arm  with  the  Empress,  while  the 
Emperor,  giving  his  arm  to  the  elderly  woman  of  im- 
portance, followed  us,  we  arrived  at  the  staircase  of  the 
palace,  said  adieu  to  the  Empress  and  Emperor,  and 
returned  home.      Thanks  be  to  God,  all  passed  off  well. 

Friday,  Idth  {8th  August). — To-day  we  must  go  to 
Saltzburg.  Kising  early  in  the  morning,  the  Emperor 
arrived  about  half  an  hour  afterwards,  accompanied  by 
the  whole  of  the  Austrian  princes,  ministers,  and  ofiicials. 
In  the  first  instance,  the  Emperor,  with  his  brothers  and 
the  princes,  came  into  the  room.  We  advanced  and 
gave  our  hand ;  we  sat  down  on  chairs  and  had  a  long 
conversation,  I  expressing  the  great  pleasure  I  had 
enjoyed  during  my  few  days'  stay  at  Laxenburg.  Gren- 
neville,  in  attendance  on  us,  came  to  say  the  time  had 
arrived  for  us  to  start.  We  arose.  In  another  room 
Count  Andrassy — the  Premier,  with  the  other  ministers, 
was  waiting.  We  exchanged  salutations,  but  I  did  not 
say  a  last  adieu  to  the  princes,  Andiassy,  and  the  rest, 

342  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Europe,     [chap.  vi. 

being  under  the  impression  that  they  would  all  come  to 
the  platform  at  the  station.  We  took  our  seat  in  a 
carriage  with  the  Emperor,  and  drove  off.  When  we 
reached  the  station  and  alighted,  the  princes  and  An- 
drassy  had  remained  behind  and  did  not  come.  We 
felt  great  regret  at  not  having  bid  them  good-bye  ;but, 
exchanging  adieux  again  with  the  Emperor,  we  took 
our  seat  in  the  train.  The  Emperor  remained  on  the 
platform  to  the  last,  so  that  even  as  the  train  glided 
away,  we  saluted  each  other. 

The  weather  to-day  in  Vienna  and  the  country  was 
very  sultry.  Again  at  the  town  of  Lintz  the  train 
stopped  for  an  hour;  and  in  the  same  place  where  they 
prepared  breakfast  on  om^  arrival,  to-day  also  was  break- 
fast made  ready.  We  alighted  and  breakfasted.  One 
hour  afterwards  we  again  took  our  places  and  were  on 
our  way. 

At  the  station  of  Lambach  the  train  halted.  The 
Sovereign  of  Hanover,  with  his  wife,  daughter,  and 
servants  of  distinction,  was  waiting  on  the  platform. 
We  alighted,  went,  and  shook  hands  with  him.  We  had 
a  lengthened  conversation,  and  I  expressed  the  utmost 
sympathy  for  the  Sovereign.  The  wife  of  the  Sovereign 
is  a  woman  of  great  good  sense,  and  is  of  middle  age. 
His  daughter  is  exceedingly  pretty,  graceful,  and  modest. 
The  summer-residence  of  the  Sovereign  is  near  to  this 
place,  and  having  heard  that  we  were  to  pass,  he  came 
(to  meet  us).  But  we  were  excessively  grieved  at  sight 
of  the  Sovereign.  He  was  a  Sovereign,  of  political 
importance,   possessed   of    treasures,    of    an   army,    of 

CHAP.  VI.]  Italy,  Austria.  343 

a  diadem.  The  Emperor  of  Germany,  through  his  wish 
to  weld  all  Germany  into  one  State,  was  under  a 
necessity  to  take  the  country  of  this  Sovereign  out  of  his 
hands.  Hence,  he  made  war,  and  quickly  routing  the 
forces  of  this  Sovereign,  made  of  his  dominions  a  portion 
of  Prussia.  The  Sovereign,  with  his  family  and  certain 
of  his  choicest  jewels,  fled  to  the  land  of  the  Austrian 
State,  and  up  to  this  time  passes  his  days  in  the  territory 
of  the  Hahshurg  Emperor.  Added  to  this  misfortune, 
both  eyes  of  the  Sovereign  are  sightless.  His  wife  takes 
him  by  the  hand  and  leads  him  about.  The  Sovereign  is 
still  quite  young-looking,  very  tall  and  robust ;  but  alas, 
his  eyes  are  blind.  According  to  what  was  told  us,  he 
had  one  weak  eye  in  his  childhood ;  upon  that,  he  was 
once  playing  with  a  purse  of  money,  or  some  other  thing, 
which  struck  him  in  the  eye  and  injured  his  sound  eye. 
His  age  is  sixty-four  {read,  fifty-four) ;  his  name  is 
George  the  Fifth,  that  of  his  wife  is  Queen  Mary, — 
a  Lady-Princess  of  Saxony,  and  of  his  daughter, 
Princess  Frederica.  Well;  we  exchanged  adieux  with 
the  Sovereign,  went  to  the  train,  and  again  proceeded, 
reaching  the  city  of  Saltzburg  at  simset.  Our  quarters 
here  were  again  in  the  same  palace  where  we  had  put  up 
on  our  arrival,  and  the  same  honours  were  shown  to  us 
as  then. 

Qabuli  Pasha,  the  Ottoman  Envoy  {read,  Ambassador) 
to  Austria,  is  instructed  by  his  Government  to  accompany 
us  to  Brindisi. 

Saturday,  lith  (dth  August). — We  have  to  go  to  the 
city  of  Innsbruck,  which  is  eighty  hours  distant  by  rail. 

344  Diary  of  a   Tour  iii  Europe,     [chap.  vi. 

In  the  morning  we  joined  the  train  and  started.  We 
traversed  the  territor}^  of  Bavaria,  and  ascended  the  Inn, 
a  very  large  stream  that  flows  into  the  river  Danube,  so 
arriving  at  the  fortress  of  Kufstein,  built  on  the  frontier 
between  Austria  and  Bavaria.  With  respect  to  the  river 
that  flows  by  this  fortress,  the  left  bank  belongs  to 
Bavaria,  while  the  right  bank  is  in  the  Tyrol,  and  part 
of  the  Austrian  dominions.  It  is  a  strong  little  fort,  in 
a  valley,  upon  an  enormous  rock.  There  was  a  garrison 
and  artillery  in  the  fort.  They  fired  a  salute.  A  wheel 
of  one  of  our  carriages  showed  a  defect,  and  we  had  to 
wait  a  quarter  of  an  hour  until  the  load  of  that  carriage 
was  removed  elsewhere.  A  battalion  of  infantry,  with  a 
band  and  numbers  of  officers  were  in  attendance.  The 
Governor  of  Saltzburg  here  received  his  conge  ^  and  left. 

Again  we  got  in  motion.  On  our  journey  hitherwards, 
we  had  passed  this  region  by  night,  so  that  nothing  of  it 
had  been  seen.  To-day  when  all  is  visible,  it  shows 
itself  to  be  a  wonderful  place — a  very  spacious  valley,  in 
the  middle  of  which  flows  a  river,  and  all  around  high 
mountains  fuU  of  forests  of  pine  and  yews.  The  hiU-tops, 
the  hill-sides,  and  the  hill-skirts  are  all  under  crops 
without  irrigation.  The  villages  are  aU  at  the  foot  of 
the  hills,  very  charming  and  pleasant. 

And  thus  we  journeyed  to  the  city  of  Innsbruck,  near 
to  which  the  air  became  cloudy,  with  wind ;  and  a  violent 
storm,  with  heavy  rain,  broke  over  us,  and  cooled  the 
temperature.  We  reached  the  city  three  hours  before 
sunset.  It  is  a  small  city,  with  a  population  of  about  ten 
thousand    souls;    a  pretty    and   delightful  hill- station 

CHAP,  vl]  Italy ^  Attstria.  345 

for  summer,  situate  in  the  midst  of  a  valley,  while  all 
around  are  lofty,  snow- clad  mountains.  In  spite  of  the 
rain,  the  number  of  spectators  was  great,  with  many 
troops  and  bands,  infantry  and  cavalry.  A  salute  was 

We  arrived  at  a  palace  of  .the  Government,  which, 
though  plain,  was  elegant  and  very  pretty,  with  nice 
tables  and  chairs,  a  very  large  and  long  hall,  and  the 
most  part  of  the  apartments  white,  being  adorned  with 
gilt  woodwork.  In  some  of  the  apartments  rich  silk 
stuffs  were  on  the  walls,  with  oil-paintings — portraits  of 
the  family  of  the  Emperor  of  Austria,  ancient  and 
recent,  hung  in  the  rooms.  Other  paintings,  too,  were 
on  the  ceilings  of  the  rooms  and  other  parts. 

To-day  the  train,  near  to  the  cit}^,  passed  over  a  bridge 
that  crosses  the  river,  and  joins  on  to  another  bridge 
(viaduct)  that  comes  over  the  meadows  and  marshes  to 
the  station  of  the  town — a  very  long  bridge,  certainly 
two  thousand  ells  (2333  J  yards)  or  more  in  extent.  The 
difficulty  and  expense  of  constructing  raiboads  arise 
from  structures  of  this  kind,  which  must  be  made  of 
great  strength.  * 

Sunday f  15th  (lOtJi  August). — We  have  to  go  to  the 
city  of  Bologna  in  Italy.  In  the  morning  we  strolled 
about  a  while  in  the  great  hall  and  viewed  the  pictures. 
The  rain  had  continued  to  fall  all  through  the  night 
until  morning.  The  weather  was  cloudy  and  misty,  but 
little  by  little  it  cleared  up.  Immediately  opposite  to 
this  palace  is  a  small  theatre,  closed  at  the  present 
season,  but  open  during  the  winter.  -, 

34^  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe,     [chap.  vi. 

The  time  to  start  having  come,  we  mounted  carriages, 
and  left  for  the  train.  Nazar  Aqa  received  his  conge, 
and  proceeded  towards  Paris.  "We  took  our  seats  in  the 
train,  and  commenced  our  journey.  As  the  road  was  all 
upon  an  ascent,  we  proceeded  very  leisurely, — about  two 
and  a  half  leagues  per  hour.  Lofty  mountains,  lovely 
valleys,  springs,  rivers,  cascades,  villages,  pretty  detached 
houses,  flowers  of  all  colours,  meadows,  green  fields,  on 
both  sides  of  the  road  were  in  profusion ;  the  weather 
also,  from  the  rain  which  had  fallen,  was  like  paradise. 
On  our  first  journey  through  this  part  of  the  country  it 
had  been  night,  and  nothing  had  been  seen  from  the 
station  of  Franzansvest  onwards  as  far  as  the  city  of 
Innsbruck, — Franzansvest  being  one  of  the  strong  fort- 
resses of  Austria, — we  have  now,  therefore,  given  the 
above  details. 

Well;  the  road  continued  everywhere  to  ascend,  and 
the  train  passed  through  ten  **  holes  in  mountains," — 
not  very  long  ones, — and  so  we  arrived  at  the  princi- 
pal peak  and  eminence  which  is  named  the  Brenner, 
and  is  four  thousand  three  hundred  and  seventy-three 
feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea.  It  is  a  very  excel- 
lent place  for  a  summer  hill-station,  and  is  very 
picturesque,  having  snow-clad  mountains  on  every 
side.  From  Innsbruck  to  this  point  the  forests  were 
dense,  the  trees  being  larches  in  general.  The  train 
stopped.  The  waters  which  flow  from  this  peak  in 
the  direction  of  Innsbruck,  towards  the  north,  fall 
into  the  river  Danube,  and  pass  thence  on  to  the  Black 
Sea ;  while   those  which  flow  southwards  towards  Italy 

CHAP.  VI.]  Italy,  Austria.  347 

fall  into  the  Po  and  the  Adige,  and  thence  into  the 

On  proceeding  again,  we  advanced  only  a  few  leagues 
and  reached  the  spot  named  Schelleberg,  when  the  train 
stopped  anew,  as  henceforward  our  road  was  to  be  all 
downhill.  I  noticed  the  Grand- Yazir,  with  the  rest, 
alighting  from  their  carriages  and  commenciag  the 
descent.  On  enquiring  the  reason,  I  was  informed  that 
it  was  a  very  interestiag  sight  to  watch  the  downward 
progress  of  the  train  from  this  place ;  and  therefore 
alighted  also,  following  them  down  the  hill.  We  walked 
a  considerable  distance  and  came  to  the  village  of 
Gossensasse.  We  passed  through  the  place  on  foot 
without  seeing  a  single  soul.  At  length  I  noticed  the 
'Imadu-'d-Dawla  and  the  I*tizadu-'s-Saltana,  who  were 
walking  alone,  and  asked  them  what  they  were  doing. 
They  answered:  **We  went  to  see  the  village  church. 
As  it  is  Sunday,  all  the  villagers  were  in  the  church, 
and  the  priest  was  addressing  them  from  the  pulpit. 
When  his  eye  fell  upon  us,  his  speech  failed  him  in  the 
pulpit,  and  he  was  thoroughly  bewildered  in  conjecturing 
who  we  might  be,  with  these  caps  and  costumes  of  ours, 
that  had  arrived  in  the  church  of  a  village  in  so  remote  a 
corner  of  Europe."  We  then  walked  on  a  good  bit 
further,  but  we  did  not  see  the  train  coming ;  it  had  got 
down  before  we  had,  and  had  stopped  for  us.  Thus 
those  who  had  expected  to  see  a  sight  were  all  dis- 
appointed, and  had  fatigued  themselves  as  well. 

We  mounted  and  went  on.  The  further  we  proceeded, 
the  smaller  were  the  mountains  ?ind  less  covered  with 

34^  Diary  of  a  Tottr  in  Europe,     [chap.  vi. 

forest;  the  atmosphere  became  more  sultry;  and  steep, 
rocky  mountains  began  to  be  seen.  Continuing  our 
journey,  we  came  to  Franzansvest,  alighted  there,  and 
they  breakfasted.  This  occupied  an  hour.  At  all  the 
stations  the  troops,  the  bands,  the  officials,  and  others, 
were  in  waiting  to  render  the  usual  honours.  Breakfast 
over,  we  resumed  our  journey  and  reached  Ala,  the 
frontier  between  Italy  and  Austria.  It  was  now  night, 
and  the  train  stopped.  Grenneville,  the  official  in  wait- 
ing, together  with  his  subordinates  on  that  duty,  were 
received  in  audience,  took  their  leave,  and  departed.  We 
showered  upon  them  every  sort  of  civilities,  and  ex- 
pressed ourselves  warmly  as  to  the  gratification  afforded 
us  by  the  Emperor's  kindnesses.  Qastiqar  Khan,  the 
engineer,  also  went  away  from  this  place  to  his  own 
country,  and  will  return  thence  to  Tehran. 

WeU ;  as  far  as  the  fortress  of  Verona,  we  had  seen 
the  country  on  our  upward  journey,  since  it  had  been 
performed  by  daylight ;  but  from  Verona  onwards  to  the 
city  of  Bologna  I  had  not  seen.  True  it  was  now  night, 
but  there  was  a  most  beautiful  moonlight,  the  mountains 
were  left  behind,  and  we  were  upon  the  plains.  I  dined 
in  the  train  ;  and  after  dinner  I  would  not  lie  down,  as  I 
pictured  to  myself  that  I  would  take  some  rest  on 
arriving  at  the  end  of  our  day's  journey.  All  my  com- 
panions went  to  sleep,  while  I  continued  to  explore  the 
plains  with  my  eyes.  The  train,  too,  was  now  going  ten 
leagues  an  hour.  I  observed  that  the  whole  plain  bore 
crops  of  Indian  corn  or  rice,  with  mulberry  trees  for 
silk.     I  noticed  a  few  eminences  and  small  hills ;  also 

CHAP.  VI.]  Italy,  Austria.  349 

numerous  habitations  on  both  sides  of  our  path, — the 
mansions  reflecting  back  the  whiteness  of  the  moon- 
light, and  producing  a  pleasing  effect.  We  passed 
through  one  "hole," — not  very  long,  and  across  two 
great  rivers  with  five  bridges ;  and  so,  at  four  hours  after 
midnight,  when  the  dawn  had  thrown  out  its  first  streaks 
of  light,  we  arrived  at  the  station  of  Bologna. 

I  was  extremely  worn  out  from  not  having  slept.  The 
Governor  of  the  town,  and  the  officer  in  command  of  €he 
troops  of  the  place,  whose  name  was  Mezzacapo,  were 
awaiting  us,  with  the  other  local  magnates.  These  people 
of  the  city  were  also,  the  whole  of  them,  worn  out  and 
sleepless ;  so  that  neither  could  they  pay  proper  attention 
to  us,  nor  could  we  rightly  consider  their  condition.  I 
mounted  a  carriage ;  when  a  telegram  arrived  from  the 
Sovereign  of  Italy,  who  was  at  a  hunting-place  in  the 
Alpine  chain,  which  expressed  his  great  pleasure  at  our 
having  again  arrived  in  his  dominions. 

We  drove  a  long  way  to  arrive  at  our  quarters, — a 
hotel  that  had  been  designated  by  Nariman  Khan.  We 
went  upstairs.  My  room  fronted  the  public  thorough- 
fare. The  noise  of  carriages,  carts,  cries  and  talk,  as 
well  as  bands,  was  such  that  to  sleep  for  one  instant  was 
simply  impossible.  However,  in  the  best  way  we  could, 
we  lay  down  for  four  or  five  hours,  and  even  this  I 
esteemed  a  great  prize. 

In  Vienna  and  in  Italy,  &c.,  excellent  water-melons 
are  raised.  The  milky  Indian  corn  is  also  found  in  great 
abundance.     Other  fruits  are  no  great  things. 

This  night  we   crossed  two   risers;   first,   the  river 

350  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe,     [chap.  vi. 

Adige,  which  passes  by  the  little  town  of  Eovigo,  and  is 
the  same  stream  that  accompanied  us  everywhere  from 
the  valleys  of  the  Tyrol  in  Austria,  after  the  road  began 
to  descend  at  Schelleberg ;  secondly,  the  river  Po,  which 
flows  by  the  city  of  Ferrara,  and  enters  the  Adriatic  Sea. 

Monday^  16th  {11th  August). — A  halt  was  made  in  the 
city  of  Bologna.  We  breakfasted  at  the  hotel.  In  the 
afternoon  we  took  a  seat  in  a  carriage  with  Dr.  Tholozan 
and  the  Governor  of  Bologna,  named  Count  Bardessone, 
and  set  out  for  a  drive.  "We  came  to  two  towers,  erected 
six  hundred  years  ago,  very  large  in  diameter,  being  like 
square  obelisks.  They  have  steps  within  them,  so  as  to  be 
ascended,  though  this  is  attended  with  great  danger ;  for 
it  is  possible  for  one  to  be  suffocated  inside  them  from 
lack  of  air.  The  one  is  a  hundred  and  three  ells  in 
height  (360  feet),  and  is  somewhat  out  of  the  perpen- 
dicular. The  other,  not  far  distant,  was  expressly  con- 
structed by  its  builder  to  lean  over  in  like  manner,  and 
had  at  first  a  great  elevation.  But,  as  its  deviation  from 
the  plumb-line  was  very  great,  fears  were  entertained  as 
to  its  safety,  and  it  was  partly  demolished ;  so  that  now 
the  half  only  is  standing. 

Next  we  drove  through  sundry  streets  and  wards, 
passing  by  the  Bank,  which  has  recently  been  erected, 
and  is  a  very  handsome  building.  The  streets  are  all 
paved  with  stone,  and  kept  clean.  Including  the  suburbs, 
the  city  has  a  population  of  one  hundred  thousand  souls. 
Carriages  and  carts  are  numerous.  It  produces  excellent 
fruits, — especially  peaches  and  water-melons. 

We  then  went  out^,  beyond  the  city,  drove  round  the 

CHAP.  VI.]  Italy ^  Austria.  351 

walls,  which  are  of  brick,  of  ancient  construction,  and 
have  several  gates,  as  well  as  a  ditch  of  no  great  depth  ; 
also  passed  by  the  Armoury — another  recent  structure. 
From  thence  the  road  began  to  ascend  in  a  southerly 
direction  to  some  hills,  on  which  people  have  built  a 
number  of  handsome  mansions.  There  was  also  one  on 
the  summit  of  an  eminence,  that  in  olden  times  had  been 
a  place  of  worship,  and  where  the  great  Popes  used  to 
lodge  when  they  came  to  this  city.  At  present  the 
Sovereign  of  Italy  has  taken  possession  of  it,  and  it  has 
become  his  private  propert3^ 

As  this  city  was,  fifteen  years  ago,  in  the  possession  of 

the  Pope,  and  its  government  in  the  hands  of  the  priests, 

so  now  it  is  entirely  the  property  of  the  State.     We 

arrived  at  the  door  of  the  edifice,  entered,  and  strolled 

about  awhile.     It  is  a  very  ancient  structure.     Coming 

out  again,  we  walked  about  all  round  it,  enjoying  the 

delightful  view  it  affords  over  the  city  and  country.     I 

observed  that,  as  far  as  the  eye  could  reach,  the  whole 

country  was  green  and  populous,  with  abundant  crops, 

and  here  and  there  isolated  mansions  that  cast  back  a 

white  gleam  from  among  the  verdure.     One  hill  there 

was,  higher  than  this  eminence  ;  and  on  its  summit  was 

built  a  beautiful  mansion,  the  summer-residence  of  one 

of  the  Khans  (noblemen)  of  Italy,  whose  name  is  Vicini. 

Well;  at  sunset  we  descended  from  thence,  entered 

the  city  by  a  different  gate,  and  passed  by  a  noble  old 

building  in  which  is  the  library  of  the  place.     According 

to  what  they  said,  it  contains  many  volumes  of  ancient 

manuscripts  and  others.    We  also,  passed  by  the  house 

352  Diary  of  a  Toicr  in  EiLrope.     [chap.  vi. 

of  the  Governor,  around  which  in  the  olden  time  a 
strong  wall  has  been  erected,  like  that  of  a  fortress.  It 
is  a  large  and  ancient  structure.  The  greater  part  of 
the  buildings  of  this  city  are  old  and  venerable,  the 
most  of  them  being  of  stone. 

The  name  of  the  hotel  in  which  we  are  lodged  is  the 
Hotel  Brune.     We   reached   our   quarters,   and  in  the 
evening  went  to   the  theatre,  a  handsome  edifice  and 
large,  with  five  tiers  of  seats.     As  we  had  expressed  a 
desire  to  see  some  performances  on  horseback,  they  had 
arranged  the  pit  of  the  theatre  like  a  circus  ;  that  is,  they 
had  enclosed  it  with  a  circular  barrier  of  wood,  and  had 
sprinkled  it  over  with  earth.     The  exhibitions  of  horse- 
manship were  similar  to  those   seen  in  Paris.     There 
were  chandeliers  and  beautiful  sconces  on  the  walls,  all 
lit  with  gas.     The  theatre  is  white,  with  gildings   on 
wood,  the  ceiling  and  other  parts  being  decorated  with 
paintings.     The  audience  w^as  numerous.     Two  women 
performed  on  the  horses ;  of  whom  one  was  very  awkward 
and   continually  fell  from   her   horse.     The   other,    an 
American,  performed  well.    There  was  also  a  pantomime 
of  vulgar  tricks.     As  we  had  not  dined,  we  soon  rose  and 
returned  home,  had  our  dinner,  and  retired  to  rest.  '■  The 
city  is   lighted  with    gas-lamps.     A   graceful,   prettily- 
dressed  girl  took  a  whip  in  her  hand  at  the  theatre,  and 
exercised  the  horses,  so  that  they  ran,  stopped,  or  stood 
upright,  as  she  commanded,  yielding  obedience  to  her 
whip,  and  submission  to  the  beauty  and  gracefulness  of 
the  girl. 

Tuesday f    VI th    {l%tli  August), — We    have    to   go   to 

CHAP.  VI.]  Italy,  Austria.  353 

Brindisi,  the  remotest  port  in  Italy,  where  some  Ottoman 
government  vessels  are  already  awaiting  to  convey  ns  to 
Constantinople.  In  the  morning  we  rose  early  and 
breakfasted.  Our  travelling  companions,  from  eagerness 
to  retm'n  towards  Persia,  all  went  to  the  station;  but 
our  departure  is  put  oif  until  three  hours  before  sunset. 
We  lingered  at  the  hotel  for  a  short  time  after  breakfast, 
and  then,  to  pass  away  the  time,  mounted  a  carriage, 
and  went  to  see  the  library.  There  we  found  a  collection 
of  the  grandees  and  officials  of  Italy.  It  is  a  long 
corridor ;  and  there  we  saw  some  writings  in  the  Egyptian 
character,  written,  two  thousand  years  ago,  on  the  surface 
of  wood,  which  had  been  rendered  clear  and  delicate, 
like  paper.  Also,  one  of  the  Pharaohs  of  Egypt  had 
sent  one  of  his  great  captains  to  a  certain  place  on  a 
mission  to  purchase  horses,  three  thousand  years  ago ; 
and  he  t6o  had  written  in  detail  the  incidents  of  his 
journey  on  that  kind  of  paper- wood,  in  Egyptian  and  in 
Hebrew.  They  said  they  had  deciphered  it;  but  the 
translation  was  not  forthcoming.  A  considerable  part  of 
the  wood  and  writing  had  fallen  to  pieces  by  decay.  The 
writing,  as  is  the  case  in  Persian  and  Ottoman  Turkish, 
is  written  from  right  to  left. 

There  were  also  some  objects  usually  found  in  rauseums, 
of  the  sculptures  of  Eg3^t  and  other  places ;  and  further- 
more, some  things  which  have  been  recovered  from  the 
cemeteries  of  Bologna  itself  were  also  placed  there. 
Anciently  it  had  been  a  custom  that  when  any  one  died, 
they  should  bury  with  that  person  enough  provisions  for 
several  days,  together  with  certain  'other  articles ;  and 

A  A 

3  54  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Eicrofie.     [chiap.  \l. 

these  very  articles  are  the  things  that,  after  an  interval 
of  two  thousand  years,  have  been  recovered.  So  much 
so,  that  the  shells  of  the  eggs  that  were  so  deposited  for 
the  dead  man  to  eat,  have  been  collected  and  placed 
here.  The  bones  of  several  dead  persons,  so  cleaving  to 
the  earth,  have  been  brought  forth,  and  set  up  on  foot. 
In  the  hand  of  one  of  these  dead  men  there  w^as  a  copper 
coin  of  the  period,  which,  as  I  saw,  had  remained  in  his 
hand.  This  coin  was  given  into  his  hand  for  the  purpose 
that  when  he  came  to  the  bridge  of  Sirat  (that  spans  the 
abyss  between  this  world  and  paradise),  he  should  hand 
it  over  to  the  toll-keeper  of  the  bridge,  in  order  that  he 
might  allow  him  to  pass  in  safet3%  Another  of  the  dead, 
that  had  been  a  woman,  has,  as  I  saw,  a  necklace  on  her 
neck,  together  wdth  a  ring  on  the  bone  of  her  finger.  In 
short,  it  is  a  very  comprehensive  library  and  museum. 
The  building,  which  is  very  ancient,  was  formerly  a 
college  with  many  professors,  who  had  come  from  all 
parts  and  gave  lessons  of  philosophy  and  other  things 
within  its  precincts.  After  seeing  as  much  as  was 
possible,  we  returned  to  our  carriage  and  drove  to  the 
railway  station. 

The  time  for  starting,  however,  had  not  yet  come ;  and 
so  we  had  to  wait  half  an  hour  in  a  room  at  the  station. 
The  Governor  of  the  town,  the  commanders  of  the  troops,. 
and  others,  were  all  there.  When. the  time  came,  we 
went  and  took  our  seat  in  the  train,  which  was  no  longer 
the  same  (that  brought  us),  but  had  been  changed.  The 
present  one  was  the  property  of  the  Italian  Brindisi 
Hallway  Company,  Ihe  cars  of  which  do  not  communicate* 

CHAP.  VI.]  Italy^  Austria.  355 

In  the  car  that  followed  behind  the  one  in  which  we  were 
seated,  there  was  a  coffee-maker  and  the  like ;  so  that 
whenever  we  expressed  a  wish  for  a  galayan  (hubble- 
bubble),  or  other  thing,  they  stretched  forth  their  hands 
and  reached  it  (to  us). 

We  started.  For  the  first  half  league  there  were  at 
all  points  on  oui*  right  hand  hills  backed  up  by  lofty 
mountains ;  on  our  left,  a  green  plain,  with  populations, 
trees,  and  crops.  Behind  those  mountains  one  can  go 
even  unto  Florence,  one  of  the  chief  cities  of  Italy.  In 
Eimini,  a  small  town,  the  Adriatic  Sea  was  first  seen, 
looking  very  prett}^  But  as  we  advanced  a  little  further, 
some  hills  interposed  an  obstacle,  hiding  the  sea  from 
our  sight.  The  mountains  on  our  right,  too,  came 
nearer.  There  were  populations,  mansions,  villages,  and 
pretty  towns,  upon  the  hills  and  in  the  plain.  We  passed 
by  Pesaro,  Fano,  and  other  places,  where  the  train 
stopi)ed  for  a  few  minutes,  and  where  great  crowds  were 
collected  with  the  hope  of  seeing  us ;  so  much  so,  that 
thej'  even  fell  under  the  wheels  of  our  carriages  in  their 
eagerness.  Extremely  pretty  women,  and  very  handsome 
boys,  whose  featured  were  half-way  between  those  of 
Persians  and  Franks,  were  noticed. 

We  then  came  to  Ancona,  a  seaport  of  importance ; 
but  it  was  now  dark,  and  nothing  of  it  was  seen. 
Crowds  flocked  on  to  the  railway  ;  a  band  also  -was  there 
playing.  The  Governor,  military  officers,  and  magistrates 
of  the  town  were  received  in  audience.  The  Sovereign 
of  Italy  had  specially  commissioned  the  Minister  of 
Commerce  and  Agriculture  to  presen'l  his  congratulations 


356  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe,     [chai'.  vi. 

on   our  arrival.      His   name   was   Baron  Fin^l.     After 
starting  thence  we  dined  and  la}^  down  to  rest. 

Wednesday,  ISth  (ISth  August). — In  the  morning,  on 
awaking,  the  air  was  very  cool.  "While  sleeping,  we  had 
passed  by  the  town  of  Foggia.  We  now  reached  Barletta, 
Bari,  and  Monopoli,  stopping  at  each  a  few  minutes ;  and 
so  arrived  at  the  town  of  Brindisi.  From  Barletta  to 
the  neighbourhood  of  Brindisi,  both  sides  of  the-  road 
was  everywhere  a  plantation  of  olive-trees ;  and  some 
ancient  olive-trees,  five  hundred  years  old,  were  noticed. 
The  greater  part  of  the  olive-oil  of  Firangistan  is  ex- 
ported from  these  localities.  Cotton  also  was  culti- 

Brindisi  is  an  ancient,  old-looking  city ;  but  since  the 
railway  has  been  established,  it  has  begun  by  degrees  to 
be  repopulated,  and  is  now  a  seaport.  The  post  and 
despatches  from  England  for  India  go  by  this  route; 
also  those  from  India  for  England,  through  the  Eed  Sea 
and  Egypt.  The  people  of  these  parts  are  extremely 

The  train  stopped.  Crowds  had  collected.  Eshref 
Pasha,  who  was  formerly  Envoy  in  Tehran,  had  come 
with  the  Ottoman  ships ;  and  the  Grand- Vazir  introduced 
him  to  an  audience,  with  Qabuli  Pasha,  Serkis  Efendi — 
the  Minister  Resident  in  Italy,  and  others  who  had  come 
from  Constantinople ;  and  with  them  we  conversed. 
Qabuli  Pasha  returns  hence  to  Vienna.  After  that,  the 
Governors,  civil  and  military,  with  other  Italian  magnates 
residing  here,  and  the  foreign  Consuls,  were  also  received. 
We  then  walked  to  t*he  ship. 

CHAP,  y I.]  Italy y  Austria.  357 

Two  sliips  have  come  from  His  Most  Exalted  Majest}^ 
the  Sultan  ;  one  named  the  **  Sultaniyya,"  a  yacht  of  the 
Sultan  himself,  which  has  been  brought  for  our  accommo- 
dation. I  had  not  seen  in  Firangistan  a  yacht  so  beau- 
tiful and  so  decorated.  She  has  a  spacious  hall  and 
rooms  full  of  rich  furniture.  The  other  ship  was  named 
the  "  Taira,"  also  a  beautiful  vessel.  In  our  ship,  room 
was  wantmg.  The  Grand-Yazh%  our  household  officers, 
and  Dr.  Tholozan,  remained ;  and  all  the  rest  went  to 
the  *'  Taira."  Through  the  transport  of  our  luggage, 
and  the  dispersal  of  the  people,  we  remained  five  hours 
at  the  anchorage  ;  but  we  shall  get  under  way  for  Con- 
stantinople at  two  hours  to  sunset. 

In  Firangistan,  thanks  be  to  God,  all  has  passed  safely 
and  happily ;  God  willing,  the  end  of  our  tour  will  be 
equally  pleasant  and  auspicious. 

Our  journey  to-day  from  Foggia  to  this  place  was  not 
through  a  part  so  much  improved  by  man ;  the  greater 
portion  being  a  wilderness,  with  clumps  of  heather  and 
such  like.  It  had  been  arranged  that  we  should  start  in 
another  five  hours ;  but  in  consequence  of  a  high  wind 
springing  up,  we  remained  all  night  in  harbour. 

19^/t  {Thursday,  14:th  August). — In  the  morning  I  arose. 
At  one  o'clock  of  the  day  (eleven  before  sunset)  we 
started.  The  princes  and  others  who  had  gone  to  the 
"  Tali^a,"  all  came  back  to  our  vessel,  with  the  exception 
of  Ibrahim  Khan,  M.  Kichard,  Nariman  Khan,  the 
brother  of  Mirza  Malkam  Khan,  and  our  horses,  saying 
she  was  a  very  nasty  place,  and  complaining  of  the  dirt 
and   biting  beasts.     Several   had, even  been  bitten  by 

358  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Europe.     [cuAr.  vi. 

cockroaches,  and  not  one  of  them  had  been  able  to 

Well;  the  dmner  and  breakfast  served  up  by  the 
Sultan's  cook  were  very  excellent.  Thanks  be  to  God, 
the  weather  was  fine,  though  there  Avas  a  little  wind,  and 
the  frequent  waves  kept  the  ship  in  motion.  We  lay 
down  for  a  space,  and  on  rising  we  had  reached  the 
land's-end  of  Italy,  the  parts  about  Otranto ;  that  is,  in 
three  hours  after  leaving  Brindisi,  we  had  arrived  there  ; 
and  as  we  were  close  in  with  the  shore,  the  waves  were 
much  diminished.     We  now  took  our  breakfast. 

At  half  an  hour  to  sundown  we  were  abreast  of  Corfu, 
which  we  passed  to  our  left.  The  mountains  of  the 
island  were  visible;  but  it  was  at  a  distance  of  ten 
leagues  or  more  from  us.  It  is  the  largest  of  the  seven 
Ionian  islands,  formerly  in  the  possession  of  England. 
Ten  years  ago,  however,  she  voluntarily  ceded  them  to 
the  kingdom  of  Greece.  The  weather  was  very  fine  and 
cloudless,  free  from  wind.  The  stars  twinkled,  and,  as 
the  moon  was  twenty  nights  old,  she' rose  late;  but,  as 
she  emerged  from  the  sea,  she  offered  a  glorious  spectacle. 
Another  singular  sight,  too,  I  witnessed  from  the  ship's 
windows.  The  waters  of  the  sea,  cleft  b}^  the  paddles  of 
the  steam-wheel  of  the  ship,  were  converted  into  foam, 
and  assumed  the  appearance  of  a  white  stream,  in  which 
I  remarked  a  very  curious  phenomenon.  Incessantly, 
from  amid  the  water,  and  within  the  foam,  did  fire  shoot 
forth,  like  lightning.  As  when  the  shoe  of  a  horse 
strikes  against  a  stone,  or  when  a  flint  strikes  a  light,  or 
when  the  wheel  of  a  diamond-cutter  gives  out  the  electric 

CHAP,  vl]  Italy^  Austria.  359 

light,  in  like  manner  did  this  fire  incessantty  shine  forth. 
It  was  more  abundant  in  the  midst  of  the  foam,  less  so 
in  the  rest  of  the  water. 

20f/6  {Friday,  15th  August), — In  the  morning,  at  one 
o'clock  of  the  day,  we  were  opposite  to  the  island  of 
Cephalonia,  one  of  the  seven  Ionian  islands,  and  passed 
it  on  om-  left.  To-day  the  sea  was  calm,  and  there  was 
no  wind  at  all ;  so  we  breakfasted.  AVe  passed  by  the 
island  of  Zante, — one  of  the  seven  Ionian  islands,  and 
also  by  Navarino,  where  the  ships  of  the  three  Powers — 
Russia,  England,  and  France,  fought  with  those  of 
Turkey  and  Egypt  for  the  independence  of  Greece,  and 
entu'el}^  finishing  ofi'  the  Turkish  and  Eg3^ptian  ships, 
set  fire  to  them ;  and  at  that  epoch,  the  maritime  prepa- 
rations of  Turkey  being  entu-ely  destroyed,  the  kingdom 
of  Greece  was  separated  from  the  Turkish  dominions, 
and  obtained  a  separate  Sovereign.  That  battle  took 
place  forty  years  ago,  in  the  days  of  Sultan  Mahmud 
Klian,  father  of  the  present  Sultan.  In  those  days 
steamers  were  not  in  general  use  ;  all  ships  were  sailing 

Well ;  the  shores  of  Greece  are  little  inhabited.  It 
was  evident  that  in  those  mountains  there  was  a  great 
lack  of  water.  I  examined  them  through  a  telescope ; 
they  were  generally  barren,  with  only  a  few  shrubs  on 
some  of  them.  The  mountains  further  inland  were 
higher.  The  land  of  Greece  has  offered  to  notice  Aris- 
totle, Plato,  Hippocrates,  Socrates,  Alexander  the  Great, 
and  the  ancient  philosophers  and  poets. 

At  sunset  we  were  abreast  of  Cape  Matapan,  on  the 

360  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Eitrope.     [chap.  vi. 

skirts  of  the  mountains  of  which  a  good  many  habitations 
were  observed,  all  of  which  belonged  to  the  population  of 
Matapan  itself.  The  houses  and  buildings  w^ere  white. 
Each  family  establishment  had  a  kind  of  tower,  of  great 
strength ;  as  though  these  parts  enjoy  no  great  degree  of 
security,  and  therefore,  by  way  of  simple  i)recaution,  the 
houses  are  built  strong.  The  mountains  hereabouts  are 
extremely  barren  and  waterless,  having  no  verdure,  not 
even  a  bush.     All  are  rocky. 

In  the  night  we  entered  the  straits  of  (Cape)  Malea, 
passing  between  (Cape)  Malea  (Cape  St.  Angelo)  and  the 
island  of  Cerigo ;  this  island  being  on  our  right,  and  the 
cape  on  our  left.  Hence  we  turned  our  faces  towards 
the  quarter  where  the  sun  rises,  in  the  direction  of  (Con- 
tinental) Greece  and  Constantinople.  Up  to  this  time 
there  had  been  no  wmd ;  but,  on  reaching  this  strait,  a 
light  breeze  sprang  up,  and  caused  the  ship  to  oscillate. 

21s^  (Saturday,^  16th  August), — When  I  arose  in  the 
morning,  the  wind  was  blowing;  but  the  weather  was 
fine,  and  the  waves  not  very  rough.  Half  an  hour  after 
the  morning  twelve  o'clock,  according  to  the  Persian 
method  of  computing  time  (by  which  sunset  is  always  at 
twelve  in  the  evening),  we  arrived  off  the  Gulf  of  Athens. 
Athens  is  the  capital  of  the  kingdom  of  Greece. 

We  next  passed  through  the  straits  of  Zea,  leaving 
that  island  on  our  right,  and  the  cape  of  Athens  (Cape 
Colonna;  Cape  Sunium)  on  our  left;  but  the  city  of 
Athens  was  far  oif,  behind  the  Cape,  and  therefore  was 
not  seen.  The  island  of  Zea  is  very  famous  and  cele- 
brated, through  a  book  written  by  Fenelon  about  the 

CHAP.  VI.]  Italy  J  Austria.  361 

adventures  of  Ulysses,  who  was  king  of  the  island,  and 
was  lost  in  the  war  of  Troy,  his  son  Telemachus  going 
off  in  quest  of  him ;  but  it  is  very  small,  and  barren ; — 
destitute  of  water,  grass,  and  trees.  The  coast  of  the 
promontory  of  Athens,  too,  has  many  barren  mountains. 
On  om^  left  hand,  upon  the  shore  of  Greece,  were  the 
remains  of  an  ancient  building,  which  I  surveyed  through 
a  telescope.  They  are  upon  a  rock  on  the  edge  of  the 
sea,  and  have  many  stone  columns,  like  the  ruins  of 
PersepoHs ;  as  was  said,  they  are  of  marble ;  but  some 
are  broken,  and  have  fallen  down.  These  remains  were 
in  ancient  days  a  temple.  In  Greece,  and  especially  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  Athens,  there  are  many  such 

After  three  or  four  hours  we  passed  through  ih% 
channel  between  the  islands  of  Negropont  and  Andros. 
Negropont,  on  our  left,  is  a  very  large  island,  and  is 
attached  to  Greece;  Andros,  on  our  right,  is  a  small 

At  one  hour  and  a  half  to  sunset  we  were  opposite  the 
little  islet  of  Psara,  which  belongs  to  the  Ottoman;  and 
behmd  it  was  Scio,  a  large  island,  called  Saqiz  (Mastic 
Island)  by  the  Ottomans.  On  our  left  again  was  the 
island  of  Skyros,  which  belongs  to  Greece ;  but  it  was 
far  off  and  not  visible. 

The  distance  from  Brindisi  to  Constantinople  is  seven 
hundred  and  eighty  miles,  which  is,  in  Persian  reckoning, 
two  hundred  and  sixty  leagues.  The  weather,  thanks  be 
to  God,  was  beautiful ;  but  an  adverse  wind  blew  unin- 
terruptedly.    The  ship  stoutly  held  her  own  against  the 

362  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  E^irope.      [chap.  vi. 

billows,  and  made  good  way ;  but  one  league,  out  of  lier 
speed  of  three  leagues  per  hour,  was  cut  off;  so  that  she 
only  went  at  a  rate  of  two. 

I  went  to  rest.  At  half-past  six  o'clock  (from  sunset) 
the  ship  suddenl}^  stopped ;  which  alarmed  us.  I  asked, 
and  was  told  she  had  been  pui-posely  stopped,  since  the 
channel  of  the  Dardanelles  was  near  at  hand,  and  they 
did  not  wish  to  enter  it  by  night.  In  order  to  be  quite 
sure  and  to  know  that  the  ship  had  no  defect,  I  said  they 
might  go  on  for  another  half  hour.  They  then  went  on 
again,  and  I  resumed  ni}'  couch.  When  the  half  hour 
expu'ed,  the  ship  was  again  stopped.  The  moon  had 
now  newly  risen,  and  the  weather  was  very  temperate. 
Two  hours  later,  we  again  made  way  towards  the  Dar- 


TURKEY ;  11  DAYS. 

^  ^  ND  {Sunday y  17th  August). — When  I  arose  in 
..Ai^  ^^ta^  the  mornmg  it  was  two  o'clock  of  the  day, 
and  we  i)assed  by  a  small  island  on  our  right  hand, 
named  Tenedos,  from  the  fortress  of  which  a  salvo  of 
guns  was  fired.  Oii  our  left  hand,  opposite  to  Tenedos, 
was  the  island  of  Lemnos,  rather  large. 

After  breakfast  we  arrived  at  the  (entrance  to  the) 
channel  of  the  Dardanelles,  on  both  sides  of  which  they 
have  constructed  strong  forts.  The  first  of  these  forts  is 
that  of  Tenedos,  on  the  right  hand ;  the  second,  on  the 
left  hand,  on  the  European  shore,  is  Seddu-'l-Balir 
(Barrier  of  the  Sea) ;  and  on  the  right,  opposite  the 
Sedd,  is  Qum-QaPasi  (Fort  of  the  Sands);  the  third,  on 
the  left,  in  Europe,  Shahin  QaPasi  (Fort  Falcon),  which 
is  in  ruins,  and  on  the  summit  of  a  hill ;  it  was  formerly 
a  stronghold,  and  still  has  a  garrison,  with  guns.  After 
this  comes  the  Qal'a-i-Sultaniyya  (Fort  Sultan),  on  the 
left,  in  Asia ;  there  being  also,  to  the  left,  and  opposite 
this  fort,  several  other  forts,  towers,  and  batteries.  Fort 
Sultan  (at  the  town  of  the  DardaneU'es)  has  many  guns, 
and  its  walls  are  built  of  stone.    J[t  had  a  garrison  of 

364  Diary  of  a  Tour  tn  Europe,     [chap.  vh. 

troops,  and  around  it  were  numbers  of  buildings  and 
mansions,  with  beautiful  houses.  To-day  we  have  noticed 
many  ships,  merchantmen,  yachts,  and  others.  The 
ships  of  the  Austrian  (Lloyd's)  Company  frequently 
passed  by.  These  castles  and  fortifications  have  always 
been  in  existence  from  days  of  old,  and  the  Ottoman 
Sultans  have  repaired  them ;  not  that  they  have  newly 
erected  forts.  On  the  left-hand  side,  opposite  the  town 
around  Fort  Sultan,  there  was  (another)  grouj)  of  build- 
ings on  the  shore  of  the  channel,  which  is  named  KilTdu- 
'1-Bahr  (Key  of  the  Sea).  The  whole  of  these  erections 
are  portions  of  the  Dardanelles  (Chanaq  QaPasi,  Fort 
Crockery;  so  named  from  the  great  manufacture  of 
coarse  earthenware  carried  on  in  and  around  the  town, 
which  also  bears  this  name,  and  represents  the  ancient 
Abydos,  as  the  village  at  the  Kilid  represents  the  ancient 

Well ;  at  five  o'clock  of  the  day  we  arrived  before  the 
town  of  the  Dardanelles,  and  a  salvo  was  fired  from  each 
of  the  forts.  There  was  also  a  large  Ottoman  ship  of 
war  at  anchor  there,  which  fired  a  salvo, — a  fine  shij) 
with  three  masts  and  thirty  guns.  Muhammad  Kushdi 
Pasha,  known  by  the  patronymic  of  Shirwani-Zada  (son 
of  the  man  of  Shirwan — in  Georgia),  and  actual  Grand- 
Vazir  of  the  Ottoman  State,  had  come  to  the  Dardanelles 
to  meet  us  on  the  part  of  the  Sultan.  Our  ship  also 
cast  anchor,  and  came  to  a  stop  in  front  of  Fort  Sultan. 
As  it  is  but  ten  hours'  steaming  from  this  place  to  Con- 
stantinople, if  we  sliould  go  on  at  once  to-day,  we  should 
reach  there  by  nigh{;;   hence  we  remain  here  until  the 

oHAr.  VII.]  Turkey.  365 

afternoon ;  and,  please  God,  we  shall  proceed  during  the 
night,  so  as  to  arrive  at  Constantinople  in  the  morning. 

The  Ottoman  Grand-Vazir,  and  Hajji  Muhsin  Khan — 
the  Persian  Minister  Plenipotentiary,  came  on  board  from 
the  shore  in  a  boat.  Our  Grand-Vazir  introduced  the 
Ottoman  Grand-Vazir  to  an  audience.  Shirwani-Zada 
is  a  sagacious  man  of  great  intelligence  and  understand- 
ing, of  a  pleasing  disposition  and  well-spoken,  and  is 
corpulent,  thickset,  and  short,  with  a  round  black  beard, 
and  speaks  Persian.  After  a  few  minutes'  conversation 
he  went  out,  and  presently  returned  again,  with  our 
Grand-Vazir,  and  presented  the  following  personages 
who  were  with  him :  Kan'an  Bey — Amedi  of  the  State 
Council  (Secretary  for  all  incoming  official  communica- 
tions) ;  Nazif  Pasha,  Governor- General  of  the  islands  in 
the  Egsean  Sea ;  Ej^yiib  Pasha,  commanding  in  chief  the 
forces  stationed  at  the  forts  in  the  channel  of  the  Dar- 
danelles; Emm  Efendi,  Custos  Rotulorum  of  the  pro- 
vince ;  Esh-Sherif  Rushdi  Efendi,  judge  of  the  province, 
who  wore  a  turban ;  Nesh'et  Bey,  chief  of  the  office  of 
investigations,  who  also  wore  a  turban;  Mustafa  Bey, 
colonel  of  artillery;  another  Mustafa  Bey,  lieutenant- 
colonel,  aide-de-camp  of  the  Grand-Vazir;  Sami  Bey, 
colonel  of  police  of  the  province ;  Hafiz  Bey,  colonel ; 
Rushdi  Bey. 

At  one  hour  and  a  half  to  sunset  we  weighed  anchor 
and  resumed  our  voyage  towards  Constantinople.  Some 
very  graceful  Franldsh  Avomen  had  mounted  in  boats, 
and  came  near  to  our  ship.  There  are  many  foreign 
Consuls  at  the  Dardanelles,  who,  have  built  handsome 

366  Diary  of  a   Tour  m  Europe,     [chap.  vn. 

houses.  Our  Grand- Vazlr  mounted  a  boat  and  went 
ashore  to  return  the  visit  of  the  Ottoman  Grand-Vazir. 
The  Ottoman  Grand-Vazir's  steam  yacht  is  a  very  hand- 
some vessel,  and  followed  in  our  wake,  the  TalPa  bringing 
up  the  rear. 

"VVe  went  on.  On  both  sides  of  the  channel  were  fine 
forts  with  many  guns.  We  passed  three  or  four  forts 
and  batteries  of  earthworks,  erected  after  the  system  of 
the  Franks.  Those  which  are  after  the  new  system  of 
Firangistan  have  been  raised  witliin  the  last  ten  or  fifteen 
years ;  the  rest,  which  have  stone  walls,  are  from  times 
of  old.  On  either  side  of  the  channel  there  are  hills ; 
and  behind  them  again,  mountains ;  all  full  of  forests  and 
trees.  Gallipoli  and  its  fortifications  are  at  the  (upper) 
extremity  of  the  channel  of  the  Dardanelles,  from  whence 
one  enters  into  the  little  Sea  of  Marmara.  From  the 
commencement  of  this  channel  to  its  extremity'  next  the 
Sea  of  Marmara  is  (a  distance  of)  forty  miles,  that  is, 
twelve  Persian  leagues.  We  passed  Gallipoli  in  the  dark, 
so  that  it  was  not  seen. 

23riZ  (Monday,  ISth  August). — When  I  arose  in  the 
morning,  the  coasts  on  either  hand  were  visible  at  a 
distance.  The  ship,  too,  had  proceeded  slowly.  On 
nearing  Constantinople  a  si)eed  was  kept  up  that  would 
bring  us  to  the  entrance  of  the  Bosphorus  at  the  prefixed 
hour  of  five  o'clock  in  the  day  (about  noon  at  that  season). 
I  dressed.  By  slow  degTees  we  neared  the  land  on  our 
left — the  Rum-Eyli  or  European  side ;  and  some  build- 
ings and  habitations  became  visible,  beautiful  houses 
being  there  built.    Sopie  manufactories  were  also  noticed, 

CHAP.  VII.]  Tier  key.  367 

which  they  said  were  small-arms  works  and  cloth-mills. 
The  whole  of  the  shore  was  hilly  and  rolling  ground,  with 
fir  and  cypress  trees,  and  also  forest  trees.  They  gene- 
rally plant  the  cypresses  in  and  about  the  cemeteries ; 
but  there  are  also  cypresses  in  the  valleys  and  upon  the 

Passing  on  from  these  habitations,  Islambul  (a  word 
that  has  been  coined,  in  times  gone  by,  as  a  substitute 
for  the  common  Istanbul,  vulgarly  Stambul,  formed  from 
cts  r^i;  TTo'Air,  to  or  at  the  city — the  capital,  i.e.,  to  or  at 
Constantinoj^le,  as  we  say :  to  or  in  town,  i.e.,  to  or  in 
London)  came  in  sight.  Again  we  took  a  turn  about,  in 
order  that  the  time  might  arrive.  Then  the  ship  *'  Sul- 
taniyya  "  stopped,  and  we  went  in  a  boat  to  a  ship  of  the 
Sultan's,  named  the  "  Pertev-i-Piyala  "  (Ray  of  the  Goblet) 
which  is  the  name  of  the  Sultan's  mother,  —  that  had 
been  sent  with  the  Grand-VazTr  to  the  Dardanelles  in 
order  that  we  might  enter  the  Bosphorus  in  her, — and  in 
which  the  Grand-Vazir  was  embarked,  following  in  our 
wake.  The  Ottoman  Grand- Yazir  came  to  our  vessel, 
and  again  accompanied  us  to  the  "  Pertev."  This  ship  is 
smaller  than  the  "  Sultaniyya,"  but  is  extremely  elegant 
and  pretty.  Its  cabin  is  fitted  up  with  inlaid-work,  and 
is  richly  furnished.  I  went  on  to  the  deck  of  the  vessel. 
About  three  thousand  Persian  subjects,  of  whom  there 
are  great  numbers  in  Constantinople,  had  embarked  in 
five  large  steamers,  and  come  out  to  meet  us.  They 
brought  their  ships  near  to  mine ;  and  just  at  that 
moment  our  Grand- YazTr,  with  the  princes  and  others  in 
a  boat,  was  coming  from  that  ciher  ship  to  this  one, 

368  Diary  of  a   Toitr  in  Europe,     [chap.  vn. 

when  one  of  the  vessels  with  the  Persian  subjects  on 
board,  turned  on  her  steam  and  made  way,  so  as  to  come 
nearer  to  our  ship ;  and  little  did  it  lack  that  she  did  not 
strike  against  the  boat  of  the  Grand-Vazir  and  others, 
and  drown  them  all.  God  showed  mercy,  and  by  some 
means  they  escaped,  reached  (our  ship),  and  came  up  (on 
deck).  The  greater  part  of  our  household  officers  were 
even  in  their  State  costumes.  The  other  household 
officers,  and  others,  all  remained  in  the  first  ship. 

Well;  we  proceeded.  On  our  right  hand  were  a 
number  of  islands  (Princes'  Islands),  with  hills  and  trees  ; 
some  even  with  a  sprmg  of  water.  They  told  me  that 
mansions  are  being  built  for  certain  Franks  and  wealthy 
Ottomans,  so  that  in  summer  they  may  go  thither  for 
strolls ;  but  we  saw  no  buildings.  It  may  be  that  they 
are  in  valleys  and  behind  the  hills. 

"We  arrived  at  the  beginning  of  the  habitations  of  the 
city  of  Islambul.  On  the  left  hand  is  the  land  of  Europe ; 
on  the  right,  the  land  of  Asia.  We  proceeded  in  the 
vicinity  of  the  land  of  Europe.  Certain  steam  ships,  in 
which  the  foreign  ambassadors  were  embarked  to  come 
and  meet  us,  were  observed.  The  first  of  the  habita- 
tions were  some  houses.  Next,  there  commences  an 
ancient  stone  wall,  with  towers.  This  is  a  fortress 
dating  from  the  days  of  the  Caesars.  As  this  kind  of 
fortifications  are  no  longer  of  any  use,  they  do  not  repair 
it ;  but,  since  it  is  all  of  stone  and  very  strong,  the  most 
X)art  of  it  still  remains  standing.  This  wall  surrounds  the 
old  city  of  Islambul,  the  whole  of  which  is  on  the  summits 
of  hills,  on  their  slopes,  or  in  their  valleys.     The  habita- 

CHAP.  VII.]  Turkey,  369 

tions  of  the  city  extend  the  whole  length  of  the  Bos- 
phorus ;  but  these  have  not  much  width  ;  and  the  great 
hulk  and  busy  part  of  the  inhabited  quarters,  the  city  and 
stronghold  of  Islambul,  is  within  this  fortress,  and  from 
hence  to  the  old  palace  (at  Seraglio  Point),  to  the  palace 
of  Beshik-Tash,  to  the  Sultan's  waterside  residence  of 
•Chiragan,  within  which  are  the  great  mosques,  like  those 
of  Saint  Sophia  and  other  imperial  cathedrals,  the 
Government  Offices  (the  Downing  Street  of  Constanti- 
nople— the  *'  Porte  " — the  "  Sublime  Porte,"  as  it  is 
called  in  Europe), — in  which  the  Ministers  and  Coun- 
cillors of  State  have  their  places  of  business,  the  Ministry 
•of  War,  the  Ministry  of  Mines  and  Commerce,  barracks 
of  great  extent,  hospitals,  bazaars,  caravanserais,  and  the 
like ; — all  are  there.  Beyond  these,  too,  every  part  of 
the  Bosphorus,  the  summits  of  the  hills  and  of  the  moun- 
tains, are  all  inhabited  and  covered  with  fine  houses, 
mosques,  and  the  like,  as  far  as  BTyuk-Dera  (Buyouk- 
dereh)  and  Tarapiya  (Therapia),  which  are  the  summer- 
stations  of  the  foreign  Representatives.  These,  however, 
are  detached  and  isolated  from  each  other.  On  the  riglit 
hand,  again,  which  is  the  Asiatic  shore,  and  is  also 
called  Iskyudar  (Scutari),  tli£re  are  magnificent  build- 
ings and  beautiful  mosques;  especially,  the- barracks  of 
Selimiyja-^^MOst  splendidly  built.  This  side  also,  like 
other,  is  all  hill  and  vale,  with  woods  of  cypress, 
pine,  aiid  oak.  Every  one,  too,  who  has  a  mansion  and 
garden,  plants  orchards  of  fruit-trees,  kitchen-gardens, 
and  flower-gardens,  bringing  water  to  those  gardens  and 
trees  with  the  greatest  taste.     The  ^rest-trees,  however. 

2)'Jo  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Europe.     [cHAr.  vn. 

require  no  water,  being  independent  of  irrigation.  Ac- 
cording to  information  received,  on  the  other  side  of 
these  hills  there  are  extensive  and  dense  forests  that  can- 
not be  penetrated ;  but,  as  the  hills  themselves  are  near 
to  habitations,  the  greater  part  of  their  trees  have  been 
cut  down ;  only  a  certain  number  of  pines,  cypresses,, 
and  others  have  been  preserved  to  ornament  the  houses 
and  hills. 

Well;  after  the  wall  and  towers,  there  was  a  i^lace 
made  famous  by  the  name  of  the  Seven  Towers,  which 
was,  as  it  were,  the  ark,  the  citadel  of  this  city.  It  has 
walls  of  stone  and  several  large  towers.  It  acquired  its 
celebrity  from  this  circumstance,  that,  formerly,  the 
Ottoman  Sultans,  with  whatsoever  State  they  declared 
war  or  took  offence,  immediately  seized  upon  the  person 
of  the  Representative  of  that  State  resident  m  Constan- 
tinople, together  with  his  subjects  and  attaches,  cast 
them  into  prison  in  the  Seven  Towers,  and  sometimes 
even  put  them  to  death. 

After  that  place,  we  came  abreast  of  the  cathedral 
mosque  of  Sultan  Ahmed,  of  that  of  St.  Sophia,  and  of 
others ;  and  then  reached  the  old  Seraglio,  the  former 
residence  of  the  Ottoman  Sultans,  which  is  built  uj^on 
the  summit  of  a  lofty  eminence,  with  a  strong  wall  all 
round  it.  The  Ottoman  Sultans  no  longer  inhabit  it- 
The  "  Sublime  Porte,"  also,  and  other  edifices,  were 
noticed  at  a  distance.  The  residence  of  the  Persian 
Minister  Plenipotentiary,  built  by  this  our  present  Grand- 
Yazir,  is  also  within  that  i^art  of  the  city,  and  is  a  ver}^ 
handsome  building,   t 

CHAP.  Yii.]  Ttirkey.  371 

Next  we  reached  the  offing  of  Galata  and  of  Bey-Oglii, 
x,e,,  Pera,  the  winter  place  of  residence  of  the  Foreign 
Representatives,  and  where  the  greater  portion  of  the 
Franks  have  their  quarters.  Then  we  came  upon  the 
palace  of  Dolma-Bagcha,  —  called  also  the  palace  of 
Beshik-Tash, — where  the  Sultan  dwells,  with  the  Harem, 
the  Sultana-Mother,  and  others  of  the  imperial  familj^ 
as  also  the  princes  of  the  blood.  This  is  a  very  fine 
and  imposing  edifice ;  and  was  built  by  the  Sultan 
'Abdu-'l-Mejid  Khan,  who  was  the  reigning  Sultan's 
brother.  Passing  thence  we  came  abreast  of  the  sea- 
side palace  of  Chiragan,  —  an  exceedingly  beautiful 
structure.  It  was  originally  founded  by  the  Sultan 
Mahmud  Khan,  father  of  the  present  Sovereign,  who  has 
recently  renovated  and  completed  it.  At  last  we  came 
in  front  of  the  palace  known  by  the  name  of  Beyler- 
Beyi,  our  own  quarters,  situated  to  the  right,  on  the 
Anatolian  side,  and  on  the  brink  of  the  Bosphorus.  It 
is  so  called  from  being  built  in  the  parish  of  that  name, 
and  is  a  very  stately  structure. 

As  the  current  of  the  waters  of  the  Bosphorus  sets 
from  the  Black  Sea  towards  the  Sea  of  Marmara,  and  is 
very  rapid,  Uke  that  of  a  river,  in  certain  places,  espe- 
cially in  front  of  this  palace,  where  it  attains  its  utmost 
velocity,  our  ship  could  not  cast  anchor  immediately 
opposite  to  the  palace ;  but,  passing  about  a  thousand 
feet  further  up  the  channel,  stopped  there. 

A  few  moments  later.  His  Most  Exalted  Majesty  the 
Sultan,  who  was  at  the  palace  of  Beyler-Beyi,  mounting 
a  boat  which  he  had  caused  to  be  specially  prepared  for 

BB  2 

2,"] 2  Diary  of  a  Toicr  in  Europe,     [chap.  vn. 

us,  came  on  board.  We  took  seats,  and  the  two  Grand- 
Vazirs  also  seated  themselves.  After  a  little  conver- 
sation we  arose,  descended  from  the  ship,  got  into  the 
boat  with  the  Sultan ;  the  two  Grand- Vazirs,  and  Husayn 
'Avni  Pasha — the  Minister  of  War,  were  also  with  us  in 
the  boat.  We  arrived  at  the  stairs  of  the  palace,  and 
landed.  A  battalion  of  infantry,  with  a  band,  were  in  the 
court  and  garden  of  the  palace,  the  band  playing.  The 
Sultan  led  us  upstairs,  and  pointed  out  to  us  the  apart- 
ments and  rooms  of  our  quarters  ;  then,  after  the  ex- 
change of  numerous  civilities,  he  returned  to  his  own 
residence.  The  Sultan's  age  is  forty-four — the  same  as 
our  own. 

To-day,  as  we  came  up  the  Bosphorus,  numerous 
salutes  were  fired  from  the  forts,  and  from  the  war-ships 
of  the  Ottoman  fleet.  We  noticed  four  large  war  steamers 
in  the  Bosphorus, — some  of  which  were  armour-clad, — and 
which  are  always  anchored  in  front  of  the  Sultan's  palace. 

Well;  half  an  hour  afterwards  I  mounted  my  boat, 
with  the  Grand- Vazir,  the  Mu'tamadu-'l-Mulk,  and  the 
(Ottoman)  Grand  Master  of  Ceremonies — 'Ali  Bey;  and 
went  to  return  the  visit  of  the  Sultan  at  the  palace  of 
Dolma-Bagcha.  This  is  a  very  magnificent  edifice,  the 
greater  part  of  the  staircases,  the  panels  of  the  walls,  the 
columns,  and  the  like,  being  of  marble.  The  Sultan 
met  us  at  the  foot  of  the  stairs.  In  the  very  warmest 
manner  we  gave  our  hand,  went  upstairs,  sat  a  while 
conversing,  and  then,  rising,  returned  to  our  quarters 
and  made  ourselves  at  home. 

The  palace  of  Berler-Beyi  is  a  most  beautiful  struc- 

CHAP.  VII.]  Turkey.  373 

ture.  Its  stairs,  and  tli6  panels  of  the  walls  of  the 
staircases  are  all  of  marble.  It  is  partly  in  the  Euro- 
pean, j)artly  in  the  Persian,  and  i)artly  in  the  Ottoman 
styles ;  being  by  this  means  extremely  pleasing  to  the 
eye.  The  whole  of  the  furniture  in  the  rooms,  such  as 
curtains,  chairs,  sofas,  tables^  looking-glasses,  chande- 
liers, and  candelabras,  are  very  rich  and  elegant.  The 
rooms  are  hung  with  rich  European  stuifs ;  the  windows 
are  all  in  single  sheets  of  plate-glass,  very  wide,  long, 
and  heavy ;  but  arranged  in  such  a  manner  that  a  child 
can  easily  raise  and  lower  them  ten  times  in  succession, 
opening  them  to  any  desired  extent,  and  leaving  them  so 
without  support,  prop,  or  assistance  of  any  kind.  As 
left,  so  they  remain ;  and  one  can,  without  danger,  put 
one's  head  out  of  window  under  them.  We  had  seen 
similar  windows  in  London.  They  are  a  very  excellent 
contrivance.  The  whole  of  the  windows  in  all  the 
Sultan's  palaces  are  of  plate-glass  and  on  this  plan. 

The  width  of  the  Bosphorus  is  more  than  a  thousand 
ells  (nearly  1200  yards).  One  can  distinguish,  without 
the  aid  of  a  glass,  every  one  who  i3asses  along  on  the 
other  side,  in  whatever  coloured  dress  he  may  happen  to 
be.  A  musket-ball  could  easily  traverse  the  interval 
between  the  two  shores.  The  depth  of  the  water  is  from 
ten  to  twenty  ells  (35  to  70  feet,  6  to  12  fathoms)  ;  some 
parts  being  as  much  as  a  hundred  and  ten  ells  (385  feet, 
64  fathoms)  deep.  The  largest  ship  of  war  can  navigate 
every  part  of  the  Bosphorus. 

The  position  and  site  of  the  city  of  Constantinople 
are  without  rivals   in  the  worlds*    For  instance  :    One 

374  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Europe,     [chap.  vn. 

can  purchase  in  tlie  New  World  the  chandeliers,  tables, 
chairs,  and  furniture  of  a  whole  palace,  and,  without  the 
deposition  of  a  spot  of  dust  upon  them,  or  their  being 
again  moved,  can  bring  them  to  the  foot  of  the  palace  on 
the  Bosphorus,  and  there  open  them.  Marbles,  ko.., 
an3'thing  one  desires  for  his  mansions  can  be  brought 
from  all  countries  with  the  greatest  facility  to  this  place. 
In  like  manner,  merchandize  of  every  description  can  be 
brought  in  ships  easily  from  all  parts  of  the  world,  and 
exported  hence  in  like  manner. 

There  is  one  very  spacious,  handsome,  and  highly 
decorated  hall  in  this  palace  of  Beyler-Beyi.  The 
greater  part  of  the  ceilings  are  of  wood  and  boards,  but 
exquisitely  painted.  The  mats  which  cover  the  floors 
are  of  the  finest  quality ;  and  over  these  are  extended 
narrow  slips  of  European  carj)eting,  upon  which  people 
walk.  Beneath  this  hall  is  a  place  with  a  basin  of  water, 
of  marble,  and  very  handsome.  Water  flows  into  the 
basin  from  certain  figures,  the  basin  being  of  one  block 
of  marble.  The  temperature  here  is  very  agreeable,  and 
exactly  suited  to  the  summer  weather.  It  has  columns 
of  marble  also. 

Our  suite  are  all  lodged  in  this  palace.  Within  it  is  a 
handsome  hot-and-cold  bath  of  marble,  with  small  basins 
of  marble  around  it,  each  provided  with  taps  for  hot  and 
cold  water.  As  it  was  some  time  since  we  had  taken  a 
bath,  we  made  use  of  this  opportunity,  and  then  went 
for  a  stroll  in  the  gardens,  where  we  walked  about  a  con- 
siderable time.  The  garden  being  on  the  skirts  of  a 
hill,  is  subdivided  into  terraces,  one  above  the  other ; 

<t'HAr.  VII.]  Ttcrkey.  3)5 

^ach  terrace  having  marble  steps  on  either  side  for  going 
up  and  down.  Around  each  terrace  also  are  small  hand- 
rails of  bronze ;  and  upon  these  are  single  gas-lamps, 
•here  and  there.  The  sustaining  wall  of  each  terrace  is 
covered  with  ivy — the  plant  that  climbs  up  plane-trees 
and  is  alwaj's  green, — which  clings  to  it  and  clothes  it, 
•as  it  were,  in  a  most  beautiful  robe  of  emerald.  There 
are  also  pear-trees,  peach-trees,  plum-trees,  apple-trees, 
and  the  like  ;  as  also  lovely  flower-beds  of  elegant  com- 
position, in  the  European  stj^le.  There  are  handsome 
statues  and  sculptures  of  marble,  of  maned-lions  of 
Africa,  and  others,  around  basins  of  water ;  as  well  as 
statues  of  bronze,  of  horses  and  bisons.  Five  or  six 
terraces  are  thus  laid  out  in  handsome  gardens,  and  are 
provided  with  marble  steps,  balustrades,  and  the  like  ; 
having  charming  views  over  the  Bosphorus.  On  the 
upper  terraces  there  are  also  some  beautiful  lodges  and 
■pavilions,  all  forming  part  of  the  establishment  of  this 
palace  of  Beyler-Beyi.  We  went  through  them  all ; 
they  are  most  elegantly  furnished.  There  was  one 
building  with  a  basin  of  water  and  a  fountain,  of  marble, 
very  handsome ;  against  the  walls  on  two  sides  of  the 
room  were  ranged  sculptured  marbles  also,  in  the  form 
-■of  large  vases,  carved  out  in  three  rows ;  on  the  top  of 
each  one  of  the  upper  vases  was  a  tap,  and  when  this 
was  opened  a  small  stream  of  beautifully  clear  water  ran 
out  of  it  into  the  first  vase.  As  soon  as  the  top  row  of 
vases  became  brimful  and  running  over,  the  water  flowed 
into  those  of  the  second,  and  thence  again  into  the  third 
row,  the  vases  of  which  resembled*  small  basins,  and  had 

3  7^  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Europe,     [chap,  yh, 

eacli  a,  hole  through  which  the  water  disappeared.  This 
was  very  chaste  and  i)leasiiig ;  also  spreading  around  in 
the  room  a  delightful  coolness. 

In  these  upper  terraces  and  gardens  the  Sultan  has 
dovecotes,  with  large  numbers  of  pigeons — very  spacious. 
The  keepers  were  at  their  post,  and  they  preserve  the 
place  in  the  highest  degree  of  neatness.  The}"  said  the 
Sultan  often  comes  there  to  see  the  birds.  Besides 
these,  there  were  parrots  of  all  colours,  sporting  dogs, 
and  a  stud  of  hunters,  cocks  and  hens,  and  other  animals. 
We  strolled  about  there  a  good  long  while ;  and  then 
descending,  retui'ned  to  our  quarters. 

Between  the  origmal  city  of  Constantinople  proper  (on 
the  one  hand),  and  Galata,  with  Pera  and  the  parish  of 
Qasim-Pasha  (on  the  other),  there  is  another  inlet 
besides  the  great  channel  of  the  Bosphorus ;  and  the 
further  extremity  of  this  inlet  (the  Golden  Horn) 
extends  as  far  as  the  hills  and  mountains.  The  width 
of  this  inlet  is  much  less  than  that  of  the  Bosphorus 
itself.  There  are  two  bridges  across  it,  that  afford  a 
passage  between  Galata  and  Constantinople. 

24^/t  {Tuesday,  19th  Augiist) . — This  day  we  breakfasted 
at  home ;  and  after  breakfast  the  Diplomatic  Body  resi- 
dent at  Constantinople,  as  also  the  Ottoman  Ministers, 
came  to  audiences.  Before  them,  however,  Ferid  Pasha 
had  come  on  the  -pRvt  of  the  Sultana-Mother  with  a 
message  of  welcome,  congratulations  for  our  safe  arrival, 
and  kind  enquiries  as  to  our  health.  The  Ottoman 
Ministry  were  next  received,  and  then  the  Diplomatic 

CHAP.  Yii.]  Turkey.  377 

First,  Ignatief,  the  Russian  Ambassador,  came ;  and 
we  had  some  conversation  in  a  small  room.  He  is 
young,  good-looking,  and  pleasant-spoken.  He  shaves 
his  beard,  but  has  a  moustache. 

He  left,  and  Elliot  (the  Eight  Hon.  Sir  Henry  George 
Elliot,  G.C.B.),  the  English  Ambassador,  came  in.  He- 
shaves  his  chin,  but  has  a  beard  on  his  cheeks.  With 
him,  too,  we  had  a  long  conversation. 

When  he  went  out,  we  came  into  the  hall  where  all 
the  other  Representatives  of  Governments,  together  with 
their  respective  suites,  were  drawn  up  and  standing.  In 
the  first  place,  the  Russian  Ambassador  presented  his 
suite,  to  the  number  of  about  twenty  souls.  Next  the 
English  Ambassador  presented  those  of  his  mission. 
AVe  then  approached  the  other  Representatives,  and 
some  words  were  exchanged  with  each.  The  following 
are  the  names  of  these  Representatives,  and  of  the  Otto- 
man Ministers : 

Ottoman  Ministers. 

Muhammed   Rushdi    Pasha,    Shirwani-Zada,    Grand- 
Vazir  ; 
•Midhat  Pasha,  President  of  the  'Adhyya  Council ; 
Riza  Pasha,  ex-Minister  of  Marine  ; 
Husayn  *Avni  Pasha,  Minister  of  War ; 
Rashid  Pasha,  Minister  of  Foreign  Affairs  ; 
Ahmed  Pasha,  Minister  of  Marine  ; 
Jevdet  Pasha,  Minister  of  Public  Instruction  ; 
Hamdi  Pasha,  Minister  of  Finance ; 
Kyani  Pasha,  Minister  of  Public  »Works ; 

37^  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Ew^ope.     [chap.  vn. 

Malimud  Pasha,  Minister  of  Commerce  ; 

Sadiq  Paslia,  Minister  of  Taxes ; 

Kemal  Pasha,  Minister  of  Estates  in  Mortmain  ; 

Galib  Bey,  Gustos  Rotulormn  of  the  Privy  Domain. 

FoREiGx  Representatives. 

Ignatief,  Ambassador  of  Russia  ; 
Elliot,  Ambassador  of  England  ; 
Lesourd,  Charge  d' Affaires  of  France  ; 
Ludolf,  Minister  of  Austria  ; 
Euhmann,  Minister  of  Germany  ; 
Grimberghe,  Minister  of  Belgium ; 
Covo,  Charge  d' Affaires  of  Italy  ; 
Booker,  Minister  of  the  New  World  ; 


At  five  hours  to  sunset  we  went  in  a  boat  to  the  ship 
'"  Pertev-i-Piyala,"  took  our  seat  on  board,  and  started 
for  a  i^romenade  on  the  water  to  the  upper  parts  of 
the  Bosphorus  in  the  direction  of  Biyuk-Dera  (Large 
Talley).  From  the  palace  of  Beyler-Beyi  to  the  utter- 
most limit  of  the  Bosphorus,  which  is  at  Biyuk-Dera,  is 
half  an  hour's  voyage  in  a  steamer.  The  following  are 
the  most  beautiful  of  the  palaces  and  seaside-residences 
which  we  noticed  on  the  Bosphorus.  On  our  right 
hand,  the  shore  of  Asia:  1.  The  palace  of  Gyuk-Su 
(Azure  Rivulet),  one  of  the  buildings  of  the  Sultan 
•*Abdu-'l-Mejid  Khan,  is  a  small  pavilion  of  two  stories, 
the  steps  and  walls  of  which  are  all  of  marble,  this 
marble  being  carved  oid  sculptured  in  the  most  charm- 

.€HAP.  vir.]  Turkey.  379 

ing  manner.  The  ornamental  furniture  thereof  is  also 
entirely  from  the  days  of  the  late  Sultan  'Abdu-'l-Mejid 
Khan,  as  is  attested  by  his  cj^her  being  on  them.  There 
is  also  a  small  park  and  garden  around  this  pavilion, 
which  are  very  pleasant  places.  A  small  stream  flows 
into  the  Bosphorus  near  to  it,  the  name  of  which  is 
Oyuk-Su,  i.e.,  azure  rivulet;  and  from  it  the  pavilion 
takes  its  name. 

The  greater  part  of  the  marbles  that  are  used  in  the 
{construction  of  the)  palaces  of  Constantinople  is  brought 
from  the  quarries  of  Italy. 

2.  The  palace  of  the.  Lady- Sultana  *Adila,  sister  of  the 
Sultan,  is  a  very  splendid  palace  and  garden. 

3.  The  house  of  the  Sharif  *Abdu-'l-Muttalib,  former 
Sharif  (Prince)  of  Makka  the  Magnified,  who  now  con- 
strainedly sojourns  at  Constantinople. 

4.  The  house  of  the  late  Fu'ad  Pasha,  Minister  of 
Foreign  AfFaii'S. 

5.  The  house  of  Rashid  Pasha,  present  Minister  of 
Foreign  Affairs. 

6.  The  house  of  Res'uf  Bey  (son  of  Rif  at  Pasha,  a 
former  Minister  of  Foreign  Affairs,  &c.).     And  others. 

On  the  European  shore,  being  at  our  left  hand  : 

The  different  mansions  of  the  Foreign  Representatives, 

which  are  generally  handsome  buildings  with  beautiful 

gardens.     Such  are : 

7.  That  of  the  Russian  Ambassador  ; 

8.  The  sea-side  residence  of  the  Khidiv  of  Egypt,  very 
beautifully  built. 

9.  The  sea-side  residence  of  the  Lady-Sultana  Fatima, 

380  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Europe,     [chap.  vn. 

daughter  of  the  late  'Abdii-l-Mejid  Khan.  These  two 
edifices  are  built  in  the  quarter  named  Emirgyan. 

10.  The  house  of  Kushdi  Pasha,  the  Grand- Vazir. 

In  short,  we  went  on  until  we  had  passed  Biyuk-Dera^ 
where  the  waters  of  the  Bosphorus  have  produced  a 
valley,  that  has  swerved  somewhat  to  the  left,  and  around 
which  are  palaces  and  mountains.  They  have  named  it 
Biyuk-Dera  ;  which  means  :  Big  Valley.'  We  then  re- 
turned, and  the  ship  was  stopped  oi)posite  to  the  palace 
of  Gyuk-Su,  where  we  went  in  a  boat  to  the  palace,  and 
strolled  all  over  it.  It  was  a  very  sweet  place.  Again 
we  mounted  our  ship,  returned,  and  came  home. 

25it/t  (Wednesday,  20th  August). — To-day  we  are  the 
guests  of  the  Sultan  to  breakfast  at  the  sea-side  residence 
of  Chiragan.  We  went.  At  the  landing-place,  the  Otto- 
man Grand-Vazir,  Midhat  Pasha,  the  Minister  of  War, 
the  Minister  of  Marine,  the  Minister  of  Foreign  Affairs, 
and  others,  were  waiting.  To  each  was  addressed  an  en- 
quiry as  to  health.  The  Sultan  was  on  the  stairs ;  we 
gave  hands  and  saluted ;  then  went  up  stairs.  In  the 
first  place  we  adjourned  to  a  private  room,  and  sat  awhile 
with  the  Sultan ;  our  Grand-Vazir  being  also  present. 
We  then  rose  and  went  into  another  room,  where  a  table 
was  laid  out  in  European  fashion.  We  took  our  seats, 
and  breakfast  was  dispatched.  We  talked  much  with  the 
Sultan.  The  Sovereign  of  England  had  addressed  a 
telegram  to  us  from  Scotland,  with  an  enquiry  after  our 
health,  and  containing  a  similar  enquiry  after  the  health 
of  the  Sultan.  This  selfsame  telegram  we  this  dny  com- 
municated to  the  Suitan,  and  gave  him  the  salutation  of 

CHAP.  VII.]  Turkey.  381 

the  Sovereign  of  England.  Breakfast  over,  we  retired  to 
another  room,  sat  down,  and  took  coffee ;  after  which, 
rising,  we  went  home. 

In  the  afternoon  we  went  out  of  the  upper  garden-gate 
(the  hack  or  land  gate)  of  this  palace,  mounted  our  horse, 
and  went  for  a  ride,  as  I  wished  to  go  to  the  top  of  a  high 
hill  (Chamlija),^  more  lofty  than  any  of  the  rest,  and 
from  thence  enjoy  a  view  of  the  city,  the  Bosphorus,  and 
their  environs.  We  pushed  on  through  streets,  hy  in- 
hahited  places,  and  handsome  isolated  houses ;  and 
observed  a  beautiful  house  and  garden  belonging  to  the 
Khidiv  of  Egypt ;  so  arriving  at  the  summit,  I  rode  the 
horse  of  the  Yaminu-'d-Dawla.  I  alighted  on  the  sum- 
mit of  the  hill,  where  the  air  was  very  cool.  The  condi- 
tion of  the  hill,  of  the  plants,  and  of  the  atmosphere,  was 
very  similar  to  that  of  the  hills  and  atmosphere  of  Kajur- 
Kala,  a  village  of  Mazandaran.  A  tomb,  with  a  room 
for  a  single  keeper,  were  there,  on  the  top  of  the  hill, 
extremely  small.  The  keeper  was  there  himself  also. 
He  said  that  there  a  Pir  (saintly  Elder)  and  Dervish 
(voluntarily  poor  man)  had  been  buried.  I  entered.  The 
tomb  was  long.  The  view  was  most  magnificent.  Be- 
hind the  hills  to  the  east  there  is  a  vast  plain  that  goes 
through  Anatolia  as  far  as  Tehran ;  perhaps,  it  may 
extend  as  far  as  China.  Mountains  were  visible ;  but  of 
habitations,  not  many  were  observed.  Towards  the  west, 
the  Sea  of  Marmara,  five  inhabited  islands,  together  with 
ships  that  were  either  stopping,  coming,  or  going,  were 
visible.  On  the  north  side,  were  Biyuk-Dera  and  the 
Bosphorus.     In  short,  it  was  a  beswtiful  23lace. 

382  Diary  of  a   Toui""  in  Eui^ope.     [chap.  vu. 

We  then  descended  by  a  different  path,  and  arrived  at 
a  street  paved  with  stones,  where  the  horse  had  a  diffi- 
culty to  keep  his  feet.  We  even  walked  a  certain  distance,, 
and  so  returned  to  the  palace. 

26f/i  (Thursday,  21st  August). — We  breakfasted  at 
home  ;  after  which  we  went  to  the  city  of  Islambul  to« 
j)ay  visits  to  the  mosque  of  Saint  Sophia  and  the  resi- 
dence of  the  Persian  mission. 

Before  we  started,  Yusuf  *Izzu-'d-Din  Efendi,  eldest 
son  of  the  Sultan,  who  is  sixteen  years  of  age,  and  a 
handsome  prince,  came  to  see  us.  We  took  our  seats  in. 
a  room,  had  a  little  conversation,  and  the  "  Most  Sacred 
Order,"  with  its  broad  ribbon,  which  is  one  of  the  "  most 
noble  Orders  "  of  the  Persian  State,  was  conferred  upon 
the  prince,  A  few  minutes  after  he  had  departed,  we 
mounted  our  boat  and  went  to  the  palace  of  Cluragan  to 
return  the  visit  of  Yusuf  *Izzu-'d-Din  Efendi.  Kising 
from  thence,  we  again  mounted  our  boat  and  proceeded 
to  the  landing-place  of  the  cit}''.  Crowds  of  the  i)eople 
of  Constantinople,  of  Persian  subjects,  and  of  Franks, 
had  assembled  in  ships  and  on  shore.  The  Beyler- 
Beyi  (lord  of  lords)  of  the  city,  named  Isma^il  Pasha, 
called  also  the  Shehr-Emini  (Prefect  of  the  City) 
was  present  with  the  members  of  the  administration, 
some  regular  cavalry,  and  numerous  policemen,  to  keep 
the  people  in  order.  We  took  our  seat  in  an  open  car- 
riage. Although  the  streets  go  up  hill  and  down  dale, 
still  a  carriage  can  go  about  everywhere.  We  drove 
along,  and  arrived  at  the  mosque  of  Aya-Sofiya  (Saint 
Sophia,  7]   ayia  (ro(^ta„  the  holy  wisdom),  alighted,  and 

CHAP.  VII.]  Ttcrkey,  38 


entered.  The  servants  of  the  mosque  were  drawn  up  in 
rows,  and  enquiries  were  made  of  their  health.  Kemal 
Pasha,  the  Minister  of  Estates  in  Mortmain,  was  also- 
present.  This  is  a  very  imposing  and  ancient  mosque,, 
the  whole  of  it  built  of  stone.  The  area  of  the  mosque 
is  very  extensive,  the  central  part  under  the  dome  exceed- 
ingly spacious  and  lofty.  The  height  of  the  dome  from 
the  floor  may  be  about  seventy  ells  (245  feet).  Its- 
building  dates  from  one  thousand  thi^ee  hundred  and  ten 
years  ago  (having  been  erected  by  the  Emperor  Justinian 
I.  who  died  in  a.d.  h^^)..  It  had  been  an  idol-temple  at 
first,  then  became  a  Christian  church,  and  after  the 
taking  of  Constantmople  by  Sultan  Muhammad  the  Con- 
queror, was  converted  into  a  mosque,  as  it  now  is.  From 
the  reason  that  it  was  not  originally  a  mosque,  the  pray- 
ing-direction of  its  altar  is  slantwise.  It  has  numerous 
pulpits,  and  in  the  daj^s  of  Ramazan  and  the  like,  ser- 
mons and  worship  are  conducted  in  several  parts  of  it 
(simultaneously).  There  is  a  place  constructed  especially 
for  the  Sultan  in  the  first  gallery,  so  that  whenever  he 
may  come  (here),  he  performs  his  devotions  in  that  place 
and  no  one  sees  him.  There  are  some  sculptures  and 
carvings  in  the  stone  capitals  of  the  columns  in  the  upper 
story  ;  and  in  the  ceiling  there  are  some  mosaics  of  stone^ 
also.  But,  through  the  lapse  of  time  and  the  great  dura- 
tion of  this  mosque,  it  has  fallen  from  its  original  splen- 
dour.  One  side  of  it  is  even  somewhat  cracked  and  sunk.. 
It  is  like  a  venerable  tree  from  which  the  freshness  of 
youth  has  departed. 

WeU ;    we  here  performed  our  jiiidday  and  afternoon. 

384  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  E2i7^ope.     [chap.  vn. 

devotions  (together) ;  and  then  proceeded  to  the  library, 
where  there  are  about  two  thousand  volumes  of  books, 
the  whole  in  Arabic,  on  jurisprudence,  theology,  rhetoric 
of  sense,  rhetoric  of  expression,  history,  metaphysics,  and 
the  like,  open  to  the  use  of  every  one  who  may  come 
there,  sit  down,  and  study. 

We  next  went  up  to  the  galkry,  the  middle  story  of 
the  mosque,  around  which  are  columns,  and  which  looks 
down  over  the  (floor  of  the)  mosque ;  whenever  the  con- 
gregation is  very  numerous,  people  sit  here  likewise. 
The  way  to  it  was  long ;  but  there  were  few  stairs  to 
momit,  as  the  path  was  a  wide  flagged  corridor  on  an  in- 
cline and  in  zigzag.  We  went  about  here  a  little,  and 
then  descended  again.  In  this  story  it  is  plainly  visible 
that  one  side  of  the  building  has  given  way. 

We  now  drove  off  to  the  residence  of  the  Persian 
Minister,  an  edifice  erected  by  our  Grand-Vazir  himself 
(when  Minister  Plenipotentiary).  We  reached  the  gate, 
where  a  crowd  of  Persians,  Ottomans,  and  Franks  had 
assembled.  We  entered  and  went  up  stairs  by  a  marble 
staircase.  It  is  a  very  grand  building,  furnished  with 
curtains,  chairs,  sofas,  chandeliers,  and  the  like.  We 
remained  there  a  while,  partook  of  some  fruit  and  tea, 
returning  home  afterwards. 

For  the  evening  there  was  an  invitation  to  a  state  ban- 
quet at  the  palace  of  Beshik-Tash,  to  which  I  went  in 
court  costume.  The  whole  of  our  princes  and  officers  of 
state,  all  the  Corps  Diplomatique  and  Ottoman  Ministers 
were  present.  We  entered  the  palace  ;  the  Sultan  came 
to  the  foot  of  the  stairs ;    we  gave  hands,  went  up,  and 

CHAP,  yii.]  Turkey.  385 

took  seats  at  first  in  a  private  room,  the  Grand  Vazir 
being  also  present.     After  a  short  interval  dinner  was 
announced.     We   then  went  into   a   hall  where  all  the 
members  of  the  Diplomatic  Corps  were  standing  in  a  row. 
The  Sultan,  with  the  interpretership  of  Eashid  Pasha — 
the  Minister  of  Foreign  Aifairs,  addressed  words  of  com- 
pliments and  recognition  first  to  the  Eussian  Ambassador, 
next  to  the  English  Ambassador,  and  so  on  to  each  one 
of  the  others.     After  him  I  too,  with  the  interpretership 
of  the  Grand- Vazir,  conversed  likewise  with  the  Eepre- 
sentatives  ;    onl}^  that  I  was  not  so  much  in  need  of  an 
interpreter,  as  I  spoke  French  myself.     This  (ceremony 
of)  conversing  with  the  Diplomatic  body  occupied  half  an 
hour ;    after  which  we  went  down  stairs  to  a  large  and 
very  magnificent  hall,  where  the  dinner-table  was  spread. 
I  and  the  Sultan  were  at  the  upper  end  of  the  table ;  I 
to  the  right,  the  Sultan  to  the  left.     Considerably  lower 
down,  away  from  us,  to  the  right  was  the  Eussian  Am- 
bassador, then  the  English,  next  the  'Izzu-'d-Dawla,  the 
Husamu's-Saltana,    Midhat    Pasha,  the  Mu'tamadu-'l- 
Mulk,  &c.,  to  the  end ;    while  on  the  left,  far  away  from 
the  Sultan,  was  first  the  Persian  Grand-Vazir,  then  the 
Ottoman  Grand-Vazir,  next  the  I*tizadu-'s-Saltana,  the 
Nusratu-'d-Dawla,  the   (Ottoman)  Minister  of  War,  &c., 
to  the  end.     There  was  a  very  large  and  beautiful  chan- 
delier suspended  in  the  middle  of  the  hall,  lighted  up 
with  gas ;  and  there  were  other  gas-lights  in  candelabra 
and  in  sconces  on  the  walls.     This  hall,  together  with  its 
furniture,  is  one  of  the  constructions  of  the  late  Sultan 
('Abdu-'l-)  Mejid  Klian.     Around  it  is  a  gallery,  in  which 

386  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Etirope.     [chap.  vn. 


was  an  orchestra  playing  airs ;  but  when  they  struck  up 
their  music,  one's  ears  were  filled,  and  nobody  could 
converse.  An  excellent  dinner  was  served.  When  this 
was  over,  I  and  the  Sultan,  with  the  two  Grand-Vazirs, 
the  Miuister  of  War,  the  Russian  and  the  English  Am- 
bassadors, again  retired  to  a  separate  room,  where  coffee 
was  handed  round,  and  where  much  conversation  took 
place.  Then  we  rose  and  returned  home.  The  night 
being  dark,  caution  had  to  be  used  in  conducting  the 
boat  across  the  Bosphorus. 

27^/i  {Friday f  ^%id  August). — Breakfasted  at  home 
to-day;  after  which  the  Spanish  Charge  d'Affaires  at 
Constantinople,  and  a  deputation  of  Armenians,  were 
received  in  audience.  After  them  came  two  individuals, 
magnates  of  the  Jews,  dressed  in  Frankish  costume,  who 
read  a  prolix  address  in  French.  Next  we  dressed  in 
state  costume,  and  'Abdu-'l-'lah,  the  photographer,  who 
takes  good  likenesses,  and  is  by  origin  a  Christian  and 
a  Frenchman,  but  who  has  assumed  this  name,  took 
several  negatives  of  us.  After  this  we  mounted  our  boat, 
went  onboard  the  (Ottoman)  ship  of  war  the  "  'Aziziyya," 
and  inspected  her  above  and  below.  This  ship  was 
built  in  London,  and  is  a  very  fine  vessel.  The  sailors 
and  marines  on  board  went  through  their  exercise. 

Leaving  her,  we  went  by  boat  to  the  "Pertev-i-Piyala," 
a,nd  started  for  the  (Princes')  Islands.  Salutes  were 
fired  from  all  the  men-of-war.  We  reached  the  islands, 
which  are  five  in  number,  two  small,  and  three  com- 
paratively large.  They  have  many  forest  trees  of  oak, 
and  verdant  hills,  with. various  shrubs  and  herbaceous 

CHAP.  VII.]  Turkey.  387 

plants.  European  merchants  and  others  have  there 
built  pretty  houses,  and  there  is  a  Naval  College — a  fine 
building,  where  pupils  study  for  the  sea  service.  Oppo- 
site to  the  college  a  ship  of  war  was  anchored,  in  which 
they  are  taught  afloat  certain  practical  parts  of  their  pro- 
fession. On  each  of  the  islands  there  are  habitations 
and  handsome  houses.  They  have  no  soft  water  or 
fountains;  but  what  they  have  is  drawn  from  wells. 
Taking  them  all  together,  these  islands  contain  about  two 
thousand  houses. 

On  our  return,  we  coasted  along  the  shores  of  Asia 
and  Scutari.  The  following  are  the  few  villages  and  in- 
habited sites  we  observed  on  the  seashore  or  on  the  hill- 
sides :  Yaqajiq,  Qartal,  Mal-Tepa,  Fener-Bagchasi,  and 
then  Qadi-Kyiiyu,  which  joins  on  to  Scutari,  and  is 
reckoned  as  one  of  the  parishes  thereof.  In  Yaqajiq 
and  Qartal  large  quantities  of  grapes  are  produced, 
and  these  of  excellent  quality.  We  reached  home  by 

28f/j  {Saturday,  23rfZ  August), — In  the  morning  after 
rising  and  dressing,  the  Sultan  came.  We  went  down- 
stairs, mounted  on  horseback  together,  went  to  the  upper 
gate  of  the  palace  garden,  and  there,  taking  our  seats  in 
an  open  carriage,  drove  off,  the  sun  being  right  in  our 
faces,  and  scorchingly  fierce.  Our  drive  was  to  the  vine- 
yard of  the  Sultana- Mother,  there  to  take  breakfast.  It 
was  a  good  distance  off,  at  the  termination  of  the  in- 
habited parts  and  parishes.  Alighting  there,  we  ascended 
the  stairs  of  the  pavilion,  which  is  a  pretty,  though  plain 
building,    with  richly  furnished   apartments.      After   a 

cc  2 

388  Diary  of  a   Tour  hi  Europe,     [chap,  vh, 

little  i3reliminary  waiting,  we  went  to  breakfast,  then 
returned  to  the  first  room,  and  had  a  long  desultory 
conversation  on  all  manner  of  topics.  We  then  rose, 
remounted  our  carriage,  and  drove  back  to  the  lower 
entrance  gate  of  the  palace  of  Beyler-Beyi,  dismounted 
at  the  foot  of  the  staircase,  the  Sultan  accompanying  us 
upstairs  and  taking  a  seat,  when  we  resumed  our  conver- 
sation, the  two  Grand- Vazirs  being  also  present.  The 
Sultan  evinced  much  kindness,  then  rose,  and  returned 
to  his  own  palace,  we  escorting  him  to  the  foot  of  the 

Every  day  several  large  steamers,  making  five  or  six 
ti'ips  each  between  the  morning  and  the  evening,  convey 
passengers,  and  ply  to  and  from  Biyuk-Dera,  and  other 
quarters  of  the  capital.  These  ships  belong  for  the 
most  part  to  companies  of  foreign  nationalities  ;  and  by 
means  of  this  conveyance  of  passengers  to  and  from  the 
difi'erent  quarters,  each  ship  earns  about  ten  thousand 
tumans  (4000Z.)  yearly.  Each  time  a  ship  takes  in 
passengers,  she  becomes  crammed  with  people.  In  one 
place  they  stretch  a  partition  for  the  women  to  have  tlfeir 
seats,  the  rest  of  the  ship  being  used  by  the  men. 
These  ships  are  a  source  of  great  danger  in  the  Bos- 
phorus  to  persons  who  go  about  in  boats.  If  a  boat 
should  come  near  a  steamer,  the  force  of  the  paddle 
wheels,  causing  the  sea  to  rise  in  waves,  wrecks  the  boat ; 
as  was  the  case  three  days  ago,  when,  several  women  and 
men  of  quality  were  drowned  in  the  Bosphorus,  only  one 
child  and  a  few  of  the  boatmen  having  been  saved.  It 
is,  however,  the  cust«»m  of  the  boatmen  of  the  Bosphorus 

€HAp.  VII.]  Ttcrkey,  389 

that,  whoever  may  be  drowned,  they  tell  no  tales,  and 
no  one  knows  anything  of  what  has  happened.  The 
cause  of  this  is  said  to  he  their  fear  lest  people  should 
take  alarm  at  going  in  boats,  and  their  craft  thus  fall 
into  desuetude.  Every  year  numerous  persons  are 
drowned  of  nights  or  during  rough  weather  on  the  Bos- 
phorus.  But  as  the  accident  mentioned  above  took  place 
in  broad  daylight,  it  was  witnessed  and  reported. 

Last  evening,  as  we  were  sitting  at  dinner,  there  came 
successively  the  reports  of  several  guns  being  fired.  I 
was  astonished  at  tliis,  and  on  looking  out  of  the 
windows,  saw  that  at  various  parts  of  the  environs  of  the 
Bosphorus  there  were  numerous  flames  of  fire  ;  showing 
that  a  conflagration  had  broken  out.  There  is  a  very  high 
tower  and  signal  in  the  city,  where  watchmen  are  stationed 
every  night ;  and  whenever  a  fire  happens  in  any  quarter, 
it  is  an  established  rule  that,  in  order  to  warn  the  public, 
seven  guns  shall  be  fired,  so  that  they  may  go  and  help 
to  extinguish  it.  In  the  morning  we  learnt  that  eight 
hundred  houses  had  been  burnt  in  the  parish  of  Qasim- 
Pasha.  Since  the  houses  at  Constantinople  are  for  the 
most  part  of  timber,  it  is  very  frequent  that  the  w^ood- 
work  takes  fire. 

Well ;  in  the  afternoon  I  mounted  my  boat  and  went 
to  the  seaside  palace  of  Chiragan.  There  is  a  public 
street  that  separates  the  palace  from  its  gardens;  and 
over  this  street  they  have  thrown  a  bridge.  Whenever 
the  Sultan,  with  his  harem  or  others,  wishes  to  go  into 
the  gardens,  he  passes  by  this  bridge.  We  drove  along 
the  avenues  in  a  carriage  uphill. ,,  The  garden  is  full  of 

390  Diaiy  of  a  Tour  in  Etirope.     [chap,  vir, 

trees  like  a  forest,  running  up  the  hill  and  down  along  a 
valley.  Here  and  there,  upon  knolls  and  eminences, 
there  are  pretty  detached  structures,  not  yet  completed, 
as  workmen  were  busy  on  them.  The  Sultan's  wild 
animals  are  kept  in  this  garden.  We  saw  many  peacocks. 
There  were  several  cages  with  handsome  tigers,  and  one 
of  these  was  extremely  savage,  the  like  of  him  not  having 
been  seen  by  us  in  any  of  the  zoological  collections  of 
Firangistan.  He  roared  continuously,'and  came  rushing 
at  those  who  were  looking  at  him.  There  was  another 
curious  tiger  that  I  had  not  hitherto  seen.  He  had 
many  white  spots  upon  his  back  and  sides  ;  i.e.,  his  body 
was  the  same  as  that  of  any  other  tiger,  and  with  the 
very  same  black  stripes ;  in  which  respect  there  was  no 
difference.  These  white  spots  were  in  addition  to  them, 
and  resembled  the  white  spots  on  the  young  of  the  red 
deer.  There  were  also  some  birds  and  parrots  of  beauti- 
fully-coloured plumage. 

From  thence  we  drove  in  the  carriage  to  another  place, 
where  were  the  cages  of  birds  (an  aviary).  It  was  one 
long  cage  divided  into  compartments,  in  each  of  which 
were  trees  and  a  basin  of  water,  most  neat.  There  were 
many  kinds  of  birds,  especially  some  golden  pheasants 
from  the  lands  of  Australia.  There  were  about  fifty  or 
sixty  of  these  in  all  the  cages.  In  (the  countrj^  of)  the 
Franks  I  had  seen  but  few  of  them.  There  were  also 
various  other  kinds  of  pheasants,  from  India,  China,  and 

After  a  good  stroll  I  came  down  the  hill  and  went  into 
the  palace.     Here,  too,;  there  were  many  dovecotes,  as 

CHAP.  Yii.]  Ttirkey,  391 

they  have  preserved  the  pigeons  near  to  the  garden  of 
the  Sultan's  palace.  Across  the  garden-bridge  I  went 
to  the  palace  itself.  The  columns  of  this  building,  with 
the  greater  part  of  the  walls,  floors,  and  stairs  are  of 
marble — a  kind  of  marble  that  is  brought  from  quarries 
in  the  Sea  of  Marmara,  whence  this  sea  itself  has 
received  its  name.  The  marble  has  two  defects;  one, 
in  that  it  is  much  marked  with  dark  streaks ;  the  other, 
that,  however  much  they  work  it,  it  never  becomes 
smooth  and  glossy.  In  reality,  it  is  a  kind  of  stone. 
The  columns  are  monoliths,  and  the  flags  of  the  pave- 
ment are  very  large.  There  is  a  marble  bath-room 
within  the  palace.  These  baths  are  not  like  those  of 
Persia,  outdoor  buildings  far  away  from  the  houses ;  nor 
are  they  excavated.  On  the  contrary,  they  are  inside  the 
house,  and  their  floor'  is  level  with  that  of  the  other 
apartments ;  so  that  they  are  quickly  heated.  It  has 
small  and  large  basins,  into  which,  taps  being  opened, 
hot  and  cold  water  flows.  Beneath  the  bath-room  is  a 
vacant  place,  and  the  furnace  is  lighted  and  fed  from 
outside.  As  soon  as  the  flags  of  the  floor  become  warm, 
and  the  hot-water  taps  are  opened,  the  bath-room  gets 
heated.  The  sources  from  whence  these  taps  derive 
their  water  are  also  outside  the  bath,  where  they  heat 
the  water. 

Although  it  was  now  late,  and  darkness  was  coming 
on,  we  went  over  the  whole  of  the  apartments  of  the 
Sultan,  those  of  the  Sultana-Mother,  of  the  female 
establishment  and  garden  special  to  this.  It  is  a  very 
sumptuous  palace,  fitted  with  rich  furniture.     According 

392  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Etirope.     [chap.  vn. 

to  what  was  asserted,  much  money  has  gradually  heen 
expended  upon  the  edifice.  It  was  originally  founded 
by  the  Sultan  Mahmud  Khan ;  but  the  present  sovereign 
pulled  that  down,  and  has  rebuilt  it.  Serkis  Efendi,  the 
Sultan's  architect,  a  fine  young  man,  who  speaks  French 
well,  has  built  the  whole  of  this  palace,  and  was  present 
with  us. 

At  sunset  we  remounted  our  boat  and  went  home.  In 
the  evening  they  brought  us  a  conjurer,  who  made  his 
preparations  in  the  hall,  where  we  went  after  dinner  and 
took  our  seat  in  a  chair.  The  whole  of  our  suite  were 
present.  Four  days  ago  the  Muhaqqiq  had  left  for  Persia 
with  our  photographs  and  despatches. 

WeU ;  the  conjurer  was  an  ungainly-looking  man,  who 
spoke  in  French,  and  performed  some  wonderful  tricks. 
A  few  of  the  more  surprising  of  them  are  the  following  : 

First  of  all  he  drew  from  his  breast-pocket  a  thin 
stick  without  a  hole  in  it,  and  held  it  in  his  hand.  Out 
of  this  stick  he  produced  a  live  canary  bird,  which  he  let 
go,  and  which  went  and  perched  at  a  distance.  He  then 
took  a  ruby  ring  from  the  finger  of  the  I'tizadu-'s-Saltana, 
and  placed  it  on  a  table.  He  now  produced  two  large 
lemons,  and  laid  them  also  on  the  table  ;  asking  that  one 
of  them  might  be  chosen,  and  this  was  done.  Upon  that, 
he  cut  the  other  lemon  in  two,  to  show  there  was  nothing 
in  them.  He  next  took  the  ring  and  caused  it  to  dis- 
appear within  his  hand ;  after  which  he  went  and  fetched 
back  the  canary-bird,  a  thing  of  the  size  of  a  sparrow ;  he 
caressed  it  with  his  hands,  and  it  disappeared  also.  Now 
he  took  the  selected  If^mon,  cut  it  in  two  with  a  pocket- 

€HAP.  vii.i  Turkey.  393 

knife,  and  from  within  it  drew  forth  the  canary  with  the 
prince's  ring  firmly  bound  to  its  foot  by  a  delicate  red 
silk  ribbon. 

He  took  the  pocket-handkerchief  of  the  Grand- Vazir 
and  held  it  for  the  Sani*u-'d-Dawla  to  cut  through  with  a 
pocket-knife.  He  then  made  it  into  a  roll,  rammed  it  into 
a  pistol,  and  fired  this  off.  Next  he  produced  a  wine- 
bottle,  free  from  any  defect,  and  placed  it  on  the  table. 
He  took  another  pocket-handkerchief,  and  this  also  the 
Sani'u-'d-Dawla  cut  in  twain  and  set  fire  to.  The  con- 
jurer rubbed  it  up  in  his  hand  and  caused  it  to  disappear. 
Next  he  took  four  cigar-cases  that  some  of  our  officials 
had  about  them,  placed  them  on  the  table,  and  requested 
that  one  of  them  might  be  chosen.  The  Grand- Vazir 
selected  one  and  gave  it  into  the  hand  of  the  Husamu-'s- 
Saltana.  He  (the  conjurer)  took  an  axe  in  his  hand; 
struck  the  bottle  with  this,  and  broke  it ;  out  of  it  came  a 
live  dove,  with  the  Grand-Vazir's  pocket-handkerchief 
bound  round  his  leg.  It  was  the  very  same  handkerchief; 
for  the  Grand- Vazir  had  himself  marked  it  with  his  own 
name.  To  conclude  he  now  drew  forth  safe  and  sound, 
from  the  cigar-case  held  by  the  Husamu-'s-Saltana,  the 
other  handkerchief  that  had  been  cut  in  two  and  burnt. 

He  took  three  finger-rings  from  our  people  and  gave 
them  into  the  hand  of  one  of  our  own  officials.  He 
brought  out  a  wine-glass,  into  which  he  broke  an  egg, 
white  and  yolk  together,  casting  the  three  rings  into  this. 
He  now  took  the  hat  of  Dr.  (Sir  Joseph)  Dickson,  and 
poured  into  it  from  the  wine-glass  the  liquid  contents  of 
the  egg,  together  with  the  rings ;  al^er  which,  turning  the 

394  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe,     [chap.  vh. 

hat  upside  down,  the  three  rings  fell  out  of  it,  each 
fastened  to  a  nosegay ;  the  inside  of  the  hat  being  in  no 
wise  wet  or  soiled  by  the  ^gg. 

Again  he  took  the  ring  of  the  prince  I'tizadu-'s-Saltana 
and  laid  it  on  the  table ;  produced  two  water-melons  and 
asked  for  one  of  them  to  be  chosen,  which  was  done. 
He  took  the  ring  in  his  hand  and  made  it  vanish ;  then 
cut  the  melon  in  two  and  brought  out  an  egg,  sound  and 
uncooked.  This  he  broke  and  drew  from  it  a  walnut 
without  a  flaw,  which  he  brought  and  placed  on  the  floor 
in  front  of  us.  He  gave  a  hammer  to  the  Aminu-'s- 
Saltana,  who  with  one  blow  completely  cracked  the 
walnut,  and  from  it  dropped  the  ring  of  the  prince. 

Many  other  curious  tricks  did  he  also  perform. 

29i/i  {Sunday,  24i/i  August,) — Breakfasted  at  home  to- 
day. Kyamil  Pasha,  President  of  the  Privy  Council, 
a  most  charming  and  noble  man,  came  to  an  audience. 
He  had  not  come  during  the  last  several  days,  having 
been  suff'ering  from  illness.  He  is  a  son-in-law  of  the 
celebrated  Muhammad- 'Ali  Pasha  of  Egypt,  and  is  an  old 
man  of  very  great  wealth.  When  he  left,  Rashid  Pasha, 
the  Minister  of  Foreign  Affairs,  came  to  return  thanks  for 
an  Order  we  had  conferred  on  him.  With  him,  too  we 
had  some  conversation. 

At  two  hours  to  sunset  we  went  by  boat  on  board  the 
*'  Pertev-i-Piyala,"  and  proceeded  to  the  waterside  resi- 
dence of  the  Ottoman  Grand-Vazir,  sat  there  awhile,  and 
partook  of  coffee.  He  has  a  delightful  house.  It  is  a 
considerable  distance  from  Beyler-Beyi  to  this  resi- 
dence of  the  Grand-\azar,  which  is  on  the  left  hand  side 

CHAP.  VII.]  Turkey.  395, 

(of  the  Bosphorus),  on  the  European  shore,  in  the  village- 
of  Yeni-Kyuy  (New  Village,)  from  whence  there  is  a  road 
to  Tarapiya,  and  from  thence  to  Biyuk-Dera.  Returning 
from  thence,  we  reached  home,  and  landed  there  at 

Monday y  1st  of  Rajah  the  Respected  {25th  August). — 
Our  departure  from  Islambul  took  place,  for  Poti,  by  way 
of  the  Black  Sea.  In  the  morning  we  arose  and  break- 
fasted at  home.  At  four  o'clock  in  the  day  (eight  hours 
to  sunset)  we  have  to  go  to  the  Sultan's  palace  to  say 
adieu,  when,  exactly  as  on  the  day  of  our  arrival,  will 
ceremonial  honours  be  carried  out. 

We  came  down  stairs  and  mounted  our  boat,  our  Grand- 
Yazir,  Mirza  Malkam  Khan,  and  'All  Bey,  being  with  us. 
We  pushed  oif  and  reached  the  palace  of  Dolma-Bagcha. 
The  Ottoman  Grand-Yazir,  with  the  whole  of  the  Ministry 
were  at  the  landing-place,  and  the  Sultan  had  come  to  the 
foot  of  the  staircase.  We  gave  hands  and  went  upstairs, 
took  our  seats  in  a  stated  room,  the  two  Grand- Vazir& 
being  present,  and  a  long  conversation  ensued.  We  rose 
and  returned  home,  when  the  English  Ambassador  came 
to  an  audience,  and  with  him,  too,  somewhat  of  a  conver- 
sation ensued. 

About  an  hour  afterwards  the  Sultan  came.  I  went 
to  the  foot  of  the  staircase ;  we  gave  hands,  came  up- 
stairs to  a  room,  sat  down  a  while,  and  again  conversed  ; 
then  we  rose,  went  down  to  a  special  boat,  in  which  the 
seats  occupied  by  us,  the  Sultan,  and  others,  were  canopied 
over  ;  here  we  took  our  places  and  pulled  off  to  the  "Sul- 
taniyya,"  the  ship  in  which  we  had^ome  from  Brmdisi, 

39^  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Eitrope.     [chap.  vn. 

and  which,  in  justice,  was  an  extraordinarily  fine  vessel. 
Our  suite  had  come  on  board  in  the  morning  or  yesterday, 
with  the  baggage,  and  were  present.  We  now  again  took 
seats  in  chairs,  with  the  Sultan  and  the  two  Grand-Vazirs, 
for  a  few  minutes;  after  which  the  Sultan  rose,  and 
I  accompanied  him  to  the  ship's  ladder.  Salutes  were 
fired  from  the  other  ships.  We  had  to  wait  about  half- 
an-hour  while  the  anchor  was  being  got  uj)  and  other 
matters  seen  to.  At  length,  at  two  hours  and  a  half 
to  sunset,  we  bid  adieu  to  Islambiil,  and  commenced  our 
voyage.  The  ship  progressed  slowly  up  the  Bosphorus. 
Opposite  to  Biyiik-Dera  and  Tarapiya,  where  are  the 
summer-residences  of  the  Diplomatic  Corps,  the  ships  in 
attendance  on  the  Embassies,  that  had  come  to  see  us  off, 
made  their  appearance.  The  ships  of  the  English  and 
Eussian  Ambassadors  were  very  large  and  handsome 
vessels,  each  having  a  numerous  crew,  who  went  up  on  to 
the  yards  and  shouted  hurrahs.  The  ship  of  the  French 
Representative  and  those  of  the  others  did  the  same.  Our 
ship  stopped ;  the  Russian  Ambassador  came  in  a  boat, 
mounted  on  deck,  was  received  in  audience,  and  much  con- 
versation followed  ;  after  which  he  left.  Mirza  Malkam 
Khan,  our  Minister  resident  in  London,  with  Hajji 
Muhsin  Khan — our  Minister  resident  in  Constantinople, 
and  Nariman  Khan — who  is 'returning  to  Paris,  left  in 
company  with  the  Russian  Ambassador  for  the  city. 
Tamsun  Sahib  (Mr.  R.  Thomson)— the  English  Charge 
d' Affaires,  who  had  been  with  us  everywhere  throughout 
this  tour,  remained  behind  in  Constantinople  to  go  to 
England,  from  whence  he  will  return. 

cHAi'.  VII.]  Ttcrkey.  '  397 

We  now  steamed  on,  and  quitted  the  Bosphorus.  At 
the  extremity  of  the  channel,  both  sides  of  which  are 
momitainous,  there  are  constructed  on  the  brink  of  the  sea 
some  strong  forts  and  batteries,  all  with  guns.  These  fired 
salutes.  The  ship  "  Tali 'a,"  that  had  accompanied  us  from 
Brindisi,  not  having  given  satisfaction,  had  been  replaced 
by  another  named  the  "  'Asir  '*  (Difficult — Impregnable), 
which  was  a  ship  of  war.  They  said  she  was  a  comfort- 
able vessel,  and  the  greater  part  of  our  servants  are  in  her, 
as  follows  :  the  Ilkhani ;  General  Hasan- *Ali  Khan  ;  the 
Minister  of  Public  Works ;  the  Mukhbiru-'d-Dawla ;  the 
Nasru-T-Mulk ;  the  Shuja*u-'s-Saltana;  the  Ihtishamu-'d- 
Dawla ;  M.  Richard  ;  Satur  Khan ;  Lt.  Ibrahim  Khan ; 
and  also  our  horses.  But  as  she  is  a  ship  of  war,  she  is 
not  a  speedy  vessel,  and  by  degrees  lagged  behind,  so  as 
ultimately  to  be  lost  to  sight.  As  they  said,  she  will,  God 
willing,  reach  Poti  the  day  after  us. 

During  the  night  we  slept  tranquilly.  We  saw  the 
iiew  moon  of  the  month  of  Rajab  the  Respected  (as  it  were 
sinking)  into  the  sea,  as  we  contemplated  some  hand- 
writing of  the  Commander  of  the  Faithful,  *Ali  son  of 
Abu-Talib,  upon  whom  be  the  blessings  and  benedictions 
of  God.  This  evening,  Eshref  Pasha,  the  Ottoman 
ofiicial  in  attendance  upon  us,  fell  down  twenty  steps  of  a 
ladder  in  this  ship,  poor  fellow,  and  broke  his  head  and 
arm.  Dr.  Tholozan  and  others  treated  him.  To-day 
Tholozan  brought  Marco  Pasha  to  an  audience,  who  is 
the  Sultan's  Chief  Physician  ;  and  with  him  I  had  a  good 
deal  of  conversation.  He  is  a  man  forty-five  j^ears  of 
age,    thin,    sallow,   who  shaves    b^s    beard   and   wears 

39^  Diary  of  a  Tour  m  Etu^ope.     [chap.  vh. 

mustachios.  He  speaks  French  well ;  they  say  that,  by 
origin,  he  is  a  Greek.  For  a  long  time  he  has  been  the 
Sultan's  Physician. 

Tuesday,  2nd  Bajab  {26th  August). — When  I  arose  in 
the  morning  from  sleep,  the  weather,  through  the  mercy 
of  the  Lord  Most  High,  was  like  paradise,  and  the  sea 
as  smooth  as  a  looking-glass.  To  our  left  all  is  water  as 
far  as  Sebastopol,  and  to  our  right  is  the  land  of  the 
Ottoman  Anaddli  (Asia  Minor,  rj  avarokrij  the  region  of 
sunrise).  Everywhere  we  went  close  along  the  shore, 
and  high  mountains  were  visible  on  all  parts,  the  whole 
of  them  clothed  in  dense  forests  and  larch  trees.  On 
the  slopes  of  the  hills  every  here  and  there  cultivation 
and  villages  were  noticed ;  and  there  are  some  very  beau- 
tiful mountains  with  charming  valleys. 

In  the  afternoon  we  gradually  increased  our  distance 
from  the  land,  and  at  night,  three  hours  after  sunset,  we 
were  abreast  of  the  harbour  of  Sinope,  from  whence  on- 
wards, until  we  reached  Poti,  the  land  was  no  more 
visible.  Sinope  has  acquired  a  (terrible)  celebrity  since 
the  time  of  the  war  of  Sebastopol,  when  the  Russians 
(there)  set  fire  to  the  Ottoman  squadron  of  ships.  When 
we  had  reached  the  offing  of  Sinope,  a  breeze  sprang  up 
from  the  direction  of  the  Crimea,  striking  the  ship 
abeam.  It  was  light  and  gentle,  but  caused  the  ship  to 
roll  violently.  To-day,  from  morn  until  noon,  while  the 
sea  was  calm,  large  fishes  (porpoises),  of  the  size  of 
horses,  came  up  out  of  the  sea,  and  sported  about  on  the 
surface  of  the  waters. 

Wednesday^  Srd  {2^th  August), — Last  night,  praise  be 

€HAP.  VII.]  Turkey.  399 

to  God,  the  weather  was  very  fine  and  the  sea  still.  No 
shore  in  sight.  In  the  morning  we  arose,  performed  our 
devotions,  read  the  Scripture,  and  again  lay  down. 
Three  hours  later,  on  getting  up,  thank  God,  the  sea 
was  calm. 

While  at  Constantinople  a  cornier  came  in  from 
Tehran,  and  brought  dispatches  from  our  Ministers',  with 
detailed  news  from  the  province  of  Sistan.  Praise  be  to 
God,  every  part  of  Persia  has  been  in  the  perfection  of 
security  and  tranquillity. 

This  sea,  which  has  received  the  name. of  Black  Sea, 
really  merits  it ;  the  name  and  the  named  fit  each  other. 
In  one's  eyes  it  is  much  blacker  than  other  seas.  Yes- 
terday, from  some  not  distant  shore,  a  few  small  and 
pretty  birds  flew  off  to  the  ship,  and  there  perched, 
remaining  hungry  and  without  food.  The  shore  has 
become  distant,  and  they  cannot  fly  to  it.  At  times  they 
essay  to  do  it ;  and  although  no  land  is  visible,  stiU,  with 
the  instinct  given  them  by  God,  they  fly  off  towards  our 
right  hand,  where  are  the  shores  of  Anadoli,  and  which 
is  the  nearest  to  land ;  but  they  come  back  again.  One 
of  them  was  caught  and  put  in  a  cage.  It  drank  some 
water,  but  died  in  a  minute  or  two. 

To-day,  at  an  hour  to  sunset,  we  again  approached-  the 
shore,  so  that  the  town  and  seaport  of  Trebizond  became 
visible.  I  saw  the  town  and  its  houses  through  a  tele- 
scope. It  is  a  pretty  town  on  the  skirts  of  a  mountain, 
and  in  a  valley.  Again  we  left  the  shore  at  a  distance. 
At  night,  about  dinner-time,  thunder  and  lightning  began 
to  be  perceived  towards  the  west,  pnd  the  sky  darkened 

400  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Europe.     [cHAr.  vn, 

over,  though  there  was  no  wind.  Through  this  western 
darkness,  thunder,  and  lightning,  which  gave  a  bad  pre- 
sentiment respecting  the  weather,  the  sea  became  con- 
vulsed. We  dined,  went  on  deck,  and  walked  up  and 
down  awhile.  All  around,  the  sky  was  cloudy  and  dark; 
and  in  every  dii-ection  vivid  lightnings  played,  while  the 
mutters  of  thunder  came  rumbling  on.  The  mid-heaven 
was  clear,  and  only  a  breath  of  air  was  stirring ;  so  I 
again  lay  down.  Violent  lightning  and  thunder  con- 
tinued until  morning  in  a  terrific  manner,  while  gradually 
the  clouds  overspread  all,  and  gave  every  appearance  of 
rain  being  at  hand. 

^  The  hiU  of  Chamlija  (p.  381),  so  called  from  a  few  pine-trees  (cham) 
that  crown  its  summit,  is  erroneously  called  Mount  Boulgourlou  on  the 
maps  and  by  European  strangers.  Bulgurlu  (Fumiity  or  Frumenty 
Yillage)  is  the  name  of  a  village  in  the  valley  west  of  Chamlija  ;  and  at  its 
back,  still  further  west  and  a  little  more  inland  southerly,  is  the  real 
Bulgurlu-Dagi  {Mount  Bulgurlu),  entirely  uninhabited  and  treeless ; 
whereas  Chamlija  teems  with  vineyards  and  summer  residences  almost  to 
its  summit,  having  the  city  of  Iskyudar,  with  its  suburbs,  on  its  skirts  and 
at  its  foot,  along  the  shore  of  the  Bosphorus.— J.  W.  E. 




HURSDAY,  4th  {^Sth  August).— To-day  we 
are  to  reach  the  anchorage  of  the  port  of 
Poti.  During  the  night,  hy  reason  of  the 
commotion  of  the  sea  in  all  directions,  sleep 
did  not  overcome  me  for  more  than  an  horn*  altogether. 
I  rose  early  in  the  morning,  performed  my  devotions, 
and  read  a  portion  of  Scripture.  The  weather  was  very 
threatening,  and  heavy  rain  poured  down.  A  thunder- 
bolt struck  the  sea  not  more  than  fifty  feet  from  the  ship, 
with  a  roar  equal  to  that  of  a  thousand  cannons,  scatter- 
ing the  water  on  all  sides.  Had.  it  struck  the  ship,  it 
w^ould  have  shivered  it  to  fragments.  The  sky  remained 
in  the  same  tempestuous  state.  Again  I  lay  down  for  an 
hour  or  two.  From  the  motion  of  the  ship  it  became 
evident  that  we  were  near  shore ;  and  I  arose.  Praise 
be  to  God  that  we  had  escaped  from  the  high  sea,  and  had 
reached  the  coast;  the  shores  of  Poti  were  visible,  all 
forest  and  mountain.  The  temperature  and  nature  of  the 
country  were  very  much  like  those  of  the  Gilans. 

As  the' ship  in  which  we  had  travelled  was  very  large, 
it  could  approach  no  nearer  to  the  land,  and  therefore 
stopped.     We  saw  a  vessel  in  the  distance  coming  towards 

D   D 

402  Diary  of  a   Tour  i7i  Europe,    [chap.  vm. 

us  on  our  beam,  and  she  was  made  out  to  be  the  "  'Asir," 
our  consort,  of  which  it  had  been  said  that,  since  she 
was  not  a  fast  ship,  she  would  not  arrive  until  about  ten 
hours  after  us.  It  became  evident  that  in  consequence 
of  the  bad  state  of  the  weather  they  had  taken  our  vessel 
further  out  to  sea,  to  avoid  the  neighbourhood  of  land, 
thus  steering  a  different  course  to  that  which  would  have 
led  more  directly  to  our  destined  anchorage  at  Poti  ; 
whereas  that  other  vessel,  having  the  wind  astern,  had 
made  sail  and  had  arrived  at  Poti  considerably  before  us. 
Yery  thankful  was  I  that  she  too  had  safely  turned  up, 
and  not  lagged  behind. 

A  small  steamer  came  out  from  Poti  to  convey  us 
ashore.  Prince  Menschikoff  and  Colonel  Bazak,  for- 
merly in  attendance  upon  us,  and  who  had  first  come  to 
Enzeli  (to  meet  us),  were  on  board  of  her.  I  was  ex- 
ceedingly pleased  to  see  the  Prince  again.  But,  as  the 
sea  was  still  very  rough,  all  their  efforts  to  bring  his 
vessel  alongside  the  "  Sultaniyya"  were  fruitless, — they 
could  not  effect  it.  Several  times  they  brought  her  near ; 
but  the  two  ships  were  dashed  together,  and  the  bows 
and  stem  of  the  Prince's  steamer  were  slightly  injured. 
Again  they  tried  to  get  her  alongside,  and  now  she 
damaged  the  "  Sultaniyya's  "  ladder.  At  length  they 
resolved  to  exercise  a  little  patience,  and  the  sea  calmed 
down  somewhat.  Then  they  fastened  the  two  ships 
together,  and  transferred  a  few  of  our  private  effects  and 
some  of  our  princes  and  officers  to  the  Prince's  vessel ; 
and  to  her  we  went  also.  I  then  saw  Eshref  Pasha,  the 
(Ottoman)  official  iif  attendance  on  us,  with  his  head 

CHAP.  VIII.]  Georgia,  Return.  403 

broken  and  his  right  arm  in  a  sling  bound  up  to  his  neck, 
his  face  being  all  black  and  blue,  in  a  state  of  suifering. 
This  caused  me  great  sorrow.  They  had  passed  a  nar- 
row plank  from  one  ship  to  the  other,  which  was  very 
dangerous,  and  over  this  we  passed  to  the  Prince's 
steamer.  The  Sani'u-'d-Dawla,  remained  behind  in  the 
*'  Sultaniyya,"  to  see  after  the  rest  of  the  baggage;  and 
several  others  remained  there  also  with  him. 

In  half  an  hour  we  arrived  at  the  mouth  of  the  river  of 
Poti,  which  flows  into  the  sea,  and  is  named  the  Eion. 
It  is  a  large  river,  but  vessels  cannot  go  up  it  more  than 
the  distance  of  haK  a  league.  There  are  some  few  habi- 
tations on  both  banks  of  the  stream — houses  like  those  of 
the  peasantry  of  Mazandaran  and  Gilan.  The  soil  ia 
wet,  and  the  climate  bad,  fever  and  agues  abounding 
there.  But  by  degrees  they  are  beginning  to  improve 
the  place.  This  seaport  town  of  Poti  has  no  good 
anchorage  either.  Large  ships  cannot  by  any  means 
enter  the  river,  neither  can  they  approach  the  shore. 
They  are  therefore  constrained  to  keep  at  a  distance 
from  the  town,  and  to  load  and  unload  goods  and  passen- 
gers by  means  of  small  shore  craft.  We  noticed  one 
large  English  steamer,  and  two  Ottoman  sailing  vessels 
in  the  roadstead.  The  plain  is  all  forest,  and  extends  as 
far  as  the  mountains,  which  are  also  one  dense  forest. 

Many  flags  were  hoisted  on  both  banks  of  the  river, 
and  a  smaU  room  had  been  prepared  to  receive  us  when 
we  should  land  from  the  vessel.  The  Grand-Duke 
Michael,  brother  of  the  Emperor,  Viceroy  and  Governor- 
General  of  the  Caucasian  Provinces,^  was  at  the  landing- 

DD  2 

404  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Europe,     [chav.  vm. 

place  with  his  officials  and  generals,  waiting  to  receive 
us.  We  disembarked  and  gave  our  hand  to  the  Prince. 
We  then  went  and  inspected  a  battalion  of  infantry  that 
was  drawn  up  between  the  landing-place  and  the  railway 
terminus.  There  was  a  multitude  collected  of  various 
tribes  and  nationalities :  Circassians,  Lesghians,  Ar- 
menians, Georgians,  Dagistani  Muslims,  Open-Heads 
(Mingrelians ;  who  go  bare-headed  like  the  Blue-Coat 
boys  of  London),  Franks,  and  others.  Tliis  region  is 
part  of  the  country  of  the  Open-Heads  (Mingrelia),  i.e., 
of  the  Bare-Heads,  and  in  reality  they  are  so.  The 
whole  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  Open-Head  country  go 
bare-headed.  Never  do  the  women,  men,  or  children 
adopt  the  practice  of  wearing  hats  or  caps  on  their  heads. 
The  chief-town  of  the  Open-Heads  is  Kutais,  situated 
between  Tiflis  and  Poti. 

Well ;  we  exchanged  many  salutations  and  conversed 
much  with  the  Prince,  who,  in  justice  be  it  said,  is  a  very 
agreeable  jmnce.  During  the  time  of  my  visit  to  (St.) 
Petersburg,  the  Prince  was  not  there,  and  I  was  therefore 
very  glad  to  see  him.  Of  all  the  Emperor's  brothers  he 
is  the  youngest.  He  wears  his  beard  (whiskers)  on  either 
side  of  his  cheeks,  but  shaves  his  chin.  His  eyes  are 
blue,  and  betoken  good-nature.  He  is  tall  of  stature  and 
strong  of  frame. 

In  half  an  hour's  time  we  took  our  seats  in  the  train 
and  started,  leaving  behind  us  the  Hakimu-'l-Mamalik  to 
bring  on  the  luggage  by  railway.  The  interpreter  of  the 
Viceroy,  Begliaroff,  a  son  of  Shah-Mir  Khan  the  Persian, 
spoke  French  very  A\*ell.     The  cars  of  the  train  all  com- 

CHAP.  VIII.]  Georgia^  Return.  405 

municated  with  one  another.  This  line  of  railroad  has 
heen  recently  constructed,  and  consists  of  a  single  line  of 
rails  all  the  way  to  Tiflis,  the  whole  of  the  traffic  having 
to  go  over  that  one  Kne.  Much  difficulty  was  experienced 
in  its  construction,  the  whole  of  the  lands  being  forest, 
marsh,  and  inundation.  To  drain  such  a  country  and 
lay  down  a  railway  is  a  very  onerous  task.  Once  past 
the  marshes  all  is  mountain  and  valley,  so  that  the  line 
is  very  tortuous  and  on  an  assent,  passing  over  a  river 
and  bridges,  until  it  begins  to  descend  again  towards 
Tiflis.  From  these  causes  the  train  could  not  travel  with 
the  rapidity  usual  in  Firangistan ;  but  went  at  about  two 
and  a  half  leagues  per  hour,  not  more. 

Well ;  it  w^anted  five  hours  and  a  half  to  sunset  when 
we  started,  the  sky  being  entirely  overcast,  and  heavy 
rain  falHng  without  an  interval ;  the  road,  too,  was  forest 
and  mountain.  By  sunset  we  arrived  at  a  station  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Kutais,  where  they  had  prepared  food 
(for  us).  The  train  stopped;  we  alighted  and  went  into 
a  room  where  the  table  was  laid.  A  light  dinner  was 
partaken  of.  A  company  of  infantry  was  also  drawn  out, 
of  the  Open-Head  people  of  Georgia,  who  were  dressed 
in  a  peculiar  manner,  after  the  fashion  of  the  costume  of 
the  ancient  troops  (of  the  country),  with  open-breasted 
red  coats,  a  red  cloth  round  their  heads  by  way  of 
turban,  a  pistol  and  a  large  knife  in  their  sashes.  Their 
uniform  thus  resembled  those  of  the  Zouaves  in  France 
and  of  the  tribes  of  Hindiistan  ;  but  their  muskets  were 
needle-guns  made  in  the  factory  of  Tula. 

We  again  mounted  and  went  ^on.      I  had  a  restless 

4o6  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Europe,    [chap.  vm. 

night  of  broken  sleep.  We  arrived  very  early  in  the 
morning  (of  Friday,  29th  August)  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  Tiflis,  when  I  arose  very  much  worn  out,  and  dressed. 
The  train  stopped,  and  we  alighted.  The  Viceroy  was 
waiting  with  a  large  staff  of  officers  and  a  battalion  of 
infantry.  We  mounted  an  open  carriage  with  the 
Viceroy.  The  air  was  very  cold  ;  and  by  reason  of  the 
rain  which  had  fallen,  a  piercingly  cold  wind  was  blowing, 
which  raised  up  the  dust  and  earth.  The  lamps  were 
still  burning  in  the  streets.  We  arrived  at  the  gate  of 
the  Viceroy's  palace,  where  a  battaHon  of  infantry  and 
nitlnbers  of  military  officers  and  civiHans  were  drawn  up 
in  attendance.  To  each  of  these  we  addressed  a  word  of 
inquiry  after  his  health.  The  Governor  of  the  City  of 
Tiflis,  together  with  the  mayor  and  aldermen,  came  and 
brought  the  usual  bread  and  salt.  They  had  prepared  a 
lengthy  address,  written  out  in  Persian ;  and  we  stood 
while  an  individual,  learned  in  Persian,  read  it  out  with 
perfect  propriety  of  utterance. 

We  now  went  up-stairs,  where,  in  one  room.  Prince 
Orbelianoff,  a  Georgian  prince,  and  Baron  Nicholas,  the 
Administrator  of  Foreign  Affairs  in  the  Caucasian  Pro- 
vinces, were  W3,iting ;  whom  the  Viceroy  presented.  I 
knew  the  Prince  Orbelianoff  seven  years  ago  ;  as,  on  the 
occasion  of  our  visiting  the  seaport  of  Farah-abad  in 
Mazandaran,  he  had  come  there  on  the  part  of  the 
Emperor  with  several  Russian  ships  of  war. 

Next,  the  Viceroy  showed  us  our  rooms  and  apart- 
ments, there  leaving  us.  We  breakfasted,  and  then  lay 
down  to  rest.  - 

CHAP,  viii.]  Georgia,  Return.  407 

The  town  of  Tiflis  is  in  a  valley  and  is  surrounded  by 
mountains,  with  some  of  its  houses  on  the  flanks  and 
summit  of  a  hill.  The  river  Kur  (the  ancient  Cyrus) 
flows  through  the  town,  but  its  water  was  not  ver}^ 
abundant  at  that  season.  A  bridge  has  been  built  across 
it.  To  the  north  of  the  stream  is  the  new  town  and  the 
Frank  quarters,  wherein  also  are  the  palaces  of  the 
Viceroy  and  of  the  Governor.  On  the  south  side  is  the 
old  town  of  Tiflis,  and,  on  the  summit  of  a  hill,  the  ruins 
of  the  ancient  fortress  of  the  Sovereigns  of  Georgia. 
Fifty  years  ago,  tliis  town  was  verj^  wretched  and  filthy ; 
now,  by  degrees,  private  houses  and  public  buildings, 
schools  and  colleges,  broad  streets  leaved  with  stone,  are 
being  constructed.  The  peak  of  Mount  Qaf  (Caucasus), 
which  the  Franks  name  Kazbek,  is  visible.  This  is  a 
very  lofty  mountain,  covered  with  snow.  The  Russians 
have  made  a  road  for  carriages,  so  that  now  they  cross 
the  mountains  to  the  other  side  in  coaches,  the  town  of 
Vladi-Kaukas  being  there,  and  the  land  route  to  Moscow 
and  Hajji-Tarkhan.  Immediately  around  Tiflis  the 
mountains  are  bare,  but  further  away  from  the  town  they 
are  wooded.  The  air  of  the  place  is  not  healthy,  being 
very  hot  and  variable  in  the  summer  and  autumn.  When 
rain  falls  in  the  neighbourhood,  or  in  the  town,  it  becomes 
exceedingly  chill,  and  then  returns  to  a  sultry  heat  again. 
Its  climate  is  therefore  a  source  of  fevers  and  agues. 
The  population  of  the  town  is  fifty  thousand ;  for  the 
most  part  foreigners  and  strangers,  a  mixture  of  all 
nationalities — Persians,  Georgians,  Russians,  Dagis- 
tanis,   Circassians,  Germans,  Armenians.       It   has   ex- 

4o8  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Etcrope.    [chap.  ym. 

cellent  fruits ;  such  as  water-melons,  grapes,  pears, 

To-day  we  went  to  see  the  Viceroy,  who  lives  in  this 
same  palace,  where  are  om'  quarters.  We  passed  through 
several  rooms,  and  reached  a  hall  built  by  Persian  work- 
men, and  adorned  with  embellishments  in  plaster  and 
looking-glass  work.  This  part  of  the  palace  was  very 
beautiful,  and  the  furniture  of  the  rooms  was  all  of 
Persian  stuffs — large  and  small  carpets,  of  Farahan 
(Furrah  of  the  maps),  of  Qa'in  (Ghayn  of  the  maps),  and 
of  Kirman ;  tables  and  couches,  &c.,  of  inlaid  work  of 
SHraz  and  Isfahan ;  curtains  of  carpets  to  the  rooms  ; 
while  Easht  patchwork  in  flowers  of  broadcloth  was  used 
for  the  covers  of  the  seats,  backs,  and  cushions  of  the 
couches,  chairs,  &c.,  and  as  covers  for  the  tables.  This 
furniture  and  these  works  of  Persian  art  were  not  placed 
there  for  the  reason  that  we  had  come  to  the  palace  ; 
but  were  there  before.  There  was  a  large  black  bear, 
formerly  killed  in  the  chase  by  the  Viceroy  himself,  set 
up  like  life  in  a  corner  of  one  of  the  rooms ;  so  that 
should  one  see  it  suddenly  unawares,  he  might  take  it  for 
a  living  bear. 

The  Viceroy  has  also  made  a  very  varied  collection, 
hung  up  on  the  walls  of  the  rooms,  of  weapons,  such  as 
sabres,  swords,  muskets,  and  pistols ;  also  of  ancient 
arms  and  armour,  such  as  shirts  of  mail,  helmets, 
saddles,  barbs,  stirrups,  horse-trappings,  jewelled  and 
gilt ;  besides  many  other  objects  of  interest,  even  to  an 
ancient  tallow -burning  lamp, — which  formerly  was  in 
use  in  Persia,  being  found  in  a  niche  of  one  room.     We 

cHAr.  viil]  Georgia,  Retttrn,  409 

took  a  survey  of  all  the  rooms ;  from  the  windows  of  one 
was  an  excellent  outlook  over  the  town  of  Tiflis  and  its 

We  sat  there  a  while,  and  then  proceeded  to  the  apart- 
ment of  the  Viceroy's  wife,  adjacent  thereto ;  and  there 
also  tarried  a  small  space.  The  Viceroy's  wife  is  a  sister 
of  the  Grand-Duke  of  Baden,  and  with  her  brother  I  had 
breakfasted  in  the  city  of  Carlsruhe  in  Germany.  She 
has  five  sons  and  one  daughter  by  the  Viceroy,  her  eldest 
son  being  fourteen  years  of  age.  Her  children  were  away 
at  a  summer-residence.  The  name  of  the  Viceroy's  wife 
is  Olga  Feodorowna. 

Eising,  we  returned  from  thence  to  our  own  room,  and 
without  any  interval  the  Viceroy's  wife,  with  the  Viceroy, 
came  to  return  the  visit. 

In  the  evening  we  went  in  a  carriage  with  the  Viceroy 
to  the  summer  theatre,  a  very  small  building,  all  white, 
with  one  brass  chandelier  lighted  with  gas.  The  theatre 
was  filled  with  Kussian  ofiicers  and  others.  At  the 
utmost  it  will  hold  about  two  hundred  persons.  The 
music  was  good.  The  curtain  was  raised,  and  a  few  acts 
performed  ;  the  dialogue  being  in  Kussian.  They  sang 
nicely  ;  they  represented  with  much  spirit  some  interest- 
ing plots,  with  dancing,  that  called  forth  much  laughter. 
The  women  and  young  Eussian  men  were  good-looking 
and  graceful.  There  was  one  French  dancer,  very 
graceful,  who  danced  well,  and  had  been  at  Tiflis  two 
3'ears.  To  conclude,  they  23erformed  a  Eussian  national 
dance,  followed  by  a  Georgian  dance  wliich  was  very 
pretty.     A  number  of  Georgians  w^re  drawn  up  on  each 

4IO  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Europe,    [chap.  vm. 

side,  who  clapped  hands,  while  one  played  the  Persian 
tomtom,  and  two  others  blew  the  Persian  horn,  very 
melodiously.  One  girl  and  one  boy  danced,  much  after 
the  manner  of  Persian  dancing. 

Between  the  acts,  while  the  curtain  was  lowered,  we 
went  down  into  a  small  garden  where  an  illumination  had 
been  got  up.  We  sat  awhile  in  a  tent  pitched  on  a  raised 
platform,  and  there  the  Viceroy  presented  to  us  some 
Georgian  women  and  others.  We  returned  home  and 

Meanwhile,  our  private  secretary,  the  Hakimu-'l- 
Mamalik,  and  the  Sani'u-'d-Dawla,  who  had  remained 
behind  (at  Poti),  had  come  up  to  Tiflis,  bringing  the 
luggage.  But  they  gave  a  tremendous  account  of  the 
sea  storm.  The  secretary  and  the  Sam',  who  had  re- 
mained on  board  the  "Sultaniyya"  after  we  left  her, 
said  that  immediately  after  we  had  got  out  of  that  ship 
and  gone  to  Poti,  the  sea  had  become  convulsed  in  such 
a  manner  that,  however  much  endeavour  had  been  used 
to  put  the  little  Russian  steamer  alongside  the  "  Sulta- 
niyya,"  it  had  been  impossible,  through  the  violence  of 
the  waves.  At  length,  the  two  ships  came  into  collision, 
breaking  the  paddle-wheel  of  each  of  them.  At  length, 
after  a  thousand  toils,  they  had  managed  to  get  the  two 
ships  close  together ;  and,  whenever  the  waves  lifted  the 
little  one  up,  they  tossed  a  bale  of  luggage  from  the 
other  into  her,  or  else  one  person  threw  himself  on 
board  of  her ;  and  so,  with  a  thousand  perils  to  life,, 
they  had  got  the  luggage  and  men  on  shore.  The 
secretary  further  added  that,    although   the   shore  was 

oiiAP.  viri.]  Georgia,  Return.  411 

near,  the  waves  so  tossed  them  up  in  the  air,  and  then 
precipitated  them  down  again,  that  it  was  Hke  one's 
falling  down  from  a  mountain  peak.  Praise  be  to  God 
that  this  commotion  did  not  happen  a  few  hours  earlier, 
while  we  were  on  the  sea. 

It  had  been  at  first  arranged  that  we  should  go  by  way 
of  the  mountain  Qaf  and  (the  village  of)  Kazbek  to 
the  seaport  of  Petrowski,  en  route  for  Enzeli;  and 
orders  had  been  sent  to  this  effect  along  that  road, 
where  carts  and  carriages,  &c.,  had  all  been  got  ready. 
But,  as  it  would  be  all  the  more  advantageous,  by  how- 
muchsoever  we  should  shorten  the  sea  voyage,  I  formed 
the  desire  to  embark  on  board  ship  at  Bad-Kuba  (Baku). 
It  was  therefore  settled  that  we  should  go  to  Bad-Kuba 
with  ten  of  our  people,  and  all  the  others  to  Petrowski, 
there  to  embark,  come  round  to  Bad-Kuba,  take  us  on 
board,  and  then  all  go  on  together  to  Enzeli.  We  com- 
missioned the  Sani'u-'d-Dawla  to  remain  at  Tiflis  and 
bring  on  to  Enzeli  all  the  baggage  that  could  not  be 
sent  by  courier,  and  all  the  rest  of  our  party.  We  thus 
spent  Friday  at  Tiflis  in  the  way  described. 

Saturday,  6th  (SOth  August),  —  This  day  Bahman 
Mirza  (a  fugitive  uncle  of  the  Shah),  who  had  come  over 
from  Qara-Bag,  was  received  in  audience.  He  has  six 
or  seven  grown-up  sons  also,  who  were  all  admitted  to 
the  audience. 

In  the  afternoon  we  took  a  seat  in  a  carriage  with  the 
Viceroy,  and  drove  a  little  about  the  city.  The  weather 
was  sultry,  and  there  was  much  dust.  We  went  to  the 
outskirts  of  the  town,  to  a  i^ark  called  Bagi-Mujtahid, 

412  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Europe,    [chap,  vm- 

laid  out  by  Aqa  Mir  Fattah.  The  greater  part  of  the 
inhabitants  of  Tiflis  are  in  the  regular  army  or  in  the 
enrolled  Cossacks. 

In  the  evening  we  were  the  guest  of  the  Viceroy  to 
dinner.  We  first  went  to  a  hall  where  a  great  number 
of  officials,  military  and  civil,  with  others,  were  stand- 
ing. The  Viceroy  presented  them  all.  Bahman  Mirza 
was  also  present.  We  then  proceeded  to  another  hall 
and  sat  down  to  table.  The  Viceroy  sat  on  our  left,  his 
wife  on  our  right;  the  others  taking  each  the  place 
assigned  to  him  according  to  his  rank. 

Dinner  over,  we  rose  and  went  to  a  balcony  of  the 
room,  like  a  terrace,  and  looking  on  to  the  palace  garden. 
There  was  a  very  nice  illumination  arranged  in  the 
garden,  together  with  a  magnificent  display  of  fireworks 
on  the  hill  fronting  the  palace.  In  the  garden  there  was 
a  great  multitude  assembled  of  the  notables  and  common 
people,  of  women  and  beautiful  girls,  Georgians  and 
Franks.  After  the  fireworks  and  a  Cossack  dance,  which 
w^as  performed  with  great  spirit,  and  during  which  they 
fired  off  their  pistols,  we  went  down  into  the  garden  and 
walked  about,  having  the  Viceroy's  wife  on  our  arm.  We 
walked  through  the  whole  of  the  avenues.  Everywhere 
they  had  made  (transparencies  of)  the  device  of  the  Lion 
and  Sun,  illuminated  from  behind.  A  telegram  had 
come  from  the  Emperor,  and  the  Viceroy  handed  it  to 
us.  We  read  it.  It  was  an  enquiry  after  our  health. 
We  now  returned  upstairs,  sat  a  while,  and  then  retu-ed 
to  our  own  apartment. 

This  day  a  priest  came  from  the  Great  Vice -Patriarch 

CHAP.  VIII.  ]  Georgia,  Return.  413. 

of  Uch-Kilisa  (Etclimiazin),  near  Irwan  (Erivan), bring- 
ing a  memorial.  A  telegram  also  came  from  Tehran  to 
the  effect  that  Hajji  Sayyid  Asadu-'l-'lah,of  Isfahan, 
the  authoritative  legist,  who  had  gone  on  a  pilgrimage 
to  the  holy  shrines  (in  Babj^onia),  had  died  at  Kirind. 
This  caused  me  great  grief. 

Sunday,  7th  {^Ist  August). — Having  to  leave  Tiflis  for 
Bad-Kuba,  we  rose  early  in  the  morning  and  breakfasted. 
The  MuHamadu-'l-Mulk,  with  the  princes,  also  started 
this  day  for  Petrowski.  At  six  hours  to  sunset  we  began 
our  journey,  the  Viceroy  and  all  the  officials  of  the 
Caucasus  being  present.  Five  carriages  had  been  made 
ready,  each  harnessed  with  many  horses.  We  mounted 
and  drove  through  the  old  town  of  Tiflis,  where  crowds 
were  assembled.  We  quitted  the  town  and  broke  into  a 
courier's  pace.  All  along,  the  river  Kur  was  on  our  left; 
but  by  degrees  we  increased  om'  distance  from  it.  The 
banks  of  the  stream  are  lined  with  willows  and  a  few 
forest  trees,  creating  a  little  verdure.  The  weather  was 
very  sultry,  with  dust  beyond  conception.  Once  outside 
of  Tiflis,  there  was  not  a  single  trace  of  the  works  of 
man  on  either  side  of  our  road ;  as  far  as  the  eye  could 
penetrate,  all  was  a  melancholy  plain  or  brown  moun- 
tains ;  only  that  at  each  interval  of  two  leagues  a  post- 
house  has  been  erected,  where  they  change  horses.  For 
about  six  leagues  from  Tiflis  they  have  made  a  road,  and 
sprinkled  grav(>l,  so  that  the  dust  was  not  so  bad.  But, 
where  this  (made)  road  came  to  an  end,  the  dust  was 
very  great. 
^       We  stopped   and   changed   hordes   at  several   of  the 

4 1 4  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Etirope.     [chap.  vm. 

posthouses.  At  each  of  these  stations  there  were 
some  Cossack  and  Muslim  cavalry,  who  relieved  our 
escort  also.  At  the  station  of  Al-Git, — which,  being 
Turki,  means  :  Take  it  and  depart, — they  had  prepared 
breakfast.  It  wanted  then  but  one  hour  to  sunset. 
Afterwards,  we  again  mounted  our  carriages  and  drove 
on,  as  it  was  moonlight.  Before  reaching  the  posthouse 
of  Al-Git  we  passed  a  river  (Monteith's  Algeth),  which 
had  a  bridge  over  it,  and  which  joins  the  Kur.  Three 
hours  after  sunset  we  arrived  at  the  river  Agistafa 
(Akistafa,  Monteith),  which  is  a  large  stream,  but  at  this 
season  has  not  much  water.  The  posthouse,  here,  too, 
is  named  after  the  river ;  and  there  was  on  the  far  side 
of  the  stream  another  station  where  we  were  to  rest  for 
the  night,  and  which  had  two  or  three  rooms.  We 
dined.  It  was  sultry.  They  informed  us  that  Hajji 
Mirza  'AU,  the  Mishkatu-1-Mulk  (the  Lighted  Wick  of 
the  Kingdom),  had  arrived.  I  marvelled  exceedingly. 
The  Hajji  had  come  from  Tabriz  by  way  of  Irwan, 
and  had  arrived  here  two  days  before.  We  had 
a  little  conversation  as  to  news  from  Tehran,  and 
the  like ;  after  which  he  left,  and  was  to  start  early  for 

Monday,  Sth  {1st  September), — We  have  to  reach  the 
town  of  Ganja  (the  Russian  Elisabetpol ;  the  birthplace 
of  the  Persian  poet  Nizami).  We  rose  early  and  com- 
menced our  journey  through  a  disagreeable,  sultry, 
dusty  wilderness.  These  regions  are  the  abode  of  the 
Tatar  Cossacks,  who  are  all  Muslims,  and  number  about 
four  or  five  thousand  families ;  but  of  their  habitations    ^ 

CHAP.  VIII.]  Georgia,  Return.  415 

no  traces  were  seen  hereabouts.  To  our  right  and  not 
far  oif,  there  was  a  chain  of  hills,  on  the  other  side  of 
which  is  the  way  to  the  lake  Gokcha  of  Irwan.  To  our 
left  was  another  chain  of  hills,  dust-coloured  and  bare, 
visible  in  the  distance.  We  arrived  at  the  posthouse  of 
Hasan-Sii.  On  the  other  side  of  this  place  are  the  terri- 
tories and  lands  of  the  tribe  of  Shamsuddinlu,  also  of 
five  or  six  thousand  families.  Hasan- Su  (Hasan  Kiver) 
is  a  stream,  but  had  very  little  water  indeed.  A  little 
further  we  came  to  the  posthouse  of  Tawus-Chay  (Pea- 
cock River),  the  stream  of  which  had  also  but  little 
water.  Thence  reached  the  posthouse  of  Zakam,  where 
we  breakfasted.  At  each  of  these  posthouses  there  was 
a  large  congregation  of  horsemen  and  pedestrians,  inha- 
bitants of  those  parts,  who  all,  even  to  the  little  children, 
carry  arms.     They  are  all  Muslims. 

After  breakfast  we  pushed  on  to  the  posthouse  of 
Shamkur,  where  the  tribe  of  Shamsuddinlu  ends,  and 
the  jurisdiction  of  Ganja  commences.  On  the  summit 
of  a  little  hill  we  noticed  the  remains  of  an  old  brick 
fort  of  great  strength.  A  stream  passes  at  its  foot,  but 
it  had  little  water,  though  there  were  the  ruins  of  a 
brick  bridge  across  it,  one  haK  alone  being  still  erect. 
These  plains  are,  in  the  same  manner  as  before  men- 
tioned, parched  and  little  inhabited.  We  now  reached 
the  post-station  of  Qara-Baraz  ;  and  pushing  on  from 
thence  we  reached  the  town  of  Ganja  at  two  hours  to 
sunset.  The  Governor  of  the  districts  of  Ganja  had 
come  to  Zakam  with  some  horsemen ;  and  the  Governor 
of   the    town    also,    with    some  .,other  horsemen    and 

41 6  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  E2L7^ope.    [chap.  vnr. 

notables,  came  out  half  a  league  from  the  place  (to 
meet  us). 

Gardens  surround  the  town  of  Ganja;  but  within  it  the 
houses  are  poor  and  miserable.  The  old  castle  of  Ganja, 
which  was  a  strong  brick  fort,  is  now  in  ruins,  and  only 
a  part  remains.  It  had  a  good  ditch  and  glacis,  and  is 
now  used  as  a  prison.  A  stream  runs  through  the  town, 
but  it  was  nearly  dry ;  a  bridge  has  recently  been  built 
over  it.  The  farther  side  of  the  stream  is  the  quarter  of 
the  Franks  and  Armenians,  while  on  this  side  live  the 
Muslims.  The  Governor's  house  is  in  the  Frank 
quarter,  and  in  it  we  had  our  apartments.  It  is  a  very 
wretched  tenement  on  the  top  of  a  hill,  at  the  foot  of 
which  it  had  a  small  garden.  According  to  what  we 
could  judge,  the  population  cannot  be  above  seven  to* 
eight  thousand. 

Tuesday,  9th  {2nd  September). — We  have  to  go  to 
Turyan-Chay,  a  place  in  (the  district  of)  Shaki.  In  the 
morning  we  mounted  (our  carriage),  passed  through  the 
town  and  (surrounding)  gardens  of  Ganja,  into  the  open 
country.  The  same  line  of  hills  as  yesterday  was  seen 
again  to-day  on  our  right  for  the  first  three  leagues; 
after  which,  it  gradually  became  more  distant.  At  about 
half  a  league  from  the  town,  or  rather  more,  is  the  tomb 
of  Shaykh  Nizami  (the  poet)  by  the  side  of  the  road — a 
very  wretched  brick  building ;  and  beyond  that  we 
reached  Kurak-Chay  (Shovel-Kiver) ;  which  is  the  name 
of  a  stream.  On  our  left  also  runs  at  a  distance  that 
same  range  of  brown  bare  waterless  mountains,  which 
stretches  away  to  Sliajvi. 

CHAP.  viir.  Georgia,  RetiLrn.  417 

Well;  the  weather  was  excessively  sultr}^,  the  soil 
parched  and  disagreeable ;  and  so  we  arrived  at  the  post- 
house  of  Qarqali-Chay  (River  of  many  crows  or  rooks. 
Rooky  River),  passing  on  from  thence  to  the  station  of 
Mangi-Chawur  (Advanced-Outwork)  on  the  bank  of  the 
river  Kur,  where  they  had  erected  a  felt  tent  for  us, 
closed  on  all  sides,  and  hot  as  a  bathroom.  For  the 
Grand- Vazir  and  the  others  they  had  built  a  hut  of  the 
branches  of  trees,  nice  and  airy,  but  many  people  were 

The  princes  and  others  had  remained  a  long  way 
behind  with  the  baggage-cart  containing  our  jewels, 
which  had  broken  down ;  and  before  they  could  get 
another  to  use  in  its  stead,  they  were  left  far  in  the 
rear.  Previously  to  their  arrival,  we  took  our  break- 
fast off  a  very  large  fish  caught  in  the  river  with  a 
net.  The  lessee  of  this  river  was  a  young  Ar- 
menian, who  was  there  present.  The  farm  of  the 
fishery  at  this  place  is  a  branch  of  that  of  the  fisheries  of 

Here  the  river  Kur  is  of  great  width,  but  with  a  slug- 
gish stream,  and  a  depth  of  not  more  than  an  ell  (42 
inches).  They  had  lashed  two  barges  together,  had 
made  a  platform  upon  them  floored  with  planks,  and  had 
stretched  a  stout  rope  across  (the  stream)  from  bank  to 
bank.  Within  the  vessels  were  a  few  articles  of  gearing 
bound  upon  a  large  mast.  They  pulled  at  the  rope,  and 
the  craft  moved,  carrying  goods  and  passengers  over  to 
the  other  side.  In  the  first  place  they  so  transi)orted 
our  carnages,  then  I  went  across,  and  lastly  the  Grand- 

41 8  Diary  of  a  Tour  in  Eitrope.    [chap.  vm. 

Vazir  and  others  came  over  with  the  luggage :  after 
which  we  again  resumed  our  journey. 

As  far  as  this  station  of  Mangi-Chawur  the  jurisdiction 
of  Ganja  extends,  while  this  side  the  river  helongs  to  the 
district  of  Shaki.  The  range  of  hills  to  our  left  con- 
tinued still  of  the  same  aspect,  but  we  were  now  approach- 
ing nearer  to  them.  Behind  those  brown  hills  are  the 
mountains  of  Dagistan  ;  and  the  town  of  Shaki  (Nukhi  oj 
the  Monteith  map)  is  at  the  foot  of  the  hills.  On  the  sum- 
mit of  the  mountains  of  Shaki  there  was  much  snow. 
From  where  we  now  were  to  the  town  of  Shaki,  to  which 
the  Eussians  have  given  the  name  of  Nukha,  is  a  dis- 
tance of  about  five  or  six  leagues.  In  some  parts  of  the 
plain  are  woods,  in  some  parts  thorny  bushes,  and  in 
others  tamarisk  shrubs,  while  some  parts  are  bare.  As 
we  were  going  along  at  i:>ost  speed,  I  fired  my  gun  from 
wdthin  the  carriage,  and  shot  several  birds,  flying  in  the 
air,  of  the  kind  called  in  Persian  Sabza-qaba  (Green- 

We  now  arrived  at  the  post- station  of  Chomaqlu 
(Tchemakly  ^Monteith — Club- Village),  in  the  district  of 
Shaki,  where  I  performed  my  devotions  and  partook  of 
an  afternoon  meal.  Again  pushing  on,  we  reached  the 
posthouse  of  'Arab,  still  in  the  district  of  Shald,  and,  at 
two  hours  after  sunset,  arrived  at  Turyan-Chay  (Turgan- 
cliaisk  of  Monteith — prohahly,  Turgan-Chay — Stagnant- 
Eiver),  a  large  and  beautiful  river  that  comes  down  from 
the  mountains  of  Dagistan  and  Shaki.  In  these  plains 
cultivation  is  carried  on.  From  Tiflis,  until  reaching 
this  spot,  we  had  jseen  no  other  trace  of  human  habi- 

CHAP.  VIII.]  Georgia^  Return.  4^9 

tations  than  the  posthouses;  the  names  of  all  other 
j)laces  heing  merely  official,  and  neither  house  nor  village 
is  visible.  The  posthouse  here  was  very  hot  and  full  of 
musquitoes;  so  that  I  was  forced  to  have  a  felt  tent 
pitched,  and  to  sleep  out  of  doors.  Some  of  the  Beg- 
zadas  (sons  of  Begs — sons  of  chieftains,  lords,  lairds,  or 
gentlemen,  of  Turk!  tribes)  and  grandees  of  Shaki  had 
come  (here  to  greet  us  and  pay  their  resi)ects). 

Wednesday,  10th  {Srd  September). — We  rose  early  in 
the  morning.  The  magnates  of  Ganja  and  Shaki  re- 
ceived their  conge,  and  departed.  We  then  resumed  our 
journey,  having  a  plain  on  our  right  hand,  within  which  are 
the  territories  of  Aq-Dash  (White-Eock),  called  also  Arish, 
which  is  under  the  jurisdiction  of  Shaki.  Numerous 
villages  and  gardens  were  in  sight,  the  latter  being  irri- 
gated from  the  Turyan  Chay.  Before  we  had  proceeded 
far,  the  territory  of  Aq-Dash  came  to  an  end,  and  we 
reached  the  posthouse  of  Gok-Chay  ( Azure -Eiver). 
Here  the  Governor  of  the  whole  country  of  Bad-Kuba 
and  the  Shirwans  was  awaiting  us,  as  this  place  was  the 
first  station  within  his  jurisdiction.  He  was  an  extremely 
courteous  young  man  of  pleasing  appearance,  Stracelski 
by  name.  We  stopped  and  changed  horses.  A  large 
concourse  of  the  people  of  Shirwan  and  of  the  Doctors  (of 
Law  and  Divinity)  of  Islam  had  come  to  meet  us,  and 
with  them  we  had  a  little  conversation.  Again  we  drove 
on,  and  again  to  our  right  was  a  vast  plain,  forming  part 
of  the  Shirwans,  and  irrigated  from  the  river  Gok-Chay. 
Many  villages  were  in  sight.  This  is  a  fertile  plain,  but 
is  very  sultry.     To  our  left  the  same  range  of  mountains 

E  e2 

420  Diary  of  a   Totir  in  Bici^ope.     [chap.  vm. 

uccompanied  us  all  cla^^  and  so  we  came  to  the  postliouse 
of  Qiira-Yazi  (Black-Flat),  where  we  changed  horses. 
We  observed  the  villages  of  Qara-Muryan,  Yaka-Khana, 
and  Gard-Kand,  in  which  they  have  i^lanted  colonies  of 
Kussian  peasants  also  ;  but  they  are  not  places  of  any 
importance.  We  next  came  to  the  postliouse  of  Gululu 
(Smiling  Village),  where  we  breakfasted,  and  where  we 
received  Wikhman,  who  w^as  formerly  Governor  of 
Shamakhi,  and  who,  at  the  epoch  of  our  journey  to 
Easht,  had  come  there  with  Qulibakan  the  Governor  of 
Bad-Kuba.  He  was  as  fat  as  ever.  Some  Russian 
families  are  settled  there. 

After  breakfast  we  resumed  our  travel  and  passed  the 
stream  of  Kardama  {perhaps  the  Kurdamir  of  Monteith), 
which  had  but  little  water.  The  villages  of  Padar  and 
Galagaylu  (of  him  who  comes)  were  noticed,  w^iich  are 
portions  of  the  Shirwans.  The  streams  which  I  have 
mentioned  all  come  down  from  the  mountains  of 
Dagistan,  which  are  be^^ond  the  chain  of  hills  on  our 
left ;  and  wherever  the  mountains  form  valleys  and  give 
an  exit,  these  w^aters,  flowing  along  the  valleys,  pass 
forth  into  the  level  lands  of  Sliaki  and  Shirwan. 

We  then  came  to  the  post  house  of  Aq-Su  (White 
River ;  New  Shamaka),  a  village  of  considerable  size 
and  importance,  having  numerous  gardens  of  pome- 
granates, figs,  and  the  like.  It  much  resembles  the 
village  of  Kand  near  Tehran  ;  but  the  gardens  of  Kand 
are  more  numerous  and  extensive  than  these.  The  river 
of  Aq-Su  runs  through  the  midst  of  the  gardens,  and 
the  larger  portion  of  the  village  is  on  the  eastern  bank  of  f 

CHAP.  VIII.]  Georgia,  Reticrn.  421 

the  stream.  To  the  west  of  the  stream  are  the  quarters 
of  the  Hawawiz,  and  on  its  east  the  camping-gromid  of 
the  troops  ;  all  parts  of  (the  jurisdiction  of)  Shamakhi. 

The  village  has  numerous  fruiterers'  shops,  and  others. 
We  alighted,  partook  of  some  fruit,  performed  our  de- 
votions, and  again  set  out.  From  hence  the  road  went 
winding  and  twisting  towards  the  north,  and  up  into 
that  very  chain  of  hills  that  had  been  on  our  left  hand. 
We  therefore  ascended  the  valley  of  the  stream  of  Aq-Su, 
and  first  of  all  a  small,  but  very  lofty  hill  came  in  sight. 
The  carriage  road  here  has  been  beautifully  constructed^ 
so  that  our  horses  and  vehicles  travelled  along  comfort- 
ably, and  by  degrees  we  reached  the  summit  of  the 
ridge.  The  other  side  of  the  hills  was  a  forest  of  oak, 
abounding  with  pheasants.  From  this  summit,  proceed- 
ing towards  that  other  side,  the  whole  country  is 
mountainous  as  far  as  Bad-Kuba.  We  now  took  a 
downward  course,  the  sun  set,  and  we  arrived  at  the 
post  house  of  Sharadil,  stopped  there  a  short  time,  and 
again  pushed  on,  so  that  we  got  to  the  town  of  Shamakhi 
(Monteith's  Shamaka)  at  two  hours  after  simset. 

Great  crowds  had  assembled,  and  all  parts  were  illu- 
minated, the  people  making  demonstrations  of  the  greatest 
joy.  We  alighted.  Two  sons  of  Wikhman,  one  five, 
the  other  seven  years  old,  and  in  Circassian  costume, 
were  standing  before  the  door  with  Wikhman's  wife. 
The  Doctors  of  Islam  were  drawn  up  in  line ;  and 
saluting  each  one  of  them,  we  arrived  at  the  palace, 
which  is  the  pro]3erty  of  Lalayaf,  an  Armenian  of 
Shirwan,  a  man  of  importance,  ^nd  wealthy.     It  was 

42  2  Diary  of  a   Tour  ifi  Europe.     [cuAr.  vm. 

formerly  the  residence  of  the  Governor  of  Shamakhi, 
but  has  now  been  bought  by  Lalayaf,  and  overlooks  the 
whole  town. 

The  Armenian  and  Frank  quarters  of  this  place  are 
on  the  upper  parts  of  a  hill ;  the  quarter  of  the  Muslims 
being  in  a  valley,  and  lower  down.  Two  j^ears  before,  a 
severe  earthquake  had  occurred  and  devastated  the  town, 
which,  up  to  that  period,  had  been  ver}^  flourishing,  and 
even  now  has  a  population  of  three  or  four  thousand 
families,  or  from  ten  to  fifteen  thousand  souls.  Earth- 
quakes are  very  frequent.  All  round  the  town  are  hills 
and  peaks  ;  but  these  are  so  dry  that  not  a  vestige  of 
vegetation,  trees,  or  water,  exists.  A  small  stream  flows 
from  the  mountains  at  a  lower  level  than  where  the  town 
stands,  and  by  its  means  they  manage  to  cultivate  a  few 
gardens.  There  is  a  mosque  in  the  town,  dating  from 
the  days  of  Shah- 'Abbas,  in  which  divine  service  is  still 
performed;  and  a  certain  Hajji  Muhammad  Eiza  has 
also  built  a  mosque  and  a  convent  of  dervishes,  of  very 
imposing  appearance.  The  far  greater  portion  of  the 
inhabitants  of  the  town  and  of  the  country  districts  are 
Muslims,  the  Armenians  being  only  a  small  minority. 
The  tombs  of  Mustafa  Khan,  of  Shirwan,  and  those  of 
his  children,  are  on  the  summit  of  an  eminence  at  the 
far  side  of  the  town.  The  palace  of  Lala3'af  commands 
a  very  beautiful  and  extensive  view.  It  is  built  of 

Thursday,  lltli  (4:th  September). — We  have  to  go  to 
Bad-Kuba.  We  rose  early,  dressed,  and  mounted  our 
carriage.     Great  cro^rds   had   collected  to   witness   the 

CHAP.  VIII.]  Georgia,  Return.  423 

spectacle.  We  drove  off,  and  reached  tlie  top  of  an 
uphill-downdale  road,  in  the  dry  valleys  of  which  we 
noticed  the  homes  of  a  few  families  of  nomade  tribes. 
They  said  they  were  tribes  of  Arabs  (by  descent).  The 
first  posthouse  reached  was  that  of  Aji-Chay,  a  stream 
the  water  of  which  is  bitter ;  then  that  of  Marzi  (Marusy), 
a  large  village  occupied  by  Eussians;  then  Naqi-Kirpi 
(Nahi-Kopru) ;  and  next,  Jangi,  where  we  breakfasted ; 
then  Haltama;  and  Arbat,  which  has  a  stream  of  the 
same  name ;  next  Sara}^,  and  then  the  town  of  Bad- 
Kuba  (Baku). 

The  whole  road  to  Bad-Kuba  was  dry  and  bad.     In 
fact,  a  plain  and  mountains  so  dry  and  so  wretched  we 
had  neither  seen  nor  heard  of.     Our  journey  to-day  was ' 
over  a  part  of  the  country  called  the  Burying- Ground — 
a  fit  name  for  such  a  region. 

The  Governor  of  Bad-Kuba  was  waiting  for  us  at 
Sarayi,  with  a  party  of  horsemen ;  we  dined  there,  and 
reached  the  town  two  hours  after  sunset.  As  there  are 
naphtha  pits  here,  they  had  this  night  lighted  up  the 
whole  country  and  town  with  lamps  of  naplitha.  Through 
its  being  night,  we  did  not  see  the  place  well ;  but,  being 
moonlight,  we  made  out  that  i^retty  houses  are  being 
newly  built  along  the  seashore  in  the  European  style. 
The  Governor's  house,  too,  looked  on  to  the  sea;  and 
there  we  arrived  amidst  the  blessings  of  a  concourse  of 
l^eople  of  various  nationalities,  and  a  band  plaj^ing.  I 
first  saw  Colonel  Bazak,  and  concluded  that  the  steamers 
had  arrived  with  my  party  from  Petrowsky.  The  Go- 
vernor presented  his  officers,  anc'^  after  dining  we  pro- 

424  Diary  of  a   Tour  in  Europe,    [chap.  vm. 

ceeded  on  board  the  "  Constantine."  It  is  a  wonderful 
harbour,  as  large  ships  can  lie  alongside  the  shore.  We 
offered  our  most  sincere  thanks  for  having  once  more 
reached  our  ship  in  safet}^  The  Governor  and  others 
took  leave.  Our  suite  were  in  a  vessel  named  the 
"  Shah-Suwar  "  (king  of  horsemen — chevaleresque  king)  ; 
and  the  Grand-Yazir,  our  personal  attendants,  Colonel 
Bazak,  Prince  Menschikoff,  and  Bigieroff  were  with  me, 
as  also  the  same  admiral  as  before.  In  another  half 
hour  we  started  with  a  calm  sea  and  fair  wind,  so  that  I 
slept  all  night. 

The  regions  of  Shaki,  Shirwan,  and  the  rest,  produce 
excellent  camels.  Buffaloes  are  used  to  draw  the  carts 
and  waggons,  as  well  as  other  animals;  but  the  wheels 
of  these  vehicles  are  of  wood  alone,  having  no  iron  about 

Friday  J  12th  {5th  September). — The  anniversary  festival 
of  the  birthday  of  the  Prince  of  Believers  'Ali  son  of 
Abu-Talib,  on  whom  be  the  peace  and  blessings  of  God, 
is  close  at  hand ;  we  must  therefore  get  to  Enzeli.  When 
I  arose  early  in  the  morning  the  sea  was  most  pleasant. 
With  the  utmost  joy  we  went  on  until  within  two  or  three 
leagues  of  Enzeli,  when  we  all  dressed  in  our  state  uni- 
forms, and  prepared  to  reach  om-  destined  port.  But 
now  black  clouds  were  seen  to  arise  from  the  west  and 
south,  while  the  sea  began  to  be  disturbed.  Still  we 
despaired  not,  but  continued  our  course  until  we  reached 
the  roadstead.  A  Kussian  man-of-war  named  the  *'  Bu- 
khara "  had  come  over  from  *Ashur-Ada  to  do  honour  to 
our  arrival.     Througl}  a  telescope  we  could  see  that  she 

C'irAr.  VIII. 

Georgia,  Return.  425 

was  being  sadly  rocked  by  tlie  waves,  and  tliis  alarmed 
us;  for  wlien  a  large  war- ship  was  thus  suffering,  how 
could  we  hope  that  our  vessel  would  be  quiet.  A  sailing 
merchantman,  anchored  further  in,  was  tossing  about  in 
the  same  wa}'. 

Well ;  we  reached  the  anchorage,  and  the  man-of-war 
with  great  difficulty  fired  a  few  guns.  The  tower  of 
Enzeli  and  the  people  on  the  beach  were  all  visible ;  but, 
as  large  ships  cannot  go  closer  in,  and  enter  into  Enzeli 
itself,  it  was  a  matter  of  necessity  for  lighters  and  our 
own  small  steam-yacht  to  come  out  and  carry  us  in.  With 
this  storm,  that  was  not  practicable ;  and  we  therefore 
despondingly  left  the  deck  of  the  steamer,  where  we  could 
no  longer  stand  upright,  went  into  our  cabin,  took  off 
our  state  clothes,  and  resigning. ourselves  to  God's  decree, 
sat  down.  The  others,  who  had  put  on  all  their  orders, 
in  like  manner  threw  off  their  finery  in  the  midst  of 
heavings  and  vomitings,  casting  themselves  down  in  the 
first  corner,  from  whence  they  had  no  power  -to  move. 

It  was  now  two  hours  to  sunset,  and  heavy  rain  began 
to  pour.  The  waves  rose  so  that  one  could  not  bear  to 
look  at  them,  and  the  ship  rolled  to  that  degree  that 
the  yard-arms  touched  the  water  each  way.  The  sea 
broke  over  the  vessel,  and  she  heeled  over  so  fearfully 
that  we  thought  she  would  capsize  and  shoot  us  all 
overboard.  At  each  roll,  the  chairs,  tables,  and  other 
furniture  of  the  cabin  were  upset  with  frightful  clatter ; 
and  the  hull  of  the  ship,  with  straining,  groaned  again. 
Little  did  it  want  for  her  to  go  to  pieces.  Thus-  with 
fierce  rain  from  above,  and  a  ragin^g  sea  below,  the  ship 


426  Diary  of  a  Tottr  in  Europe,    [chap.  vm. 

became  full  of  water;  and  it  was  impossible  to  walk 
about,  by  reason  of  her  violent  movements,  and  also 
because  the  i)lanks  were  so  wet  that  one's  feet  slipped, 
and  could  not  retain  their  hold.  "  Such  is  the  end  of 
our  tour  in  Euroi)e !  To  be  so  near  home — for  our 
tower  of  Enzeli  to  be  within  sight,  at  a  distance  to  be 
measured  by  feet,  and  for  one  to  be  in  this  condition ! 
Should  this  go  on  for  three  days,  we  shall  surely 
drag  our  anchor,  and  then  there  is  no  port  except  at 
Langaran !  All  these  servants  and  others  who  have 
come  to  Enzeli,  what  will  they  do?"  Such  were  our 
thoughts ;  and  so  nmch  bitterness  did  they  engender 
that  I  cannot  describe  it.  I  also  felt  indisj^osed ;  I  per- 
spired from  agitation  and  the  heat ;  the  wind  struck  to 
my  chest,  and  I  coughed.  Neither  was  there  a  chance 
of  sleeping,  by  niglit  or  by  day,  by  reason  of  the  storm. 
The  rain  was  unceasing. 

Saturday y  ISth  {6th  September). — In  the  morning  the 
storm  and  motion  of  the  ship  were  as  before,  or  even 
worse.  The  other  ship  with  the  princes  on  board  had 
also  come  in  after  us  and  anchored.  So  things  went  on 
the  whole  day — clouds,  rain,  storm.  I  slept  about  two 
hours.  Suddenly  a  cry  was  raised  that  a  boat  had  come 
alongside.  I  rose  and  saw  her  with  twelve  men  who  had 
undertaken  to  come  out  and  obtain  tidings  of  us.  The 
sea  also  was  a  little  less  agitated,  and  we  were  somewhat 
calmed.  The  Mu'tamad  wrote  an  answer  to  the  missive 
that  had  been  addressed  to  him.  In  another  hour — it 
being  now  dawn  of  the  14th  (7th  September),  a  second 
boat  came  alongside,^  into  which  Mahdi-quli  Khan  and  t 


cHAi'.  VIII.]  Georgia,  Return.  427 

Mirza  'Abdu-'l-'lah  cast  themselves  and  went  awa3\ 
Morning  broke,  and  other  lighters  came.  Some  more  of 
our  people  got  away  in  them.  The  weather  was  inclining 
to  become  fair,,  and  the  water  of  the  lagoon  had  begun  to 
flow  into  the  sea. 

At  length  our  steam-yacht  came  in  sight,  paddling  out 
of  the  lagoon.  She  came  near  ;  but  it  was  still  difficult 
to  get  from  one  vessel  to  the  other,  as  they  kept  her 
somewhat  at  a  distance.  They  then  brought  our  barge 
alongside,  and  somehow  or  other  I  got  into  her,  pulled 
to  the  3^acht,  and  there  I  was  hauled  on  board  by  hand. 
Once  on  deck,  I  felt  safe  ;  and  immediately  offering  up  my 
thanks  to  \\\q  Creator,  whose  name  be  glorified,  arrived 
at  Enzeli.  Those  who  had  come  from  Tehran  were 
admitted  to  an  audience ;  after  which  we  went  to  our 
tower,  mounted  to  our  apartments,  and  there  again 
poured  out  our  heart  in  thanks  to  God.  At  night  there 
was  a  general  illumination,  and  we  slept  in  peace. 
Praise  be  unto  God  Most  High  ! 




.•'  .'■■  ■ 



Naser  al-Din  Shah 
The  diary  of  H.  M,